Much earlier, Galileo in the early 17th Century
claimed that the universe
(or at least the planetary part) could not
be understood "unless one first studies its language whose characters
are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is
humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." -
*God and Nature*
1986, p.123.)

His comment offers confirmation to historians of the
Scientific
Revolution who attribute the widespread application of mathematical
methods to the physical world as the signal contribution of the seventeenth century to
the earlier scientific tradition. While scientists have reason to appreciate the
"unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" (Eugene Wigner) *pure*
*mathematics* is carried out without without any concern for useful
applications. Andrew Philip's short
review
suggests paths to relating mathematics and
Christianity.

Two recent books, *Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical
Study *(2005) and *Foundations From God: Mathematics and Victorian Faith*
(2007), are reviewed in the **book section**
below

**
Introduction to the field**

Mathematics and Christianity has
only recently developed sufficient constituency to actively organize and publish
a journal. The **Association
of Christians in the Mathematical Sciences** (ACMS) formally organized in
1985. The computer science subgroup of the ACMS, which consists of
computer scientists and mathematicians who
teach computer science, also maintains a
webpage.

Blaise Pascal--Wikipedia

The **
2004
Inaugural Issue;** of the Journal of the ACMS provides an excellent
introduction this diverse field.
The
Journal continues to offer thoughtful articles.

Christian Schools

Nance, Jim. 1996. Worldview Test Case: Christianity in Math Class. In
**
***
Repairing the Ruins: The Classical and Christian Challenge to Modern Education*,
ed. Douglas J. Wilson, 59-71. Moscow, ID: Canon Press.

**Videos**

Oxford Professor, mathematician John Lennox:

**Creator or the Multiverse?** Does the fine tuning of the
universe point to God or an infinite collection of universes?
8 Minutes

**Christianity and the tooth fairy** Does science deal
with reality and religion with everything else?
8 Minutes

#
Forum at Rice
Youtube 7 Minutes

Judea Pearl, The A. M. Turing 2011 Award Lecture (Video)

The Mechanism of Causual Inference: A Mini "Turing Test" and Beyond
"The whole lecture I
found interesting, but of possible interest would be around 21:30, where he gets
into Abraham being the first scientist, and counterfactuals and our sense of
justice. He then moves into counterfactuals in physics. It was a
philosophical lecture on Artificial Intelligence"--thanks to Robert Tholen

General Articles

##

SYNOPSIS

Mathematician and code-brea

Video 1 BBC

Video 2 BBC

June 2012

Alan Turing, born June 23 1912, is famous for his key role in breaking German
codes in World War 2. But for mathematicians, his greatest work was on the
invention of the computer.
Alan Turing's brilliance at maths was spectacular. Aged 22, just a year after
his graduation, he was elected a fellow of King's College Cambridge. And it was
just a year after that, that he turned his attention to problems in the
foundations of mathematics and ended up showing that a simple machine, set up to
read and write numbers and to run a few basic functions, could in principle do
all the things that are do-able in mathematics. His 'universal' machine was just
a concept - a paper tape that could be read, interpreted and acted on
robotically. But the concept was profound....

James
Bradley,
**
An Augustinian Perspective on the Philosophy of Mathematics**,
Journal of the Association of Christians in the Mathematical Sciences,
November 2007.

From a Christian perspective, both modern and
post-modern approaches to the philosophy of mathematics have significant
shortcomings. This paper explores an alternative. It summarizes Augustine
of Hippo's views on the four classical themes of the philosophy of
mathematics**—**the ontology of mathematical objects, their epistemology, the nature of truth in mathematics, and how we account for the effectiveness of mathematics in describing the natural world. It then traces what has happened to Augustine’s perspective in the roughly 1600 years since it was written concluding with a discussion of some spiritual and intellectual problems with the currently dominant secular perspective.

Gary De Young, "*Perspective on Mathematical Modeling*." *Pro
Rega *June 2010: 1-10.

The mathematical modeling process is an iterative scheme by
which we try to refine our understanding of a physical-world
phenomenon by translating assumptions about the
phenomenon into mathematical language where mathematical results are
discovered, which are then translated back to a physical world meaning.

A Christian professor reflects on his life and work in**
**
**mathematics**

Anderson, Kerby "Computers and the Information
Revolution"
(web link)

Carlos Bovell,
*
***Pairing and Plus-ing the Godhead: An Algebraic Analogy,**”
*PSCF* 55 (September 2003):166-174.

This essay is an exercise in the integration of
mathematics and theology. Its purpose is to show the usefulness of mathematics
with regard to theological discourse. The author explores the problem of the
Trinity and illuminates certain factors that contribute to our failure in
comprehending it. An algebraic analogy is employed that (approximately)
represents the doctrine of the Trinity. The analogy serves to illustrate the
means by which humans innately group and combine individual objects. Such
combining and grouping, it is argued, obtains by means of a pairing mechanism.
This binary mechanism, though capable in most mathematical enterprises, is
inadequate when one considers the relations within the Trinity. Moreover, the

very operations that define our means of arithmetic conception fail to apprehend
the divine perichoresis

Robert
L. Brabenec,**
***"The
Impact of Three Mathematical Discoveries on Human Knowledge*,"
JASA 30
(March 1978): 2-6.

The
year 1826 is noteworthy, marking the discovery of non-Euclidean
geometry. This discovery changed the way in which man thought about
mathematics and led to a rapid growth of many new kinds of mathematical
structures as well as the adoption of the axiomatic method as the format
for these developments.

##

SYNOPSIS

R. Judson Carlberg,
**
My View:
Ken Olsen, a lifetime of science and faith**
May 14,
2011.
A summary of the life and work of a Christian pioneer in
computer science.

Derek
C. Schuurman, *Shaping a Digital World: Faith, Culture and Computer
Technology* IVP Academic 2013
Beginning with the question, “What does my faith have to do with my work as an
electrical engineer?” Schuurman addresses how Christian faith informs computer
technology in this thoughtful and timely work. Addressing practitioners,
students, and anyone interested in computer technology and its philosophical,
moral, ethical, and theological dimensions, Schuurman does his best to flesh out
how bytes relate to beliefs, and how Christians can best use technology with
love and care...**Publisher's Weekly**

#
ADerepocalyptic AI by Robert M. ted 8 Dec 2011 at 22:24 UT

Get ready for the four robots of the apocalypse as we review a book that
should be close to the hearts of robots.net readers - because you actually
helped research it: Robert
M. Geraci's "*Apocalyptic
AI: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual
Reality*". Geraci, a professor of religion and researcher of all
things eschatological, notes that,

"excepting rapture theologians of fundamentalist Christianity, popular
science authors in robotics and artificial intelligence have become the
most influential spokespeople for apocalyptic theology in the Western
World."

You heard that right, roboticists and AI researchers have risen to second
place when it comes to who we think of when the topic is apocalyptic
theology. And with fundamentalists blowing two
more apocalyptic predictions since
the book was published, who knows, we may be number 1 now. But how can
robots and AI be theology? Read on for a full review of Geraci's book.
**more**

Faw, Harold, "Does
Scripture Support Standardized Tests," PSCF
42 (June 1990): 86-93. A standardized test involves observations of an individual's behaviour
made under specified conditions for the purpose of meaningfully comparing it
with that of other people. Because of the very extensive use of these
instruments, a storm of criticism has arisen and a great deal of
misunderstanding surrounds them. While the critics have often been right,
standardized tests do yield information which can facilitate good decision
making. Provided we have a clear understanding of their limitations and we
use them with a view toward service, standardized tests may indeed help to
move us toward the goals of justice and equity.

Geertsema, Jan C., "**
**
**A Christian View of the Foundations of Statistics**" *PSCF*
39
(September 1987):158-164. In order to develop a Christian approach to an exact
science such as Statistics, it is useful to view such a science within
the various broader contexts with which it is connected. Various contexts of
Statistics are discussed and the relevant philosophical currents are
indicated. These call for a Christian response, which is briefly touched
on.

Hartley, A M., *The Philosophy of the Law Idea and the Role of the
Prescientific in Statistical Inference*. *Journal of the Association of
Christians in the Mathematical Sciences*, December 2004.

Joel C. Adams, **Why Christians Should Study Computer Science
(and other technical disciplines)**

H. Harold Hartzler**, "****The Meaning of Mathematics**,"* JASA ***1** (January
1949):13-19 An ASA Classic

*Georg Cantor-- *Wikepedia

J. J. O'Connor and E F Robertson,
Christianity
and the Mathematical Sciences - the Heliocentric Hypothesis (web
link)

Ladislav Kvasz, "**The
Invisible Link Between Mathematics and Theology **," PSCF
56
(June 2004):111-116.

**Georg Cantor**

Bruce A. Hedman, "**Cantor's
Concept of Infinity:**

Implications of Infinity for Contingence,"
*PSCF *46 (March 1993): 8-16*.
*Georg
Cantor (1845-1918) was a devout Lutheran whose explicit Christian beliefs shaped
his philosophy of science.

Pennello,
Gene, "A Statistical Test that Fails to Substantiate Decay in
the Velocity of Light" PSCF
45 (June
1993):116-119

Michael Veatch, "Mathematics and Values: Can
Philosophy Guide Projects?," 1997.

This paper attempts to find
points of contact between a Christian worldview and the choice of mathematical
projects and methods.

Vern Polythress, **
A Biblical View of Mathematics** (From *
Foundations of Christian Scholarship: Essays in the Van Til Perspective,*
Gary North Ed. 1976: 158-188.

Vern Polythress,
**Mathematics as Rhyme**, *JASA ***35**
(Dec 1983): 196-203.
Using the analogy between the universe and a choral poem, one may view: mathematics as the "rhyme" of the universe. In that perspective new
light is thrown on the unique subject matter of mathematics, the *a priori* character of its
truth, and the
relation of mathematics to other areas of knowledge. A route is thereby opened for richer use of creativity in mathematics.

Wade, Rick "Pascal: An Apologist
for Our Times," (web
link)

Williams, Bill R., Dickerson, Mark S., **"A
Mathematical Analogue for a Model of the Trinity,** " PSCF
56
(June 2004):102-110

**Books**

PLATO'S GHOST: The Modernist
Transformation of Mathematics by Jeremy
Gray. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008. 515 pages, glossary,
bibliography, index. Hardcover.
**ASA Review**

Hartley, Andrew M.,
**Christian and Humanist Foundations for Statistical Inference**
(Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock), 2007. **
Review** by Steve Bishop UK

James Bradley, *Mathematics in
a Postmodern Age: A Christian Perspective*, edited by Russell W. Howell & W.
(Eerdmans, 2001)

James Nickel, *Mathematics: Is God Silent?,*
Ross House Books (2001)
_{This book revolutionizes the prevailing understanding and teaching of math.
The addition of this book is a must for all upper-level Christian school
curricula and for college students and adults interested in math or related
fields of science and religion. It will serve as a solid refutation for the
claim, often made in court, that mathematics is one subject, which cannot be
taught from a distinctively Biblical perspective.--Amazon}

Daniel J. Cohen, Equations From God: Pure Mathematics and
Victorian Faith, The John Hopkins University Press, 2007 *PSCS*
**Review** by Calvin Jongsma
www.asa3.org/ASA/topics/Book%20Reviews2005-/6-08.html

This excellent review provides a fine starting point for developing insights
into faith and mathematics!

T. Koetsier and L. Bergmans,**
**eds**.,
Mathematics and the
Divine A Historical Study ** Elsevier Science; (Dec 30 2004)
*MAA* Review by Calvin Jongsma

John Byl,
**The Divine Challenge: on Matter, Mind, Math and Meaning**,
by Banner of Truth Trust, 2004. Paperback, 336 pp., $16.99. ISBN
851518877. *MAA *
**Review**
by Russell W. Howell)

Russell
W. Howell and W. James Bradley,
*Mathematics in a Postmodern Age: A Christian Perspective***, **
ed. by . Eerdmans, 2001. Paperback, 407 pp., $28.00. ISBN 0-8028-4910-5.
*MAA*
**Review**
by Bonnie Gold