Strategies for Problem Solving:
Design and Science in Education

This is a sitemap with details about many of the pages in a basic sitemap.

Each page below contains the distilled essence of important ideas, so you can learn a lot with a little bit of reading.

An Introduction to Design Method:  What is a problem? (and why design includes almost everything in life), The Process of Design, Relationships between Design and Science, Frameworks and Educational Applications.

A Brief Overview of Design Method:  a brief description for each action-mode (Define Overall Goal, Define Goals, Search, Imagine, Test, Evaluate, Theorize) of Integrated Design Method.

A Detailed Overview of Design Method:  a detailed description (including strategies for effective action) of the seven action-modes listed above.

An Introduction to Scientific Method:  The Logic of Science (to make Reality Checks), Designing a Theory, The Methods of Science, A Model for Scientific Method (a preview of the next page).

A Basic Overview of Scientific Method:  a compact description for each aspect of science (Hypothetico-Deductive Logic and Empirical Factors in Theory Evaluation, Conceptual Factors in Theory Evaluation, Cultural-Personal Factors in Theory Evaluation, Theory Evaluation, Theory Generation, Experimental Design (Generation-and-Evaluation), Problem-Solving Projects, Thought Styles, Mental Operations) in a model of Integrated Scientific Method.

A Detailed Overview of Scientific Method:  a detailed description (basically, it's a condensed summary of the first half of my PhD dissertation) of the nine "aspects of science" listed above.

A Sampler Page about "Thinking Skills & Methods in Education" contains excerpts from other pages, with sections about Problem Solving in Life, The Joy of Thinking, Logic of Science, Methods of Science, and Process of Design; Comparing Design & Science, and Design & Science in Education.

Design and Science:  Three Comparisons (design, design, science); The Process of Science, The Process of Design, Comparing "Process and Purpose" in Design and Science.

Motivations (and methods) for Learning:  What can I learn now?, Learning from Experience (how to excel at welding or...), Forward-Looking Motivation, How I didn't learn to ski (by Learning from Mistakes) and How I did learn to ski (Insight and Practice, Perseverance and Flexibility), Steps and Leaps, Motivational Teamwork, Motivations (External and Personal).

Why should we teach Design before Science?  Making Connections with Life (past, present, and future), Problem Solving in Life, The Joy of Thinking, Design and Science in Education (four bridges, Design before Science, Similarities and Differences).

Curriculum Design for Thinking Skills Education:  Introduction (Two Goals and Two Questions), Teaching Design in the Context of Experience, A Wide Spiral Curriculum (using design and science to coordinate activities and experiences over a wide area), The Challenge of Educational Design, Optimistic Humility, Conceptual Evaluation of Instruction, Analyzing the Structure of Instruction.  {this page contains condensed summaries of many ideas from the second half of my PhD dissertation}

Four Frameworks for Thinking Skills Education:  Contexts for Thinking (comparing two frameworks, mine and theirs), A Strategy for Instruction, and Four Frames of Knowledge.  { this page compares four frameworks for the understanding and improving of productive thinking }

Aesop's Activities for Goal-Directed Education:  Personal Motivation, A Plan for Goal-Directed Action, Define Goals (for Personally Useful Education), Design Goal-Achieving Activities (Activities and Experience, Reflection Activities, Analyzing the Structure of Instruction, Evaluation Activities); plus Modes and Interactions, Constraints on Design, Radical and Practical.

Productive Thinking:  Combining Creativity and Critical Thinking;  Motivation, Memory, and Preparation.

Is there a method for design or science?  Using Structured Improvisation for Solving Problems, Describing Science (by varying characteristics, relationships, and balance) using a Flexible Framework.

Coping with Complexity in Method-Models:  Strategies for Effective Teaching, Essential Tensions in Models.

Should scientific method be eks-rated?:  Responsibility in Education (are some ideas proposed by "study of science" scholars harmful for students?), The Limits of Logic, Radical Relativism, Do scientists search for truth?, and Unobservables in Science.
Many ideas in the pages above and below are an extension of my PhD dissertation, which was
a unifying synthesis of ideas (mainly from scientists and philosophers, but also from
sociologists, psychologists, historians, and myself) into a model of scientific method, and
an application of this model for the integrative analysis of a creative science-inquiry classroom.
I've also made LINK-PAGES with my summaries of important ideas (about
thinking, learning, and teaching) plus links to pages written by other authors:

If you like this page, you may also like the following related pages.

This page, written by Craig Rusbult, is