American Scientific Affiliation &
Canadian Scientific & Christian Affiliation
Volume 50, Number 4 JUL/AUG 2008
This spring Susan Daniels was elected to the ASA Council. She is a health scientist administrator in the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health. She does strategic planning and scientific program evaluation for DMID’s extramural biodefense and infectious disease research programs and manages the division’s conference, training, and diversity grants.
Susan earned her BS in biology and French from Wheaton College and her PhD in molecular and cell biology from Brandeis University in Waltham, MA. She received her initial student membership in ASA as a gift from the biology department at Wheaton in 1993, and has been a member ever since.
It was Susan who asked ASA in the 1990s to consider scholarships that would enable students to attend our annual meetings. With the help of one, she attended her first Annual Meeting in 2000. Subsequently, she asked if ASA would consider allowing a student or early career member to participate in the Executive Council to contribute ideas and provide the perspective of the younger generation. The Council thought that was a good idea and invited her to become the first ASA Student and Early Career Representative to the Council in 2002. She really appreciated this experience, learning about the history, culture, and operations of ASA and built relationships with members of the Council.
Susan was elected a Fellow in 2004. What she enjoys most about the ASA is fellowshipping with the wide variety of Christians in the sciences and science-related fields. She appreciates the intellectual stimulation at the meetings and says, “There are always new people to meet, new things to learn, and new insights to gain into how to practice science while walking in faith.”
Susan lives in Rockville, MD, and is married to physicist David Daniels, who works at a company that does terrorism risk analysis for state and federal government clients. They have two sons, Kai, 4, and Joss, 1. Both Susan and David sing in the choir of the National Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC. Her other interests include birdwatching and gardening. We welcome Susan to the Council and know she has a lot to contribute.
ASA Email Survey
On June 5, 2008, we sent an email to members for whom we have an email address, requesting that they complete a survey which will give us their input about our publications, website, annual meetings, and other ASA activities. Deadline for survey submissions is July 20.
If you didn’t receive the email but would like to participate in the survey, please send your email address to email@example.com.
In keeping with the ASA’s commitment to students and trainees, this summer’s annual meeting will feature several events designed especially for graduate students, postdocs, and those beginning a scientific career.
Bill Newsome, professor of neurobiology and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute of Stanford University, will speak to the ASA Student and Early Career Network (SECN) in a special symposium. Bill is a scientist in the secular academy who is also involved with the graduate ministry of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship at Stanford. He was a plenary speaker at year’s meeting in Edinburgh, addressing the developments in neuroscience that have implications for Christian faith. This year he will speak on integrating Christian faith into our professional lives. A time for interaction and discussion will follow his talk.
A second SECN event, the Science Careers Panel, will feature five scientists in a variety of science careers in academia, industry, and government, giving short talks on their career paths, what their jobs entail, the skills and experience needed to enter and succeed in those careers, and how faith and science come together for them. Afterward, there will be a panel discussion to engage questions from the audience, followed by time for networking.
Other events at this year’s meeting will provide opportunities for students and early career attendees to network, both with each other and with other members of the ASA.
We thank Gwen Schmidt and Susan Daniels for organizing these events.
The ASA office recently received advance excerpts from HarperCollins Publishers of “The Green Bible” to be published later this year. Analogous to the red-letter Bibles that print Jesus’ words in red ink, this Bible will highlight in green those verses that speak to God’s care of creation. The selection of which verses to highlight may not be as easy as in the red-letter Bible but the intent is certainly clear. This Bible, using the New Revised Standard Version, will include a topical index and a trail study guide for issues relating to creation care. Inspirational essays from key leaders and thinkers in this field, including our own Cal DeWitt, are also featured as well as a history of Christian teachings on this topic.
When I first learned of this project about a year and a half ago, I was a bit puzzled. Isn’t the message of God’s care for his creation clear enough without the distraction of different colored ink? Now that the project is coming to fruition and I’ve seen a few excerpts, I’m beginning to understand the value.
Bibles published with topical themes seem to be popular these days, and this one is likely to be well received. Personally, I find the green ink on selected verses to be a little distracting. I caught myself pondering why one verse was selected and another wasn’t, rather than concentrating on the message. The subliminal message may be more important, conveying the constant awareness that God is frequently speaking of his love and care for his creation. The best value seems to be the unique essays and six “green” themes that are traced throughout the narrative.
As Christians in science, we are deeply interested in understanding not only how to describe nature but how God relates to his creation. The doctrine of creation and its care is such a fundamental part of Christian faith that it isn’t surprising that it generates much dissension, especially regarding methods of caring for creation. Christians have held widely differing views ranging from benign neglect in light of the eschaton to conquest and dominion as our God-given right. Add a broad spectrum of political concerns, and we have the recipe for an active discussion.
As Christians, we can all agree that God created the universe. It comes as no surprise that the Bible should be filled with references to his creation. Few would disagree that humans were given a unique responsibility with respect to that creation. The nature of that responsibility and how to fulfill it are the points of departure. Though I’ve only read a few excerpts, I gather that the Green Bible doesn’t attempt to resolve any controversy over the extent of global warming and the human role in such a trend, much less what measures we should take to address the crisis. More importantly, the Green Bible draws our attention to the ubiquity of God’s concern for creation and our responsibility. The green ink is a repeated reminder that creation care is not something to be tacked on as an additional subtopic of life but is an integral part of our lifestyle.
God did not create the human species as an independent entity but as fully dependent on and interactive with virtually everything in our environment. He sent his only Son to be part of that human species, thereby participating in that dependence on his own creation. Therein lies the starting point of our understanding of God’s love for his creation. The incarnation is the seminal point of contact between God and his creation. From the lens of the incarnation and the cross, we can begin to see God intimately connected to his own creation. What a privilege we have to be part of that creation! What a responsibility we have to understand that creation and to be God’s stewards in caring for it!
The ASA represents a wide range of disciplines in science. As we work together, we have the opportunity to share with each other that diversity of insight that helps us understand the interconnectedness of nature. As we listen to God’s Word and to each other, we are brought to our knees in worship of our Creator and to our feet in action to care for what he has entrusted to us.
Allen, Lin –Greeley, CO
Bailey, Celeste –Solana Beach, CA
Barr, Daniel A. –Tempe, AZ
Billman, Jennifer A. –Boiling Springs, PA
Chen, Haimei –Evanston, IL
Clapper, Robert –Wheaton, IL
Clemente, Ignacio J. –Barcelona, Spain
Comeford, Lorrie –Middleton, MA
Cowan, Ray F. –Mountain View, CA
Crosby, George W. –Sharon Springs, NY
Frantz, Stephen –Portland, OR
Fuchs, Kent –Ithaca, NY
Garner, James L. –Jacksonville, FL
Gauch, Jr., Hugh G. –Ithaca, NY
Gibson, Brian W. –Bedford, TX
Kim, Richard Y. –Beaverton, OR
Landivar, Micaela A. –Waco, TX
Ledgerwood, Tim J. –Durbanville, Republic of South Africa
Loose, Mark W. –Scottsbluff, NE
Lyons, William H. –Albion, WA
Marterre, Buddy –Winston-Salem, NC
Medena, Brian J. –Grand Rapids, MI
Mills, Jeff –Palmdale, CA
Pittman, Mark A. –Tomah, WI
Rudell, Benjamin L. –Champaign, IL
Swamidass, Paul M. –Auburn, AL
Vanden Akker, Daniel J. –Grand Rapids, MI
Wohlgemuth, Andrew R. –Old Town, ME
Taylor University biology prof.
Andrew Whipple had a very well-articulated Letter to the Editor
published in Science. In its
Whipple’s was one of two contrasting responses
published in the 9 May issue.
Give me a break! Had Science magazine been around during the 17th century, would we have seen such consolatory text for those ‘traumatized’ by the fact that the Sun does not revolve around the Earth? … While Dr. Godfrey’s escape from the ignorant shroud of biblical literalists is praiseworthy, Science magazine is not the place to give even a hint of respectability to those who would deny the fundamental fact of evolution. There is too much at stake … to give any credence to those promoting unscientific nonsense … and justifying irrational beliefs under the guise of religion.
A Considerate Contrast
Whipple commended the article, saying it “accurately and respectfully describes the crux of the challenge that our scientific understanding presents to members of faith communities.”
He added, “… [F]or members of the scientific community to make theological statements in the name of science is philosophically illegitimate, and destructive in our truth-seeking efforts. In this short essay, Science has published the only example I have read in the leading scientific literature that takes the time and effort to understand and express what really drives the concerns of the majority of evangelicals, and does so in a manner that respects the integrity of both the scientific endeavor and the integrity of the faith commitments within the evangelical community.”
Commending the ASA
Whipple concluded, “Allow me to suggest that this serves as a call to us in the sciences to be more humble as we interact with the faith community. We as scientists ought to be those most keenly aware of the tenuous and ever-changing nature of human knowledge, even as we build on that which has stood the test of time. We ought to behave as though the faith community poses no threat to the integrity of faith. That is the challenge to us brought forth so eloquently in this piece, and is a major focus of organizations such as the American Scientific Affiliation. Let us all humbly seek for truth as we respect one another’s efforts to do so.” Whipple can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Over twenty years ago, nuns of the School Sisters of
Notre Dame, based at a convent in Mankato, MN, volunteered to be tested each
year to track the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and other
age-related brain disorders. They were joined by other nuns at various convents
nationwide. Over 650 participated. They also agreed to donate their brains upon
their death. A 93-yr-old nun recently stated that she looks at her
participation as service, not sacrifice. “I’ve tried to do good while I’m alive, and I liked the idea that I
could do something good after death,” she said. Others said that God gets
their souls when they die, and they are comfortable giving their brains to
University of Minnesota epidemiology professor David Snowdon.
Stephanie Reitz, Associated Press,
2. The Christian Veterinary Mission (CVM) headquartered in Seattle, WA, whose executive director is Kit Flowers, oversees Christian veterinarians who serve short-term as well as those who commit to lifelong service. Kit frequently mans the CVM booth at veterinary conferences, meeting and praying with potential CVM fieldworkers. Let God expand your vision of his world and use the talents he has given you to serve others. Contact CVM at (206) 546-7569, email@example.com
3. Heifer International is always seeking volunteers. It deals with world hunger and poverty and challenges folks to examine their own habits and beliefs on the path to becoming more responsible global citizens. Care for livestock, tend gardens, lead educational programming, and provide operations support. Contact the volunteer office at firstname.lastname@example.org or call (501) 889-5124. See www.heifer.org/learningcenters or www.heifer.org
4. Habitat for Humanity sees churches and faith communities as active partners. Congregations of all sizes pray, donate, build, and advocate. Their participation is crucial to the organization’s success and identity. Jose Villasenor, manager of Habitat for Humanity International’s Church Relations International Program, says, “When churches are involved in a project, they can truly complement Habitat. The work becomes more holistic. And churches that are missionally involved with us grow.” For more information, visit the Church Relations page featured at www.habitat.org/cr
The Ecumenical Roundtable in Science and Religion met April 11 and 12 at Ghost Ranch, a Presbyterian (USA) retreat and educational center in Abiquiu, NM. Attending were members of the Episcopal Church Network for Science, Technology and Faith; the Alliance for Faith, Science, & Technology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; the Presbyterian Association on Science, Technology and the Christian Faith; the United Church of Christ Science and Technology Network; and the United Methodist Church Science and Theology Network. Each year some ASA members attend.
The purpose is to share experiences, information, and, where possible, material resources related to initiatives that assist their communions to give more deliberate attention to developments in science and technology and to consider their significance for the thought and practices of their churches. In addition, the Roundtable seeks to provide encouragement in the effort to elevate scientific and technological issues in the lives of the churches and to discover projects of mutual interest.
This year the theme was the relation of science, technology, and Christian faith initiatives that focused on environmental concerns and care of creation. Members involved in their denominations’ environmental concerns were invited to attend. There was much sharing of creation care initiatives.
Larry Rasmussen, Emeritus Reinhold Niebuhr Professor of Social Ethics from Union Seminary, spoke on “Environment and Energy.” He offered a historical theological consideration of the move of Christianity from its formation in an essentially Neolithic culture through its adaptation to an industrial culture. Today, Christianity must relate to an unprecedented human-dominated planet.
In another presentation, Rasmussen reviewed four elements of traditional religious practice which might be revived to meet today’s ethical challenges: asceticism over against consumerism; sacramentalism over against instrumentalism; mysticism over against alienation; and prophetic-liberative practices over against oppression.
The setting—in the high desert of New Mexico, at an elevation of about 6,200 feet—was both aesthetically and experientially profound for the theme of the meeting. One highlight was a walking tour of the Ranch that featured its constructed wetlands for water treatment, the recycling program, and sustainable ranching practices. * Jim Miller, General Missioner of the Presbyterian Association on Science, Technology and the Christian Faith.
Michael Zimmerman, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Butler University in Indianapolis, IN, organized Evolution Weekend starting in February of 2006. It began as Evolution Sunday and has evolved into Evolution Weekend. Congregations across the globe who wish to discuss the compatibility of religion and science participate. The February date was chosen because it marked Darwin’s birthday (Feb. 12). This past February, 814 congregations from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and 9 countries participated.
Originally, Michael put together a Clergy Letter Project, asking pastors across the globe to affirm the relationship of science and faith. As of May 28, 2008, 11,302 clergy have signed the following statement:
We the undersigned, Christian clergy from many different traditions, believe that the timeless truths of the Bible and the discoveries of modern science may comfortably coexist. We believe that the theory of evolution is a foundational scientific truth, one that has stood up to rigorous scrutiny and upon which much of human knowledge and achievement rests. To reject this truth or to treat it as “one theory among others” is to deliberately embrace scientific ignorance and transmit such ignorance to our children. We believe that among God’s good gifts are human minds capable of critical thought and that the failure to fully employ this gift is a rejection of the will of our Creator. To argue that God’s loving plan of salvation for humanity precludes the full employment of the God-given faculty of reason is to attempt to limit God, an act of hubris. We urge school board members to preserve the integrity of the science curriculum by affirming the teaching of the theory of evolution as a core component of human knowledge. We ask that science remain science and that religion remain religion, two very different, but complementary, forms of truth.
To learn more about Evolution Weekend and the Clergy Letter Project see: www.butler.edu/clergyproject/religion_science_collaboration.htm and www.evolutionweekend.org/
In addition to churches, many colleges and universities, libraries, museums, civic groups, and others celebrate Darwin Day, February 12, in honor of the life and work of Charles Darwin. See www.darwinday.org
Victor Shane has
written In God We Trust: Understanding the Culture War in a Scientific Age: The Pitched Battle for the Soul of America (published by
He contends that anti-theistic influences have convinced many Americans of moral relativity, by misapplying the scientific notion of relativity. He counters this by quoting Einstein: “Does the moon exist only when someone is looking at it?”
Among the many sources that he weaves together, the late Francis A. Schaeffer appears prominently, making statements such as
I want to say to … those of you who are troubled about the direction our society is going in, that we must not concentrate merely on the “bits and pieces”—permissiveness, pornography, … the breakdown of the family, abortion, infanticide, euthanasia, and many other things. We must understand that all of these dilemmas come as a result of moving [away] from the Judeo-Christian world view … into this other world which is that the final reality is only energy or material, which has existed forever and which has taken its present shape by pure chance.
Shane summarizes, “The thing that is broken in America started with the cultural swing away from the Judeo-Christian consensus in which the primacy was given to the Creator, toward the atheistic consensus in which the primacy is given to the created thing.” He admonishes Christians to be proactive salt and light, first in American culture and then in global culture. See his website at www.jerustar.com
Francis S. Collins, the director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has announced that he will step down on August 1 to explore writing projects and other professional opportunities. Collins joined NIH in 1993, succeeding Nobel laureate James Watson as director of the National Center for Human Genome Research, which managed the NIH part of the Human Genome Project. The center became the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997 and the Human Genome Project was completed in 2003.
The June 5 issue of Nature devoted a full-page editorial to Collins. Especially noteworthy was the sentence, “He proved to have a rare combination of political acumen, scientific talent and administrative skill—abilities that allowed him to steer the institute through numerous challenges and re-inventions while remaining about as well-liked as it’s possible for an institute director to be.” (“This Time It’s Personal,” Nature 453, 5 June 2008, www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7196/full/453697a.html).
With typical modesty, Collins comments, “The key to success is having wonderful scientific opportunities and stellar colleagues with whom to work. That has been my great privilege here at NIH, an institution that stands for the very best in biomedical research.”
Collins has been very active in a variety of areas including groundbreaking advances in biomedical research and will be free to concentrate on many more in the future. He is known for his close attention to the ethical, legal, and social implications of genome research and is recognized for his leadership in making the case for the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. This act recently became law, nearly thirteen years after it was introduced in Congress. It protects Americans from discrimination in health insurance and employment based on their genetic information.
Before coming to NIH, Collins and collaborators discovered the genes for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, and Huntington’s disease. Recently, his laboratory at NIH uncovered new insights into the genetic underpinnings that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and his team discovered the genetic defect that causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, a rare disorder that causes premature aging.
He has promised to continue working in his lab as a part-time, unpaid “special volunteer” at NIH. ASA has benefitted so much from Francis and we look forward to his contributions in the future.
For biographical information on him, go to www.genome.gov/10000779 * Geoff Spencer, NIH
David called attention to the pressures on citizens to take sides on current sociopolitical issues related to abortion and homosexuality, poverty and wealth, concentrations of power in government, taxation policies, vested interests, “trickle down” vs. “thrust up” economic ideologies, medical services as a strictly private concern vs. health care as a universal human right, environmentalism vs. exploitative use of nature resources and a host of other topics.
He pointed out controversies with respect to the Bible, Christian history, and American Christianity. Christians who apply “biblically correct Christian values” in current culture wars face many difficulties that emerge from the complexity of current issues, our forever incomplete knowledge of relevant circumstances, the inability to predict outcomes of alternative choices with 100% accuracy, entanglements from mixed motivations, and social pressures to indulge in the single-issue politics of significant reference groups. Christians should examine each component in the light of “facts” plus Scripture and only then make their final advocacy commitments. Romans 12:2 and Jude 7:23 are good counsel, especially during election years.
Francis was featured in the June 2008 AARP Bulletin. It included almost a full-page photo of him with his motorcycle and, along with many other quotes, included this one.
We are learning the underlying causes at work in complex diseases like diabetes or high blood pressure, which involve many genes, each with a modest effect. It’s with these more common diseases that we’ve had the recent deluge of discoveries.
Some events that seem totally incredulous to those of us who take seriously the world’s stability and dependability, such as the resurrection of Jesus after his crucifixion and entombment, can be seen not as rare suspensions of the laws of nature, but as the intersection of a more fundamental spiritual universe with the physical universe embedded in it—a physical universe in which the ontological laws of nature always hold, but which is only a subset of the total reality. It is a matter of faith that such a spiritual universe exists, and by the same token, also a matter of faith to deny its existence.
Researchers and scholars from all disciplines are invited to submit papers addressing the impact of Darwin’s ideas in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Both disciplinary-specific and interdisciplinary approaches are encouraged. Papers accepted for the symposium at San Diego State University Nov. 20–22, 2009, will be published by San Diego State University Press. Limit abstracts to 500 words and send to email@example.com no later than Nov. 30, 2008. For more information, contact Mark Wheeler, Chair, Department of Philosophy, at (619) 594-6706 or his email above.
July 10–13. The Ian Ramsey Centre
for Science and Religion in the
July 17–19. Center
for Bioethics and Human Dignity’s 15th Annual International Conference on
July 17–19. “Engaging Our World,” International Institute of Christian Studies, Kansas City Airport Hilton Hotel. Emphases will be (1) understanding and communicating a Christian worldview, (2) applying it and (3) the role and impact of a Christian worldview on specific disciplines. Details at www.iics.com
July 21–25. Summer
Research Workshops on Religion, Spirituality and Health,
July 23. David Rives Ministries, a creationist astronomical organization, will meet at Trinity Lutheran Church, 5001 Trotwood Ave. in Columbia, TN. There will be an indoor astronomy presentation and if the weather permits, a telescope viewing outside. See www.davidrivesministries.org/pages/events.htm
Aug. 1–4. ASA/CSCA
Aug. 3–7. International
Conference on Creationism, Radisson Greentree Hotel,
Aug. 11–15. Summer
Research Workshops on Religion, Spirituality and Health,
Aug. 18. “Life of the Mind Conference: Postmodernism & the Emergent Church,” First Evangelical Church, Cerritos, CA. Speakers include J.P. Moreland & Craig Hazen. Information at www.apologetics.com
Sept. 18–19. “Are We Safe
Yet? Vulnerability and Security in an Anxious Age,” at
Sept. 21–23. Villanova University, near Philadelphia, is hosting an interdisciplinary symposium which coincides with the exhibit “Gregor Mendel: Planting the Seeds of Genetics,” at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. Featured speakers will be Sean B. Carroll and Kenneth R. Miller. This is free and open to the public. www.villanova.edu/events/yearofmendel/mendelsymposium/
Sept. 26–27. The Biblical Archaeology Society will have a seminar in Dallas, TX. See www.biblicalarchaeology.org
Oct. 16. David Rives Ministries, a creationist astronomical organization, will meet at the Christian Conference Center, 5064 Lincoln St., Newton, IA. See July 23 event above.
Oct. 19. Mini-Conference on “Faith, Integration and the Life of the Christian Scholar,” 1–5 p.m., Rivendell House, New Haven, CT. Information available from firstname.lastname@example.org
Oct. 30–Nov. 2. The International Christian Studies Association, under the leadership of Oskar Gruenwald, is having a conference in Pasadena, CA, on “Christianity & Democracy: Jacques Maritain in Perspective.” E-mail: info@JIS3.org or call (626) 351-0419. See www.JIS3.org
William was ordained an elder in the Presbyterian Church in 1939 and taught investment analysis and portfolio management in University College of Washington University in St. Louis, MO, from 1948–1967. He remained active until his death. A list of his publications is at www.wwitherspoon.org/
In 1962, Stewart joined Westmont College in Santa Barbara, CA, and taught there for 27 years, serving as chair of the biology department and advising students in the pre-medical program he built. Westmont honored his vision and leadership by establishing an endowed scholarship in his name. He was a 55-year member of the ASA.
A two-session special symposium, “Issues in Human Gender, Sexuality, and Sex” will be presented at the 2008 Annual Meeting at George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon. It is being coordinated by Hessel Bouma III (email@example.com) and Heather Looy (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Human sexuality and gender are fundamental to our identities as persons, yet the Christian community struggles to understand foundational issues such as God’s intent in creating us as sexual and gendered beings and the appropriate expressions of sexuality and gender. Within the Christian community and society as a whole, struggles surrounding human gender, sexuality, and sex continue for equality, fairness, and justice. Furthermore, the Christian community struggles to discern how research in biology, medicine, psychology, and sociology might apply to the identity struggles of persons encountering broken, distorted, or different gender and sexuality.
Track A. Gender Issues in the Sciences
This session focuses on how men and women experience being scientists and Christians, dealing with communities, structures, barriers, and opportunities. These issues are particularly relevant for us—both as Christians and scientists—trying to integrate and function in multiple communities as whole persons. How are women scientists perceived and treated in our churches, academic institutions, and research organizations compared to men? How can men and women keep up with research while balancing the demands of marriage, career, and family? Might affirmative action keep some qualified men out of positions because they are not women? How does this affect how Christians tend to think about women, men, roles, and callings?
Track B. What the Sciences Tell Us About Gender and Sexuality
Biology, psychology, and sociology have much to tell us about gender and sexuality. How do Christians engage these stories? This session will focus on intersexuality, sexual orientation, transgender issues, sex changes, endocrine phenomena, and the ethical and theological issues associated with them.
H. James Armbrecht
Ross O. Barnes
Walter L. Bradley
Dale R. Burger
John B. Cannon
John N. Clayton
Kyle M. Cudworth
Richard L. Daake
Donald D. Detweiler
Arthur D. Fleming
Susan E. Halbert
Kathleen A. Hardy
Roger H. Kennett
Charles H. Kraft
John E. Kroll
Harris H. Lloyd
Harry J. Lubansky
James F. Mahaffy
David P. Martinsen
Stanley W. Moore
Terrance B. Murphy
Patrick L. Nolan
Richard A. Stark
Charles B. Thaxton
Wesley J. Wentworth, Jr.
Please send Canadian matters to: CSCA,
Send address changes and other business items to the American
©2008 American Scientific Affiliation (except previously published material). All rights reserved.
Editors: David Fisher, Margaret Towne
Managing Editor: Lyn Berg