WORDS.TXT                 8-16-95   3rd edition

| Bars indicate changes since the 2nd edition.

  Thanks to several for recent contributions & suggestions.

  This file is uploaded to Compuserve 
  Forum by John W. Burgeson, 73531,1501

  We have to use words to think with. We have to use words to
  communicate with. Bacon observed, that when two people did not
  agree on something, it was often because they were defining words
  differently. This happens very often in cyberspace; taking a real
  effort to avoid. This file, perhaps, will help matters. Definitions
  are taken from the AHD (1992) and other places. This is a
  word list of terms often used in the Religious Issues
  forum, particularly in the "Religion & Science" section. It is 
  continuously tentative. Comments on it are always in order.
                                 John W. Burgeson (Burgy)

  Earle Landry sent me this quotation; it seems appropriate:

   "Every science must devise its own instruments.  The tool
 required for philosophy is language.  Thus philosophy redesigns
 language in the same way that, in a physical science, pre-existing
 appliances are redesigned.  It is exactly at this point that the
 appeal to facts is a difficult operation."
         Whitehead: Process and Reality, p.11

 He also suggested the following reference works:

                 A Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd Edition)
                         by Anthony Flew

                 Dictionary of Philosophy
                         by Dagobert D. Runes

                 Dictionary of Religion and Philosophy
                         by Geddes MacGregor

                 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
                         Paul Edwards, Editor-in-Chief

 I also recommend "The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy," by Simon
 Blackburn, Oxford University Press, 1994. A number of the definitions
 here are taken from this jewel.

 Also -- "Masterpieces of World Philosophy," Frank N. Magill, Editor.
 HarperCollins, 1990. This has about 100 short articles on many of
 the world's leading philosophers. Not all. An earlier (1961) edition
 is better -- if you can find it -- having substantially more coverage.
 A fortiori: All the more so. If all donkeys bray, then a fortiori
 all young donkeys bray.

 A posteriori: Argue from effects to cause.

 A priori: Argue from cause to effects.

|abduction -- the process of using evidence to reach a wider conclusion 
|(introduced by Peirce)

|Aborigines. Persons of little worth found cumbering the soil of
|a newly discovered country. They soon cease to cumber; they fertilize.

 Absolutism: The view that there are no restrictions on the rights
 and powers of the government.

|Absurdity. A statement or belief manifestly inconsistent
|with one's own opinion. (Bierce)

|Absurd. Any belief that is obviously untenable.

 Acceptance: ... philosophers have been led to distinguish
 acceptance from belief for various reasons...In the philosophy of
 science a variety of anti-realist positions may counsel one to
 accept a scientific theory... without going so far as to believe

 Accident: ...a property of a thing which is no part of the essence
 of the thing

|Accident. An inevitable occurrence due to the action
|of immutable natural laws. (Bierce) 

|Accidentalism: ==The idea that humanity is the result of a process that
|did not consciously set out to create us - that we're just a lucky
|accident of a few billion years of natural selection. One may have
|full acceptance of the ToE, without also accepting accidentalism.
|Logically, the ToE is a necessary condition for accidentalism, but
|not a sufficient condition. Dawkins, Provine and Gould argue otherwise.

 Accidentalism: Theory that the flow of events is
 unpredictable...for Epicureans, that mental events are specifically

 Action: What an agent does, as opposed to what happens to an agent
 (or what happens in an agent's head). Describing events that happen
 does not in itself permit us to talk of rationality and intention...

 Action at a distance: Contested concept in the history of
 physics... 'matter cannot act where it is not'...

|Act utilitarianism. View that the measure of the value of an act
|is the amount by which it increases general utility or happiness.

 Ad hoc hypothesis: Hypothesis adopted purely for the purpose of
 saving a theory from difficulty or refutation, but without any
 independent rationale.

 Aetiology: The assigning of cause(s)

 Affirming the antecedent: Valid argument that from p, and if p then
 q, it follows that q.

 Affirming the consequent: Invalid argument that from if p then q
 and q, it follows that p.

|agape. Highest form of love, adapted by the Christian community
|from a Greek term. Other terms are Eros (sexual love) and philios
|(brotherly love). Agape refers to unconditional love, love that has
|only the concerns of the one loved in mind.

 Agent: One who acts.

 (1) One who believes that there can be no proof of the existence of
 God but does not deny the possibility that God exists.

 Notes: An agnostic does not deny the existence of God and heaven,
 for example, but rather holds that one cannot know for certain if
 they exist or not. The term agnostic was fittingly coined by the
 19th-century British scientist Thomas H. Huxley, who believed that
 only material phenomena were objects of exact knowledge. He made up
 the word from the prefix a-, meaning  "without, not," as in amoral,
 and the noun Gnostic. Gnostic is related to the Greek word gnosis,
 "knowledge," which was used by early Christian writers to mean
 "higher, esoteric knowledge of spiritual things"; hence, Gnostic
 referred to those with such knowledge. In coining the term
 agnostic, Huxley was considering as  "Gnostics" a group of his
 fellow intellectuals-- "ists," as he called them--who had eagerly
 embraced various doctrines or theories that explained the world to
 their satisfaction. Because he was a  "man without a rag of a label
 to cover himself with," Huxley coined the term agnostic for
 himself, its first published use being in 1870.

 Agnosticism: The view that some proposition is not known, and
 perhaps cannot be known to be true or false.

 (1) The doctrine that certainty about first principles or absolute
 truth is unattainable and that only perceptual phenomena are
 objects of exact knowledge. (2) The belief that there can be no
 proof either that God exists or that God does not exist.

|Akrasia -- Weakness of will; knowing what it is best to do,
|one does something else.

|Allele. Two or more genes that can occur as alternatives and code for
|different versions of the same heiritable characteristic.

 Altruism: Disinterested concern for the welfare of another...
|Questions include the reality of altruism, and its value.
|A cornerstone of Christian ethics, it is unknown in Greek thought.

 American Scientific Affiliation (ASA). 55 Market St. Ipswitch, MA 01938.
 This membership organization is comprised of people, primarily in 
 the U.S.A., with commitments both to science and to the Christian 
 Faith. A quarterly journal, PERSPECTIVES, is published, in which 
 variations of Theistic Evolution and Progressive Creation are 
 frequently discussed; also questions of ethical concern.

|Ambiguous Middle, fallacy of -- The flaw in a syllogism due to an ambiguity
|in the middle term. All men are rakes
|                    Rakes are useful in the garden
|                    Therefore men are useful in the garden.

 (1) Not admitting of moral distinctions or judgments; neither moral nor
 immoral. (2) Lacking moral sensibility; not caring about 
 right and wrong. 

|Amphiboly. A sentence permitting different interpretations.
| She suffered a bad taxpayer's dream.
|Dream of a bad taxpayer, or a bad dream of a taxpayer?

|Amplitive argument. An argument whose conclusions go beyond its premises.
|Most reasoning, on things that interest us, qualify. (Peirce)

 Anarchism: The doctrine that human communities can and should
|flourish without government. Violent government overthrow is usually,
|but not always, associated with advocates.

|Animal thought. The example of Chrysippus' dog illustrates. The dog,
|tracking a prey, comes to a three way exit. Snifss 1 and 2; finds no scent;
|immediately charges down exit 3 without sniffing. Discueed by Philo,
|Plutarch, Aquinas, Montaigne, Descartes and others.

|Anosognosia. Failure to be aware of a defect. Unable, for instance, to see
|colors but unaware that the capacity is gone. Anton's syndrome -- denial
|of blindness by those who have lost their sight.

 Of or relating to human beings or the era of human life.

 Anthropic principle: ...allows explanation of some feature of the
 observed universe by pointing out that did it not obtain we would
 not be here to be remarking on it...(why do I always see roads when
 I go driving?)...

|Anthropocentric. Any view magnifying the importance of human beings
|in the cosmos. 

|Anthropomorphism. The representation of God,
|                                     or nature
|                                     or animals
|as having human form, or human thoughts and intentions.
 Argument from the Heap: (from Anthony Flew): A line of (usually
 fallacious) reasoning which seeks to take advantage of a
 (presumably) "fuzzy" area between two extremes; the claimant will
 say that, since the decisions to be made are so small as to be
 virtually indistinguishable, no distinctions can be made.

|Apathy. Derided by sports coaches, some philosophies give it a good press.

|Apodeictic. Necessarily true. Certain beyond dispute.

|Apologetics. In theology, the attempt to show that a faith is either
|provable by reason, or at least consistent with reason.

|Argumentum ad ignorantium -- X is true because it has not been proven false.

|Argumentum ad baculum -- X is true because you will be bashed for not
|believing in it. (baculum == cudgel or club)

|Argumentum ad hominem -- X is false because its proponent is a fool or

|Argumentum ad misericordiam -- X is true because of sympathy.

|Argumentum ad populum -- X is true because it agrees with our predjuces.

 Argumentum ad Verecundiam - the Latin name for the
 formal fallacy of *appeal to authority.*  It's an argument that a claim is
|true because some person or authority, speaking outside its legitimate
|area, says so.

 Aristotle, ; 384-322 b.c.
 (1) Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the
 Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics,
 natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced
 Western thought. In his philosophical system theory follows
 empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the
 essential method of rational inquiry.

 (1) An object produced or shaped by human craft, especially a tool,
 a weapon, or an ornament of archaeological or historical interest.
 (2) A typical product or result: "The very act of looking at a
 naked model was an artifact of male supremacy" Source: Philip Weiss
 (3)  (Biology) A structure or substance not normally present but
 produced by an external agent or action, such as a structure seen
 in a microscopic specimen after fixation that is not present in the
 living tissue.

|Aseity. The God-like characteristic of being absolutely independent
|of other things.

 One that disbelieves or denies the existence of God or gods.
|See the Free Thought section of Compuserve's RELIGION Forum for detail

|Atman. In Buddhism, the self or soul, lying behind the empirical self.

|Autological -- a word that refers to itself. "English" is an English word.
|"Short" is a short word. 

|Autonomy. The capacity for self-government. An agent is autonomous
|if his actions are truly his own. This concept forms a cornerstone
|of Kant's ethical theory.

|Avowal. A speech act thought of as an expression of a state of mind,
|rather than a description of anything. Wittgenstein: "'I am in pain'"
|is not descriptive of an inner mental state, but is a behaviour
|symptomatic of such a state."

|Axiology: The study of values.

 Axiom: A self-evident/universally recognized truth.

 Belief: To believe a proposition is to hold it to be true...

:Bacon, Francis. 1561-1626. Early philosopher of science. 

|Bacon, Roger. 1214-1292. Early English scientist -- invented spectacles.

|Barth, Karl. 1886-1968. Protstant theologian -- asserted the denial of
|the possibility of attaining any knowledge of God by the use of
|reason. (i.e.denail of natural theology). Crisis theology.

|Baconian method. The method of induction advocated by Francis Bacon.

|Beauty (Plato). The perception of beauty induces a recollection of
|previous acquaintance with the real, the universal, the "forms."

|Belief. To believe a proposition is to hold it to be true.

|Bigot. One who is obstinately and zealously attached to an opinion
|that you do not entertain. (Bierce)

 Black Box Theory: (later)

|Brain. An apparatus by which we think we think. (Bierce)

 Buddha: An adjective, not a noun. One who is on the way.

 Burden of proof: ...A certain amount of philosophical jockeying
 consists of trying to shift it!

 Categorical Imperative: See Kant.

|Certainty: The enemy of truth. Judge Learned Hand observed on one
|occasion that "The spirit of liberty is the spirit which is not
|too sure it is right.

|Childhood. The period of human life intermediate between the
|idiocy of infancy and the folly of youth -- two removes from 
|the sin of manhood and three from the remorse of age. (Bierce)

 (1) Professing belief in Jesus as Christ or following the religion
 based on the life and teachings of Jesus. (2) Relating to or
 derived from Jesus or Jesus's teachings. (3) Manifesting the
 qualities or spirit of Jesus; Christlike. (4) Relating to or
 characteristic of Christianity or its adherents. (5) Showing a
 loving concern for others; humane.

 (1) One who professes belief in Jesus as Christ or follows the
 religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus. (2) One who
 lives according to the teachings of Jesus.

 (1) The Christian religion, founded on the life and teachings of
 Jesus. (2) Christians as a group; Christendom. (3) The state or
 fact of being a Christian.

 Consequentialist norm: Based on presumption that rightness,
 goodness, value and praiseworthiness follow from the sort of
 reality that comes into being following a given action or set of
 actions. Not the act, but the outcome.

 Subgroups: Pragmatism. Prudentialism.

|Conservative. A statesman who is enamored of existing evils,
|as distinguished from the Liberal, who wishes to replace
|them with others. (Bierce)

 Contradiction: A logical relationship between A and B such that if
 A is true, B cannot be true, and vice-versa.

 (Logical categories apply only to language, not to life).

 Converse fallacy of the accident: The fallacy of taking out a
 needed qualification. "If it is always permissible to kill in war,
 then it is always permissible to kill."

 (1) (a) The act of creating. (b) The fact or state of having been
 created.  (2) The act of investing with a new office or title. (3)
 (a) The world and all things in it. (b) All creatures or a class of
 creatures.  (4)  Creation.   (Theology) The act of God by which the
 world was brought into existence. Often used with the. (5) An
 original product of human invention or artistic imagination: the
 latest creation in the field of computer design.

 creation science
 (1) An effort to give scientific proof for the account of the
 creation of the universe given at the beginning of the Bible.

 (1) The position that the account of the creation of the universe
 given at the beginning of the Bible is literally true. (AHD)
 A better term for this would be "Young Earth Creationism" (YEC).
 Still another -- "Fiat Creationism."

 Creationism: A view held by all Christians.
   No position on "how."
   Theistic Evolutionists -- evolution is the mechanism
   Progressive creationists -- deny macroevolution as a general case
               -- postulate intermittent or continuous creation
               -- Accept old-earth position entirely
               -- humanity in particular a unique creation
   Fiat creationists -- deny macroevolution as a general case
     -- postulate "sudden" 6-day creation
     -- usually 20,000 years (or less) ago
     -- humanity in particular a unique creation

 Credulism: The view, apparently held by some, that what they
            are told, or read, or hear, must be truth. See also

 (1) A disposition to believe too readily. Gullibility.

|Cynic. A blackguard whose faulty vision sees things as they
|are, not as they ought to be. (Bierce)

 (1) A theory of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin
 and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop
 through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that
 increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and
 reproduce. Also called  DARWINIAN THEORY.

 Dar"winist noun, Dar'winis"tic adjective
|Capable of being annulled or invalidated.

 (1) The belief, based solely on reason, in a God who created the
 universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life,
 exerting no influence on natural phenomena, and giving no
 supernatural revelation.

 Deontological norm: Based on presumption that there is something
 in the nature of things that makes actions right or wrong in a
 way that can be drawn up into a code; therefore actions are right
 or wrong in and of themselves. Not the outcome, but the act.

 verb transitive
 (1) (a) To conceive or fashion in the mind; invent: design a good
 excuse for not attending the conference. (b) To formulate a plan
 for; devise: designed a marketing strategy for the new product.
 (2) To plan out in systematic, usually graphic form: design a
 building; design a computer program. (3) To create or contrive for
 a particular purpose or effect: a game designed to appeal to all
 ages. (4) To have as a goal or purpose; intend. (5) To create or
 execute in an artistic or highly skilled manner.

 verb intransitive
 (1) To make or execute plans. (2) To have a goal or purpose in
 mind. (3) To create designs.

 (1) (a) A drawing or sketch. (b) A graphic representation,
 especially a detailed plan for construction or manufacture.  (2)
 The purposeful or inventive arrangement of parts or details: the
 aerodynamic design of an automobile; furniture of simple but
 elegant design. (3) The art or practice of designing or making
 designs. (4) Something designed, especially a decorative or an
 artistic work. (5) An ornamental pattern. See FIGURE (6) A basic
 scheme or pattern that affects and controls function or
 development: the overall design of an epic poem. (7) A plan; a
 project. See PLAN (8) (a) A reasoned purpose; an intent: It was her
 design to set up practice on her own as soon as she was qualified.
 (b) Deliberate intention: He became a photographer more by accident
 than by design.  (9)  Often designs.  A secretive plot or scheme:
 He has designs on my job.

 (1) One that produces designs: a book designer; a dress designer.

 (1) Bearing the name, signature, or identifying pattern of a
 specific designer: designer luggage; designer clothing. (2)
 Conceived or created by a designer.

 Diplomacy: The art of saying 'Nice Doggy' until you find a rock. J Buell.

|Edible. Good to eat, and wholesome to digest, as a worm to a toad,
|a toad to a snake, a snake to a pig, a pig to a man,
|and a man to a worm. (Bierce)

|Education. That which discloses to the wise and disguises from the
|foolish their lack of understanding. (Bierce)

|Effect. The second of two phenomena which always occur together in
|the same order. The first, called a Cause, is said to generate the 
|other -- which is no more sensible than it would be for one who has 
|never seen a dog except in pursuit of a rabbit to declare the
|rabbit the cause of the dog.  (Bierce)

 (1) (a) Relying on or derived from observation or experiment:
 empirical results that supported the hypothesis. (b) Verifiable or
 provable by means of observation or experiment: empirical laws.
 (2) Guided by practical experience and not theory, especially in

 (1) The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only
 source of knowledge. (2) (a) Employment of empirical methods, as in
 science. (b) An empirical conclusion.  (3) The practice of medicine
 that disregards scientific theory and relies solely on practical

|Enthusiasm. A disease of youth, curable by small doses of
|repentance in connection with outward applications 
|of experience. (Bierce)

 Epistemology: The question of whether genuine knowledge is possible
               Studies nature & origins of knowledge

 Ethics: A descriptive, prescriptive or proscriptive account of
 how norms are, or ought to be applied in a given actual

   being in agreement with the 
   Christian gospel: esp. as it is presented in agreement 
   in the four Gospels.  
   Emphasizing salvation by faith in the atoning death of Jesus Christ
   through personal conversion, the authority of Scripture, and the
   importance of preaching as contrasted with ritual. 

 There are sub-categories of the term "Evolution." Some people do
 not always make these distinctions. To them, "evolution" is a
 term which ranges from:
        minor variations (my brother and I don't look alike) to
        micro-evolution (changes in an organism group over time) to
        macro-evolution (amoeba evolving into a person) to
        abiogenesis (non-life to life by natural causation) to
        cosmology (unfolding of the universe from big bang to today).
      Sub-categorization appears to be useful. Here are several:

      Micro Evolution   - change over time of an organism group
      (Not at issue)    - variation/adaptation
                        - small scale changes in a species
                        - resulting organisms of same complexity
                        - observable and testable
                        - example -- peppered moth observations

      Macro Evolution   - not observable nor testable
      (At issue)        - one "kind" of organism to another "kind"
                                  dinosaur to bird, fish to reptile
                                  microbe to university professor

      Abiogenesis       - non-life to life
      (At issue)        - sometimes called "chemical evolution"

      Cosmology         - evolution (unfolding) of the universe
      (At issue)

      Theory of Evolution  - Darwinism. ToE.
                           - covers primitive life to present day
                           - does not include abiogenesis
                           - does not include cosmology

   Fact of Evolution - The word "evolution" means an "unfolding."
                     - It also means change, from simple to complex
                     - Science deals only with natural causation
                     - Evolution is the only possibility known
                     - Evolution is, therefore, a scientific fact
                     - A "fact," in science, is not "truth."

       evolution   n
           etymology  L {evolution-}, {evolutio} unrolling
 DEF 1a n a process of change in a certain direction
 DEF 1b1 n a process of continuous change from a lower,
          simpler, or worse to a higher, more complex, or
 DEF 5b n the process by which through a series of changes or steps a
                  living organism has acquired its distinguishing
                  morphological and physiological characters
 DEF 5c n a theory that the various types of animals and plants have
         their origin in other preexisting types and that the
          distinguishable differences are due to modifications in
          successive generations
 DEF 6  n a process in which the whole universe is a progression of
         interrelated phenomena

 (1) A gradual process in which something changes into a different
 and usually more complex or better form. See DEVELOPMENT (2) (a)
 The process of developing. (b) Gradual development.  (3)  (Biology)
 (a) The theory that groups of organisms change with passage of
 time, mainly as a result of natural selection, so that descendants
 differ morphologically and physiologically from their ancestors.
 (b) The historical development of a related group of organisms;
 phylogeny.  (4) A movement that is part of a set of ordered
 movements. (5)  (Mathematics) The extraction of a root of a

 (1) A theory of biological evolution, especially that formulated by
 Charles Darwin. (2) Advocacy of or belief in biological evolution.

 Existentalism: The position holding that humans are self-creating
 beings, able to choose their own future such that "essence" is
 self-created. Modern example -- Jesse Jackson.

|Experience. The wisdom that enables us to recognize as an
|undesirable old companion the folly that we have already
|embraced. (Bierce)

 (1) Information presented as objectively real. (2) A real
 occurrence; an event: had to prove the facts of the accident. (3)
 (a) Something having real, demonstrable existence: Genetic
 engineering is now a fact. (b) The quality of being real or actual:
 a blur of fact and fancy.  (4) A thing that has been done,
 especially a crime: an accessory before the fact. (5)  (Law) The
 aspect of a case at law comprising events determined by evidence:
 The jury made a finding of fact.

 Usage Note: Fact has a long history of usage in the sense
 "allegation of fact," as in  "This tract was distributed to
 thousands of American teachers, but the facts and the reasoning are
 wrong" (Albert Shanker). This practice has led inevitably to the
 introduction of the phrases true facts and real facts, as in The
 true facts of the case may never be known. These usages may
 occasion qualms among critics who hold that facts cannot be other
 than true, but they often serve a useful purpose.

 (1) Confident belief in the truth, value, or trustworthiness of a
 person, an idea, or a thing. (2) Belief that does not rest on
 logical proof or material evidence. See BELIEF See TRUST (3)
 Loyalty to a person or thing; allegiance: keeping faith with one's
 supporters. (4)  Often Faith.   (Theology) The theological virtue
 defined as secure belief in God and a trusting acceptance of God's
 will. (5) The body of dogma of a religion: the Moslem faith. (6) A
 set of principles or beliefs.

 Faith: 1. A confident belief in the truth, value or trustworthiness
           of a person, idea or thing.
        2. Belief that does not rest on logical proof or material evidence
        3. Loyalty to a person or thing; allegiance.
        4a. Belief and trust in God.
        4b. Religious conviction
        5. A system of religious beliefs
        6. A set of principles or beliefs.

 From the Latin "fides," to trust.

 Two dictionaries (Webster's 7th New Collegiate Dictionary and The
 Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language) have similar #1
 definitions as above, but leave out "idea".  One says allegiance to
 a person or a thing, the other says confidence or trust in a person
 or thing.

 Another dictionary explained the difference between "belief" and
 "faith" thusly:  "BELIEF may or may not imply certitude in the
 believer whereas FAITH always does, even where there is no evidence

 Fallacy of the accident: Arguing from a general to a specific case,
 without recognizing qualifying factors. "If people shouldn't park
 here, they shouldn't park here to help put out the fire."

 Fallacy of the ambiguous middle:

|Fork. An instrument used chiefly for the purpose of putting
|dead animals into the mouth. (Bierce)

 (1) The belief in or the policy of advancing toward a goal by
 gradual, often slow stages.

|Gravitation. The tendency of all bodies to approach one another 
|with a strength proportioned to the quantity of matter they contain --
|the quantity of matter they contain being ascertained by the strength
|of their tendency to approach one another. This is a lovely and
|edifying illustration of how science, having made A the proof of B,
|makes B the proof of A. (Bierce)

 Hard determinism: to be done

|History. An account mostly false, of events mostly unimportant,
|which are brought about by rulers mostly knaves, and soldiers
|mostly fools. (Bierce)

 (1) A system of thought that centers on human beings and their
 values, capacities, and worth. (2) Concern with the interests,
 needs, and welfare of human beings: "the newest flower on the vine
 of corporate humanism" Source: Savvy (3) The study of the
 humanities; learning in the liberal arts. (4)  Humanism.  A
 cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that
 emphasized secular concerns as a result of the rediscovery and
 study of the literature, art, and civilization of ancient Greece
 and Rome.

 (1) A tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and
 can be tested by further investigation; a theory. (2) Something
 taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an
 assumption. (3) The antecedent of a conditional statement.

|Hypocrisy: The tribute vice pays to virtue

 ICR: The Institute for Creation Research. Box 2667, El Cajon, Calif.
      (near San Diego). ICR is the leading apologist for the "young 
      earth creationist" (YEC) views in the U.S.A. in the late 
      20th century. 

     From:  Sysop Tom Sims  75300,761 the following gem:
 Inconsistentism - belief in a system of beliefs that are neither
 systematic nor entirely reliable (ie.. believable) when divorced from
 their immediate context and emotional presuppositions; closely related to
 cognitive gymnastics and philosophical expedientism. True Inconsistentists
 begin with a Premise X (M is wrong or N is right because I have always
 assumed it to be) then move to a process whereby they sort out the various
 philosophical arguments for or against M or N. When they have found
 arguments that support their presuppositions, they embrace those arguments
 without investigating their history, their own particular premises, or the
 logical conclusions of pursuing them to their ends.

 When inconsistencies are discovered they are either (a) ignored (b)
 embraced as signs that they must be on the right track ... or else they
 would not be having these problems, or (c) lies of the devil.
 Inconsistentism is a useful tool for those who are tired of the drudgery
 and inconvenience of critical thinking and are looking for a more
 comfortable custom-made philosophical environment where contrary thinking
 is easily dismissed. It is an ideal approach for nineties-type people.

 Inconsistentism provides a virtual cafeteria of ideas and philosophies to
 suit the predisposition of the moment. No need to integrate with
 Inconsistentism. The key word is: compartmentalize. When plagued with
 annoying questions about the application of a given idea to another life
 situation, just send that question to another department. They have their
 own policy.

 (1) A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom,
 agreement, or authority. (2) (a) The body of rules and principles
 governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political
 authority; a legal system: international law. (b) The condition of
 social order and justice created by adherence to such a system: a
 breakdown of law and civilized behavior.  (3) A set of rules or
 principles dealing with a specific area of a legal system: tax law;
 criminal law. (4) A piece of enacted legislation. (5) (a) The
 system of judicial administration giving effect to the laws of a
 community: All citizens are equal before the law. (b) Legal action
 or proceedings; litigation: submit a dispute to law. (c) An
 impromptu or extralegal system of justice substituted for
 established judicial procedure: frontier law.  (6) (a) An agency or
 agent responsible for enforcing the law. Often used with the: "The
 law . . . stormed out of the woods as the vessel was being relieved
 of her cargo" Source: Sid Moody (b)  (Informal) A police officer.
 Often used with the.  (7) (a) The science and study of law;
 jurisprudence. (b) Knowledge of law. (c) The profession of an
 attorney.  (8) Something, such as an order or a dictum, having
 absolute or unquestioned authority: The commander's word was law.
 (9)  Law.  (a) The body of principles or precepts held to express
 the divine will, especially as revealed in the Bible: Mosaic Law.
 (b) The first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures.  (10) A code of
 principles based on morality, conscience, or nature. (11) (a) A
 rule or custom generally established in a particular domain: the
 unwritten laws of good sportsmanship. (b) A way of life: the law of
 the jungle.  (12) (a) A formulation describing a relationship
 observed to be invariable between or among phenomena for all cases
 in which the specified conditions are met: the law of gravity. (b)
 A generalization based on consistent experience or results: the law
 of supply and demand; the law of averages.  (13)  (Mathematics) A
 general principle or rule that is assumed or that has been proven
 to hold between expressions. (14) A principle of organization,
 procedure, or technique: the laws of grammar; the laws of visual

|Lexicographer. A pestilent fellow who, under the pretense of 
|recording some particular stage in the development of a language,
|does what he can to arrest its growth, stiffen its flexibility,
|and mechanize its methods. (Bierce)

 Liberalism: A political ideology centered on the individual,
 thought of as possessing rights against the government, including
 rights of respect, freedom of expression and action, and freedom
 from religious and ideological constraint.  Attacked from the left
 as the ideology of free markets, with no defense against the
 accumulation of wealth and power in the hands of the few, and as
 lacking any analysis of the social and political nature of persons.
 Attacked from the right as insufficiently sensitive to the value of
 settled institutions and customs, or the need for social structure
 and constraint in providing the matrix for individual freedoms.

 Libertarianism: (metaphysical) A view that seeks to protect the
 reality of human "free will" by supposing that a free choice is not
 casually determined but not random either. What is needed is the
 conception of a rational, responsible, intervention in the on-going
 course of events.

 Libertarianism: (political) In politics, libertarians advocate the
 maximization of individual rights, especially those connected with
 the operation of a free market, and the minimization of the role of
 the state. In the libertarian vision, exercises of state power for
 positive ends, such as amelioration of social disadvantage through
 social welfare programmes, constitute infringements of the rights
 of others ("taxation is forced labor"). The state is confined to a
 "night watchman" role of maintaining order and providing only those
 public services that will not arise spontaneously through the free
 market. Reference: Robert Nozick's ANARCHY, STATE AND UTOPIA, 1974.

 Liberty: While the protection of the liberties of the subject is
 one of the main aims (and boasts) of almost all constitutions,
 there is less consensus about what those liberties include, or when
 liberty (good) becomes licence (bad). The problem is to define a
 class of actions that lie outside the proper jurisdiction of law,
 i.e. those which one has a right to perform.

|Life. A spiritual pickle preserving the body from decay. (Bierce)

|Lock and Key. The distinguishing device of civilization
|and enlightenment. (Bierce)

|Logic. The art of thinking and reasoning in strict accordance with the
|limitations and incapacities of the human misunderstanding. (Bierce)

 Logic: Theory of proofs.

 (1) The study of the principles of reasoning, especially of the
 structure of propositions as distinguished from their content and
 of method and validity in deductive reasoning. (2) (a) A system of
 reasoning: Aristotle's logic. (b) A mode of reasoning: By that
 logic, we should sell the company tomorrow. (c) The formal, guiding
 principles of a discipline, school, or science.  (3) Valid
 reasoning: Your paper lacks the logic to prove your thesis. (4) The
 relationship between elements and between an element and the whole
 in a set of objects, individuals, principles, or events: There's a
 certain logic to the motion of rush-hour traffic. (5)  (Computer
 Science) (a) The nonarithmetic operations performed by a computer,
 such as sorting, comparing, and matching, that involve yes-no
 decisions. (b) Computer circuitry. (c) Graphic representation of
 computer circuitry.

 (1) Of, relating to, in accordance with, or of the nature of logic.
 (2) Based on earlier or otherwise known statements, events, or
 conditions; reasonable: Rain was a logical expectation, given the
 time of year. (3) Reasoning or capable of reasoning in a clear and
 consistent manner.

 logical atomism
 (1) A philosophy asserting that knowledge consists in awareness of
 individual facts and in an understanding of the logical relations
 among them.

 Logical Positivism: An analytic methodology in which all the facts
 are held to be reducible to mathematical or other similar means of

 logical positivism
 (1) A philosophy asserting the primacy of observation in assessing
 the truth of statements of fact and holding that metaphysical and
 subjective arguments not based on observable data are meaningless.

 (1) Large-scale evolution occurring over geologic time that results
 in the formation of new taxonomic groups.

:Mad. Affected with a high degree of intellectual independence.
|Not conforming to standards of thought, speech and action 
|derived by the conformants from study of themselves. (Bierce)

|Maiden. A young person of the unfair sex. (Bierce)

|Mammon. The god of the world's leading religion. (Bierce)

 Man:  An animal so lost in rapturous contemplation of what he
 thinks he is as to overlook what he indubitably ought to be. His
 chief occupation is the extermination of other animals and his own
 species, which, however, multiplies with such insistent rapidity as
 to infect the whole habitable world and Canada. Ambrose Bierce

 Maya: The name given to "reality" as an illusion (image/appearance)
 in certain Eastern conceptualizations/religious systems.

 (1) (a) Metaphysics. (b) A system of metaphysics.  (2) An
 underlying philosophical or theoretical principle: a belief in
 luck, the metaphysic of the gambler.

 Metaphysics: The study of the nature of reality.

 Subgroups: Idealism: Ultimate Reality is spiritual
            Naturalism: Ultimate Reality is physical/material

 Subgroups: Ontology (study of being)
            Cosmology (study of the universe)

 (1)  (used with a sing. verb)  (Philosophy) The branch of
 philosophy that examines the nature of reality, including the
 relationship between mind and matter, substance and attribute, fact
 and value. (2)  (used with a pl. verb) The theoretical or first
 principles of a particular discipline: the metaphysics of law. (3)
 (used with a sing. verb) A priori speculation upon questions that
 are unanswerable to scientific observation, analysis, or
 experiment. (4)  (used with a sing. verb) Excessively subtle or
 recondite reasoning.

 Methodological Atheism -- rule #1 of science
   -- dates back to the Epicureans, about 200 B.C.E.
   -- "Ascribe nothing to the gods"
   -- Also called "Methodological Naturalism"
   -- Necessary to avoid the "god-of-the-gaps" trap
   -- Rule #2 -- "Consider ALL the evidence." (also Epicureans)

 (1) Evolution resulting from a succession of relatively small
 genetic variations that often cause the formation of new

|Mind. A mysterious form of matter secreted by the brain. Its
|chief activity consists in the endeavor to ascertain its own nature,
|the futility of the attempt being due to the fact that it has nothing
|but itself to know itself with. (Bierce)

 (1) The human consciousness that originates in the brain and is
 manifested especially in thought, perception, emotion, will,
 memory, and imagination. (2) The collective conscious and
 unconscious processes in a sentient organism that direct and
 influence mental and physical behavior. (3) The principle of
 intelligence; the spirit of consciousness regarded as an aspect of
 reality. (4) The faculty of thinking, reasoning, and applying
 knowledge: Follow your mind, not your heart. (5) A person of great
 mental ability: the great minds of the century. (6) (a) Individual
 consciousness, memory, or recollection: I'll bear the problem in
 mind. (b) A person or group that embodies certain mental qualities:
 the medical mind; the public mind. (c) The thought processes
 characteristic of a person or group; psychological makeup: the
 criminal mind.  (7) Opinion or sentiment: He changed his mind when
 he heard all the facts. (8) Desire or inclination: She had a mind
 to spend her vacation in the desert. (9) Focus of thought;
 attention: I can't keep my mind on work. (10) A healthy mental
 state; sanity: losing one's mind. (11)  Mind.   (Christian Science)
 The Deity regarded as the perfect intelligence ruling over all of
 divine creation.

 These nouns denote the faculty of thinking, reasoning, and
 acquiring and applying knowledge. Mind, opposed to heart, soul, or
 spirit, refers broadly to the capacities for thought, perception,
 memory, and decision:  "No passion so effectually robs the mind of
 all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear" (Edmund Burke).
 Intellect stresses the capacity for knowing, thinking, and
 understanding as contrasted with feeling and willing:  "Opinion is
 ultimately determined by the feelings, and not by the intellect"
 (Herbert Spencer). Intelligence implies the capacity for solving
 problems, learning from experience, and reasoning abstractly:  "The
 world of the future will be an ever more demanding struggle against
 the limitations of our intelligence" (Norbert Wiener). Brain
 suggests strength of intellect: Anyone with a brain knows that
 overwork leads to decreased efficiency. Many of the most successful
 people are endowed with brains, talent, and perseverance. Wit
 stresses quickness of intelligence or facility of comprehension:
 "There is no such whetstone, to sharpen a good wit and encourage a
 will to learning, as is praise" (Roger Ascham). He lacks formal
 education but is adept at living by his wits. Reason, the capacity
 for logical, rational, and analytic thought, embraces
 comprehending, evaluating, and drawing conclusions:  "I am sure
 that, since I have had the full use of my reason, nobody has ever
 heard me laugh" (Earl of Chesterfield).See also synonym(s) at TEND

 Moral Philosophy: A comparative account which argues for or
 against competing norms and normative grounds, with respect to
 either an ideal or an actual population.

 natural law
 (1) A law or body of laws that derives from nature and is believed
 to be binding upon human actions apart from or in conjunction with
 laws established by human authority.

 natural philosophy
 (1) The study of nature and the physical universe.

 natural science
 (1) A science, such as biology, chemistry, or physics, that deals
 with the objects, phenomena, or laws of nature and the physical

 natural selection
 (1) The process in nature by which, according to Darwin's theory of
 evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment
 tend to survive and transmit their genetic characters in increasing
 numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to
 be eliminated.

 From:  Earle Landry             70313,3267     # 855248
 NATURALISM, in recent usage, is a species of philosophical monism
 according to which whatever exists or happens is NATURAL in the
 sense  of being susceptible to explanation through methods which,
 although  paradigmatically exemplified in the natural sciences, are
 continuous  from domain to domain of objects and events.  Hence,
 naturalism is  polemically defined as repudiating the view that
 there exists or could  exist any entities or events which lie, in
 principle, beyond the scope  of scientific explanation.  In all
 other respects naturalism is  ontologically neutral in that it does
 not prescribe what specific kinds  of entities there must be in the
 universe or how many distinct kinds of  events we must suppose to
 take place.  Accordingly, naturalism is  merely compatible with the
 various forms of materialism it has been  confused with;
 materialism is logically distinct from naturalism and  requires
 independent support unless (as is not the case)  materialism  is
 the sole Ontology compatible with the ubiquitous employment of
 scientific method.  There is thus room within the naturalistic
 movement  for any variety of otherwise rival ontologies, which
 explains the  philosophical heterogeneity of the group of
 philosophers who identify  themselves as naturalists:  it is a
 methodological rather than an  ontological monism to which they
 indifferently subscribe, a monism  leaving them free to be
 dualists, idealists, materialists, atheists, or  nonatheists, as
 the case may be."
                          Arthur C. Danto, Encyc. of Phil, art.
      "1.  In general, the philosophical belief that what is studied
 by  the non-human and human sciences is all there is, and the
 denial of the  need for any explanation going beyond or outside the
 Universe.  All  such naturalists since Darwin insist especially
 upon the evolution,  without supernatural intervention, of higher
 forms of life from lower  and of these in turn ultimately from
 non-living matter.
      2. (in philosophical ethics)  Particularly since G.E. Moore,
 the  view held by those who, taking the naturalistic fallacy to be
 not  really a fallacy, insist that value words are definable in
 terms of  neutral statements of fact - not excluding even
 statements of putative  theological fact.  Earlier, and surely
 better, usage allowed any  secular and this-worldly accounts of
 value to score as naturalistic;   including those - for instance in
 Hume - which expose and eschew that  fallacy."
                               Flew, 1979, art. "naturalism"

      "The view that the universe is  self-existent,
 self-explanatory,  and self-directing.  Naturalists generally see
 the world process  deterministically and man as only its incidental
                               MacGregor, 1989, art. "naturalism"

      "Naturalism, challenging the cogency of the cosmological,
 teleological, and moral arguments, holds that the universe requires
 no  supernatural cause and government, but is self-existent, self-
 explanatory, self-operating, and self-directing;  that the world-
 process is not teleological and anthropocentric, but purposeless,
 deterministic (except for possible tychistic events), and only
 incidentally productive of man;  that human life, physical,
 mental,  moral and spiritual, is an ordinary natural event
 attributable in all  respects to the ordinary operations of
 nature;  and that man's ethical  values, compulsions, activities,
 and restraints can be justified on  natural grounds, without
 recourse to supernatural sanctions, and his  highest good pursued
 and attained under natural conditions, without  expectation of a
 supernatural destiny."
                               Runes, 1960, art. "naturalism"

 (1) Factual or realistic representation, especially:(a) The
 practice of describing precisely the actual circumstances of human
 life in literature. (b) The practice of reproducing subjects as
 precisely as possible in the visual arts.  (2) (a) A movement or
 school advocating such precise representation. (b) The principles
 and methods of such a movement or of its adherents.  (3)
 (Philosophy) The system of thought holding that all phenomena can
 be explained in terms of natural causes and laws without
 attributing moral, spiritual, or supernatural significance to them.
 (4)  (Theology) The doctrine that all religious truths are derived
 from nature and natural causes and not from revelation. (5) Conduct
 or thought prompted by natural desires or instincts.

 (1) One versed in natural history, especially in zoology or botany.
 (2) One who believes in and follows the tenets of naturalism.

 (1) Darwinism as modified by the findings of modern genetics.

 Norm: The name given to more or less authoritative models or
 patterns that have to do with how something is to be done or what
 sort of principle is to be applied.

 Obligation: An obligation has three requirements:
  1. A specifiable service is required of one person
  2. Two parties -- one to provide; one to receive
  3. A prior transaction has created the promise

 Ockham William of Ockham also Occam.  , William of; 1285?-1349?
 (1) English scholastic philosopher who rejected the reality of
 universal concepts.

 Ockham's razor also Occam's razor.
 (1) A rule in science and philosophy stating that entities should
 not be multiplied needlessly. This rule is interpreted to mean that
 the simplest of two or more competing theories is preferable and
 that an explanation for unknown phenomena should first be attempted
 in terms of what is already known. Also called  LAW OF PARSIMONY.

 On: A Japanese term of obligation; no exact English counterpart
      One repays the care received from one's own parents by
      taking equal or better care of one's own children. The term
      carries an idea of both gratitude and justice in passing on
      what the present has received in trust. (James Peterson, in
      PSCF, Vol 47, #2, page 106)

 Pantheism: Having to do with a variety of belief systems in which
 the essence of deity is diffused throughout the natural order.

 Paternalism: A refusal to accept...another's wishes, choices and
 actions for that person's own benefit. Seat belt laws (by parents
 to their children -- or governments to the people).

 Persuasive Definition: Posing a discussion argument in terms
 favorable to one's point of view. "Abortion is murder," is an
 example, countered by "Abortion is disposal of excess tissue."

 Philosophical Idealism: The position holding that the only
 demonstrable reality is not in things, but in the idea of things.
 (Plato?) This view does not dispute reality, but holds that we can
 not know reality directly. Plato invented the "parable," a teaching
 form picked up and used effectively by Jesus.

 (1) (a) Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral
 self-discipline. (b) The investigation of causes and laws
 underlying reality. (c) A system of philosophical inquiry or
 demonstration.  (2) Inquiry into the nature of things based on
 logical reasoning rather than empirical methods. (3) The critique
 and analysis of fundamental beliefs as they come to be
 conceptualized and formulated. (4) The synthesis of all learning.
 (5) All learning except technical precepts and practical arts. (6)
 All the disciplines presented in university curriculums of science
 and the liberal arts, except medicine, law, and theology. (7) The
 science comprising logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, and
 Epistemology. (8) A system of motivating concepts or principles:
 the philosophy of a culture. (9) A basic theory; a viewpoint: an
 original philosophy of advertising. (10) The system of values by
 which one lives: has an unusual philosophy of life.

 (1) Greek philosopher. A follower of Socrates, he founded the
 Academy (386), where he taught and wrote for much of the rest of
 his life. Plato presented his ideas in the form of dramatic
 dialogues, as in The Republic.

 (1)  Often Platonical.  Of, relating to, or characteristic of
 Plato or his philosophy: Platonic dialogues; Platonic Ontology.
 (2)  Often platonic.  Transcending physical desire and tending
 toward the purely spiritual or ideal: platonic love. (3)  Often
 platonic.  Speculative or theoretical.

 Notes: Plato did not invent the term or the concept that bears his
 name, but he did see sexual desire as the germ for higher loves.
 Marsilio Ficino, a Renaissance follower of Plato, used the terms
 amor socraticus and amor platonicus interchangeably for a love
 between two human beings that was preparatory for the love of God.
 From Ficino's usage Platonic (already present in English as an
 adjective to describe what related to Plato and first recorded in
 1533) came to be used for a spiritual love between persons of
 opposite sexes. In our own century Platonic has been used of
 relationships between members of the same sex. Though the concept
 is an elevated one, the term has perhaps more often been applied in
 ways that led Samuel Richardson to have one of his characters in
 Pamela say,  "I am convinced, and always was, that Platonic love is
 Platonic nonsense."

 Pragmatism: The name given to an otherwise diverse group of
 viewpoints holding that a value theory grounded in practical
 outcomes (effects) can be formulated and used to decide the truth
 of any conception, physical or metaphysical.

|Pray. To ask that the laws of the universe be annulled in behalf
|of a single petitioner confessedly unworthy. (Bierce)

|Presbyterian. One who holds the conviction that the governing
|authorities of the Church should be called presbyters. (Bierce)

 (1) A theory, methodology, or practice that is considered to be
 without scientific foundation.

|Rational. Devoid of all delusions save those of observation,
|experience and reflection. (Bierce)

 (1) (a) Being or occurring in fact or actuality; having verifiable
 existence: real objects; a real illness. (b) True and actual; not
 imaginary, alleged, or ideal: real people, not ghosts; a real
 problem; a film based on real life. (c) Of or founded on practical
 matters and concerns: a recent graduate experiencing the real world
 for the first time.  (2) Genuine and authentic; not artificial or
 spurious: real mink; real humility. (3) Being no less than what is
 stated; worthy of the name: a real friend. (4) Free of pretense,
 falsehood, or affectation: tourists wishing for a real experience
 while on the guided tour. (5) Not to be taken lightly; serious:
 We're in real trouble. (6)  (Philosophy) Existing objectively in
 the world regardless of subjectivity or conventions of thought or
 language. (7) Relating to, being, or having value reckoned by
 actual purchasing power: real income; real growth. (8)  (Physics)
 Of, relating to, or being an image formed by light rays that
 converge in space. (9)  (Mathematics) Of, relating to, or being a
 real number. (10)  (Law) Of or relating to stationary or fixed
 property, such as buildings or land.

 (1) A thing or whole having actual existence. Often used with the:
 theories beyond the realm of the real. (2)  (Mathematics) A real

 real"ness noun
 SYNONYM(S): REAL, ACTUAL, TRUE, EXISTENT. These adjectives are
 compared as they mean not imaginary but having verifiable
 existence. Real implies that something is genuine or authentic or
 that what it seems or purports to be tallies with fact: Don't lose
 the bracelet; it's made of real gold. My mother showed real
 sympathy for my predicament.  "The general, in a well-feigned or
 real ecstasy, embraced him" (William Hickling Prescott). Actual
 means existing and not merely potential or possible:  "rocks, trees
 . . . the actual world" (Henry David Thoreau);  "what the actual
 things were which produced the emotion that you experienced"
 (Ernest Hemingway). True implies that something is consistent with
 fact, reality, or the actual state of things:  "It is undesirable
 to believe a proposition when there is no ground whatever for
 supposing it true" (Bertrand Russell). Existent applies to what has
 life or being.

|Reality. The dream of a mad philosopher. (Bierce)

 (1) The quality or state of being actual or true. (2) One, such as
 a person, an entity, or an event, that is actual: "the weight of
 history and political realities" Source: Benno C. Schmidt, Jr. (3)
 The totality of all things possessing actuality, existence, or
 essence. (4) That which exists objectively and in fact: Your
 observations do not seem to be about reality. (5)  (Philosophy)
 That which has necessary existence and not contingent existence.

|Reason. The weigh probabilities in the scales of desire. (Bierce)

|Reasonable. Accessible to the infection of our own opinions. (Bierce)

 Reasons To Believe: Box 5978, Pasadena, California 91117. This
 organization is a leading apologist for "Old Earth Creationism"
 (OEC) in the U.S.A. in the late 20th century. 

|Redskin. A North American Indian, whose skin is not red -- at
|least not on the outside. (Bierce)

 From:  Sean Cavanaugh           70471,160      # 857913
 Here is another definition of REDUCTIONISM, which as Don
 pointed out, is one of the most important terms to understand
 before understanding the disciplines that make up naturalism.  It
 is taken from a collection of essays titled _From Gaia to Selfish
 Genes_ edited by Connie Barlow (c) 1991 Massachusetts Institute
 of Technology.  This particular passage was drawn from Ludwig von
 Bertalanffy's _Problems of Life_ (c) 1952 John Wiley & Sons:

    It appeared to be the goal of biological research to resolve
 the complex entities and processes that confront us in living
 nature into elementary units--to analyze them--in order to
 explain them by means of the juxtaposition or summation of these
 elementary units and processes.  Procedure in classical physics
 supplied the pattern.  Thus chemistry resolves material bodies
 into elementary components--molecules and atoms; physics
 considers a storm that tears down a tree as the sum of movements
 of air particles, the heat of a body as the sum of the energy of
 motion of molecules, and so on.  A corresponding procedure was
 applied in all biological fields, as some examples will easily

    Biochemistry investigates the individual chemical constituents
 of living bodies and the chemical processes going on within
 them.  In this way it specifies the chemical compounds found in
 the cell and the organism as well as their reactions.  The
 classical "cell theory" considered cells as the elementary units
 of life, comparable to atoms as the elementary units of chemical
 compounds.  So a multicellular organism appeared morphologically
 as an aggregate of such building units.  Genetics considered the
 organism as an aggregate of characters going back to a
 corresponding aggregate of genes in the germ cells, transmitted
 and acting independently of each other.  Accordingly, the theory
 of natural selection resolved living beings into a complex of
 characters, some useful, others disadvantageous, which
 characters, or rather their corresponding genes, are transmitted
 independently, thus through natural selection affording the
 opportunity for the elimination of unfavorable characters, while
 allowing the favorable ones to survive and accumulate.

    The same principle could be shown to operate in every field of
 biology, and in medicine, psychology, and sociology as well.  The
 examples given will suffice, however, to show that the principle
 of analysis and summation has been directive of all fields.
 Analysis of the individual parts and processes in living things
 is necessary, and is the prerequisite for all deeper
 understanding.  Taken alone, however, analysis is not sufficient.

 From:  Jeff Kramer              75242,2067     # 857332
         "[Ernst] Mayr distinguishes three kinds of REDUCTIONISM:
 _constitutive reductionism_ (or ontological reductionism, or
 analysis), which is a method of studying objects by inquiring into
 their basic constituents; _theory reductionism_, which is the
 explanation of a whole theory in terms of a more inclusive theory;
 and _explanatory reductionism_, which is the view 'that the mere
 knowledge of its ultimate components would be sufficient to explain
 a complex system'."         Source: Steven Weinberg, _Dreams of a
 Final Theory_, p.54 (from the chapter "Two Cheers for
 Reductionism").  Weinberg refers to Mayr's article "The Limits of
 Reductionism" in _Nature_ 331 (1987): 475.

 From:  Earle Landry             70313,3267     # 856720
      "1.  The belief that human behavior can be reduced to or
 interpreted in terms of that of lower animals;  and that,
 ultimately,  can itself be reduced to the physical laws controlling
 the behavior of  inanimate matter.  Pavlov with dogs, Skinner with
 rats, and Lorenz with  greylag geese have all used lower animals to
 illustrate instinctive  behavioral patterns that can, by analogy,
 be correlated with some  aspects of human behaviors.
      2.   More generally, any doctrine that claims to reduce the
 apparently more sophisticated and complex to the less so."
                          Flew, 1979, art. "reductionism (or

      "Reductionism may take many forms, e.g., in the interpretation
 of  religion it may take the form of reducing all religious values
 to an  ethical core they are supposed to contain, or to
 psychological values  that exclude the consideration of ontological
 questions, or to  aesthetic values in which religion is recognized
 for its worth in  producing great art forms.  It is a common trap
 for beginners in  religious studies."

                               MacGregor, 1989, art. "reductionism"

      " Traditionally, the subject matter of empirical science is
 grouped into areas of decreasing scope.  Physics is thought of as
 having the broadest scope because it deals with the physical
 properties  of all bodies and all bodies have physical properties.
 Chemistry is  viewed as being only slightly less basic, because all
 material  substances also have chemical properties;  however,
 chemical properties  are explained by reference to physical
 properties, and physics and  chemistry become fused at the level of
 their most fundamental axioms.   Biology is considered to have a
 more limited scope than physics and  chemistry because it concerns
 only those physical objects which are  also alive.  All living
 organisms are physical objects, but not all  physical objects are
 alive.  Psychology is of even more limited scope,  because it deals
 only with those living creatures capable of sensation,   Sociology
 in turn is of even narrower scope, dealing only with  sentient
 beings organized into societies.
      Philosophers and scientists have used the term "reduction" in
 a  variety of ways.  Given the above analysis of scientific
 theories and  the organization of the subject matter of science
 into the usual  hierarchy, three senses of "reduction" can be
 distinguished with some  clarity - epistemological reduction,
 physical reduction, and  theoretical reduction.  Epistemological
 reduction concerns the proper  relation between scientific theories
      The goal of epistemological reduction is the elimination of
 any  reference to theoretical entities in scientific theories.
 Instead,  scientific theories are to be reformulated so that they
 refer only to  the objects of our knowledge.  There is some
 disagreement among  epistemological reductionists over the nature
 of these objects.    According to one version of epistemological
 reduction, all scientific  statements are to be reformulated in
 terms of gross physical objects,  usually measuring instruments
 like yardsticks and galvanometers.   Another version specifies
 their reformulation in terms of sense data  like "red patch now."
 The appeal of epistemological reduction stems  from the empiricist
 claim that all empirical knowledge comes from sense  experience;
 hence, it should be reducible to it.  In point of fact,  neither of
 these versions of epistemological reduction has met with  much
 success.  Nor do the issues raised by epistemological reduction
 have much to do with biology or vice versa.  Accordingly, this
 sense of  reduction will be all but ignored in what follows.
      In physical reduction, systems at one level are analyzed into
 their component parts and the behavior of these higher-level
 systems  are explained in terms of the properties, behaviors and
 arrangements  of these parts.  The stock example of reduction to be
 found in the  philosophical literature is the explanation of the
 gross properties of  gases (like temperature) in terms of the
 movements of the molecules  that make them up.  Similarly, the
 molecular geneticists are attempting  to explain the behavior of
 genes in molecular terms.  In theory  reduction the axioms of one
 theory are derived as theorems from the  axioms of another theory,
 and the derived theory is said to be reduced  to the original
 theory.  Again, the stock example of such a reduction  is the
 derivation of classical thermodynamics from statistical  mechanics
 by identifying the temperature of a gas with the mean
 translational kinetic energy of the molecules which make it up.
      Given the preceding hierarchy of subject matters of science,
 the  results of physical reduction and theory reduction tend to
 coincide.   Both with respect to the scope of the relevant theories
 and the level  of physical analysis, physics is basic.  Physics
 deals with the  physical properties of systems from the most
 organized beings to the  simplest subatomic particles, whereas
 biology, for example, deals with  the properties of only highly
 organized beings.  Scientific theories  are formulated at all such
 levels of analysis from the universe to  evolving species to
 subatomic particles.  A reduction is termed  intralevel if both
 theories concerned refer to phenomena at the same  level of
 analysis and belong to the same traditional area of science.   If
 either of these conditions is not met, then the reduction is
 termed  interlevel.  Hence, the reduction of thermodynamics to
 statistical  mechanics is intralevel in the sense that both
 theories are physical  theories, but interlevel in the sense that
 the reducing theory concerns  lower-level phenomena than the theory
 being reduced."                               David Hull,
                           _Philosophy of Biological Science_
                          (Foundations of Philosophy Series),
                                1974, pp. 3-4

 (1) An attempt or a tendency to explain complex phenomena or
 structures by relatively simple principles, as by asserting that
 life processes or mental acts are instances of chemical and
 physical laws: "Our educational system has had a dangerous
 predilection for reductionism--an addiction to the primary, the
 elementary" Source: Frederick Turner

 (1) An attempt or a tendency to explain complex phenomena or
 structures by relatively simple principles, as by asserting that
 life processes or mental acts are instances of chemical and
 physical laws: "Our educational system has had a dangerous
 predilection for reductionism--an addiction to the primary, the
 elementary" Source: Frederick Turner

 (1) (a) Belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers
 regarded as creator and governor of the universe. (b) A personal or
 institutionalized system grounded in such belief and worship.  (2)
 The life or condition of a person in a religious order. (3) A set
 of beliefs, values, and practices based on the teachings of a
 spiritual leader. (4) A cause, a principle, or an activity pursued
 with zeal or conscientious devotion.

 (1) Excessive or affected religious zeal.

       science   n
           etymology  ME, fr. MF, fr. L {scientia}, having knowledge,
             of {scire} to know; akin to L {scindere} to cut
 DEF 1a n possession of knowledge as distinguished from ignorance or
 DEF 1b n knowledge attained through study or practice
 DEF 2a n a department of systematized knowledge as an object of
        study, such as 
 DEF 2b n something (as a sport or technique) that may be studied or
         learned like systematized knowledge
 DEF 2c n one of the natural sciences
 DEF 3  n knowledge covering general truths or the operation of
          general laws esp. as obtained and tested through scientific
          method; {specif}  {NATURAL SCIENCE}
 DEF 4  n a system or method based or purporting to be based upon
         scientific principles

|Scholarly Consensus: An oxymoron.

 (1) (a) The observation, identification, description, experimental
 investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. (b) Such
 activities restricted to a class of natural phenomena. (c) Such
 activities applied to an object of inquiry or study.  (2)
 Methodological activity, discipline, or study: I've got packing a
 suitcase down to a science. (3) An activity that appears to require
 study and method: the science of purchasing. (4) Knowledge,
 especially that gained through experience. (5)  Science.  Christian

 From:  Buddy Landry             70313,3267     # 861912
 >>SCIENTISM is the view that science is the very paradigm of truth
 and rationality.  If something does not square with currently
 well-established scientific beliefs, if it is not within the domain
 of entities appropriate for scientific investigation, or if it is
 not within the domain of entities appropriate for scientific
 investigation, or if it is not amenable to scientific methodology,
 then it is not true or rational.  Everything outside of science is
 a matter of mere belief and subjective opinion, of which rational
 assessment is impossible.  Science, exclusively and ideally, is our
 model of intellectual excellence.<<
 Moreland, ed., _The Creation Hypothesis_

 My critique, in part:

         Let us take a brief excursion at this point into argument
 analysis - I mean about the three negative criteria of the Not True
 or Rational.  Restated as a positive assertion, they are:

         "If something squares with currently well-established
 scientific beliefs,  or if it is within the domain of entities
 appropriate for scientific investigation, or if it is amenable to
 scientific methodology, then it is true or rational."
         We can list them thus:
          1) X is asserted by contemporary science
          2) X is an entity appropriate to scientific investigation
          3) X is amenable to scientific methodology
         This is quite ambiguous.  In (1), X could be an event
 (black holes), or an explanation (gravitation).  The point seems to
 be that "it" is part of contemporary science.  But an entity or
 event that does not square with current scientific understanding is
 a cause of excitement in the scientific community, rather than
 something to be suppressed.  I think that the writer has in mind
 explanations that have been rejected by science, such as
 creationism, but is trying to make an "objective-sounding"
 criterion out of it.
         (2) and (3) make the same point with different words.  They
 suggest that among the full range of things experienced by human
 beings, science selects a subset as the "proper" objects of its
 method.  This is the "science is a game with arbitrary rules" ploy
 again.  If X is an event in space and time, it is a subject for
 science.  NOTHING is excluded but objects of the imagination
 (unicorns, God, etc), and even they are treated by the science
 (such as it is) of psychology.
         So what the author is upset at science not taking seriously
 is something that (A) is not already a theory or object of science,
 and (B) does not have spacio-temporal existence.  What could that
 be other than religious doctrine?  THAT is what has been rejected
 as untrue and irrational, not some potential domain of human

 From:  Earle Landry             70313,3267     # 856155

      "1.  The belief that the human sciences require no methods
 other  than those of the natural.
      2.  In a more general sense, practices that pretend to be, but
 are  not, science.
      In both cases the term is employed only by opponents."
                               Flew, 1979, art. "scientism"

      "A derogatory term used to denote the view of those who
 inordinately value the findings of natural sciences such as physics
 and  chemistry as if they had a special kind of authority beyond
 their own  fields.  The term is sometimes used synonymously with
                               MacGregor, 1989, art. "scientism"

 [No entry in Encyc. of Phil., but this mention of scientism in
 article  "Phenomenology":]
      "Also objectionable was the so-called "scientism" of the
 positivists Mach and Avenarius.  Scientism regarded scientific
 statements as premises in philosophical arguments such that the
 truth  of statements in philosophy depends on the truth of
 scientific  statements."

 From:  Sean Cavanaugh           70471,160      # 859133
 SCIENTISM:  The habit and mode of expression of a man of science.

 1877 _Fraser's Mag._ XVI. 274  Its dogmatisms on the one
 hand,..and its 'scientism' on the other, even when most atheistic,
 are tempered with mutual civility.  1895 _Daily News_ 14 Nov.
 6/5  By scientism he means to express that change which had come
 over the thought of the world in consequence of the wonderful
 additions to the common stock of knowledge.  1903 _Contemp. Rev._
 May 727  What modern Scientism knows as the Supersensuous

 I found "scientism" described in a book on Science and Religion, so
 this description may be biased.  The title of the book is THE
 CREATION HYPOTHESIS and it's edited by Moreland.

 SCIENTISM is the view that science is the very paradigm of truth
 and rationality.  If something does not square with currently
 well-established scientific beliefs, if it is not within the domain
 of entities appropriate for scientific investigation, or if it is
 not within the domain of entities appropriate for scientific
 investigation, or if it is not amenable to scientific methodology,
 then it is not true or rational.  Everything outside of science is
 a matter of mere belief and subjective opinion, of which rational
 assessment is impossible.  Science, exclusively and ideally, is our
 model of intellectual excellence.

 From:  Buddy Landry             70313,3267     # 861340
      SCIENTISM: I sense in this quote the hostility of contemporary
 Protestantism toward science itself rather than the abuse of
 science.  But it is very well done.  Subtle.  A theologian or a
 lawyer has been at work on this one.  This calls, not for argument
 analysis, but literary analysis.  That is, not in terms of premises
 to conclusions, but in terms of themes, tones, and vocabulary.  A
 shift from logic to rhetoric.
         This may take more than 20 lines.  Print it out and put it
 on the back of the toilet.  You'll get around to it.  Besides, here
 is a chance to evaluate an authoritative statement by a recognized
 creationism advocate, right?

         He begins on a note of exaggerated praise:  "SCIENTISM is
 the view that science is the very paradigm of truth and
 rationality." Perhaps he is going to hearken back to the
 pre-pejorative use of "scientism" ... But then comes a long
 sentence that makes up the greater part of the definition.  It
 presents criteria for rejecting "something" as a candidate for
 "truth and rationality".  It brings us down from the initial
 inflated excitement that approaches worship into a dull, negating
 state.  And it does this, not by argument, but by its tone, which
 is elicited by its vocabulary.
         It begins "If something does not" and cites three negative
 criteria (I assume that the repetition of the second criterion is a
 typo), and ends "then it is not true or rational."  Reading it
 straight thru overdoses one on negatives:  "not" occurs FIVE times
 in this sentence.  Dividing through by negation would yield a
 shorter, more readable sentence that would be both logically and
 materially identical to the one we have, so the purpose of the
 negations is neither clarity nor parsimony.  Psychologically,
 negations take mental effort to keep track of, and to keep
 straight, and therefore slow down and fatigue understanding,
 inclining us to do something else.  Finishing this sentence leaves
 me wanting to read about something other than scientism. This is
 pure psychological warfare.
         Let us take a brief excursion at this point into argument
 analysis - I mean about the three negative criteria of the Not True
 or Rational.  Restated as a positive assertion, they are:

         "If something squares with currently well-established
 scientific beliefs,  or if it is within the domain of entities
 appropriate for scientific investigation, or if it is amenable to
 scientific methodology, then it is true or rational."

         We can list them thus:
          1) X is asserted by contemporary science
          2) X is an entity appropriate to scientific investigation
          3) X is amenable to scientific methodology
         This is quite ambiguous.  In (1), X could be an event
 (black holes), or an explanation (gravitation).  The point seems to
 be that "it" is part of contemporary science.  But an entity or
 event that does not square with current scientific understanding is
 a cause of excitement in the scientific community, rather than
 something to be suppressed.  I think that the writer has in mind
 explanations that have been rejected by science, such as
 creationism, but is trying to make an "objective-sounding"
 criterion out of it.
         (2) and (3) make the same point with different words.  They
 suggest that among the full range of things experienced by human
 beings, science selects a subset as the "proper" objects of its
 method.  This is the "science is a game with arbitrary rules" ploy
 again.  If X is an event in space and time, it is a subject for
 science.  NOTHING is excluded but objects of the imagination
 (unicorns, God, etc), and even they are treated by the science
 (such as it is) of psychology.
         So what the author is upset at science not taking seriously
 is something that (A) is not already a theory or object of science,
 and (B) does not have spacio-temporal existence.  What could that
 be other than religious doctrine?  THAT is what has been rejected
 as untrue and irrational, not some potential domain of human
 >>Everything outside of science is a matter of mere belief and
 subjective opinion, of which rational assessment is impossible.<<
         What haughty disdain on the part of science is intimated in
 this sentence!  Having gathered together what it likes, it despises
 what it has rejected.  The image of a bigot is clear.  No
 open-minded person would want to be associated with such an
 enterprise of arbitrary exclusion.

 >>Science, exclusively and ideally, is our model of intellectual
         It ends with a return to the hollow praise of the first
 sentence, emphasizing the exclusiveness of science, and tending our
 sympathies to the rejected truths and realities outside the
 scientific fortress.
         This is a piece of apologetics, not scholarly definition of
 a term in current use.

 From:  DONALD FRACK             74277,3230     # 862052
  >>     I sense in this quote the hostility of contemporary
 Protestantism toward science itself rather than the abuse of
 science.  But it is very well done. Subtle.  A theologian or a
 lawyer has been at work k on this one.  This calls, not for
 argument analysis, but literary analysis.  That is, not in terms of
 premises to conclusions, but in terms of themes, tones, and
 vocabulary.  A shift from logic to rhetoric.  <<

 I've read Joe's submitted definition on scientism and your
 comments, and I find myself with mixed feelings.  Since scientism
 is often (usually?) used as a negative term, the submitted
 definition may be fair.  If you think the definition should be
 neutral (am I right?), then your objections seems to defuse the
 general purpose.

 (1) The theory that investigational methods used in the natural
 sciences should be applied in all fields of inquiry. (2) The
 application of quasi-scientific techniques or justifications to
 unsuitable subjects or topics.

       scientist   n
           etymology  L {scientia}
         DEF 1  n one learned in science and esp. natural science  a
                  scientific investigator

 Self-referential -- see tautology

 Soft Determinism: to be done

 Solipsism: I am the only one in the universe.

 noun (Philosophy)
 (1) The theory that the self is the only thing that can be known and
 verified. (2) The theory or view that the self is the only reality.

 (1) (a) Contemplation or consideration of a subject; meditation.
 (b) A conclusion, an opinion, or a theory reached by conjecture.
 (c) Reasoning based on inconclusive evidence; conjecture or
 supposition.  (2) (a) Engagement in risky business transactions on
 the chance of quick or considerable profit. (b) A commercial or
 financial transaction involving speculation.

 Supererogatory act: The name given in moral theology to an act
 which it would be good to do -- but not wrong not to do.

 (1) Of or relating to existence outside the natural world. (2)
 Attributed to a power that seems to violate or go beyond natural
 forces. (3) Of or relating to a deity. (4) Of or relating to the
 immediate exercise of divine power; miraculous. (5) Of or relating
 to the miraculous.

 (1) That which is supernatural.

 From:  Earle Landry             70313,3267     # 856153

      "That which surpasses the active and exactive powers of nature
 -  or that which natural causes can neither avail to produce nor
 require  form God as the compliment of their kind."
                          Runes, 1979, art. "supernatural"

 (1) The quality of being supernatural. (2) Belief in a supernatural
 agency that intervenes in the course of natural laws.

 Tautology -- see self-referential

 From:  Earle Landry             70313,3267     # 856154

      "Theism signifies belief in one God (THEOS) who is (a)
 personal,  (b) worthy of adoration, and (c) separate from the world
 but (d)  continuously active in it.
      According to theism, God is a Subject possessing not only mind
 but  also will.  Being fully personal, he can be conceived through
 images  drawn from human life and can be addressed as "thou" in
 prayer.   Theists regard this personal God of religion as the
 ULTIMATE reality.   In this they differ from such thinkers as
 Shankara, Hegel, and F.H.  Bradley, for whom personal images of God
 are intellectually immature  depictions of a suprapersonal Absolute.
      Theists claim that God merits adoration (or worship) on two
 grounds.  First, he is wholly good.  Second, he excels men in power.
 According to theism proper (or theism in the strict sense), God is
 INFINITELY powerful both in himself (as self-existent Being) and,
 consequently, in his relation to the world.
      Theists hold that God is, in his essence, separate from the
 world.   This belief distinguishes theism from pantheism, according
 to which  the world is a part, or mode, of God.  According to
 theism proper, God  created the world EX NIHILO.  Admittedly
 "theism" is also sometimes  applied in a loose sense to the view
 that God imposes form on pre- existent matter.  But this
 application is valid only if the other  requirements of theism are
      Theism always involves the belief that God is continuously
 active  in the world.  In this it differs from deism.  According to
 deism -  a  word first applied to a group of eighteenth-century
 English thinkers -  God, having made the world at the beginning of
 time, left it to  continue on its own.  Theists (notably Aquinas),
 on the other hand,  maintain that every item in the world depends
 for its existence on the  continuous activity of God as the
 Creator, so that EX PARTE DEI  "creation" and "preservation" are
      Because deists remove God from continuous contact with the
 world,  they are hostile to the orthodox Christian claim that God
 has  supernaturally revealed himself in a series of events which
 reached  their fulfillment in the Incarnation.  Hence Toland,
 claiming the  support of Locke,  interpreted Christianity as the
 reaffirmation of the  truths of natural religion.  Certainly the
 Christian does not claim  that the facts of revelation (or, a
 fortiori, the dogmas based on them)  can be deduced, or in any way
 established, by pure reason;  But he can  validly claim that the
 idea of such a revelation is COMPATIBLE WITH   theistic (as it is
 not with deistic) premises.
      Theistic belief raises the following questions, which (among
 others) constitute the "philosophy of theism," or theism
 SIMPLICITER,  in a secondary, speculative sense:  How can finite
 terms refer to God  if he is infinite?  Is it possible to
 demonstrate, or at least to  justify belief in, God's existence by
 reason?  Is there a mode of  experience which is specifically
 "religious"?  In what sense (or  senses) can one speak of a divine
 "providence"?   Is the belief in a  God who is both omnipotent and
 good compatible with the fact of evil?
      Philosophical theism has often been attacked.  At the end of
 the  Middle Ages, William of Ockham denied that reason could prove
 God's  existence.  This denial was repeated by Kant.  In this
 century  Barthians, existentialists, and empiricists have rejected
 the  possibility of speculative metaphysics in any form.  Yet many
 philosophers and theologians (for example, Etienne Gilson, Jacques
 Maritain, E.L. Mascall, and A.M. Farrar) still maintain that
 theistic  reasoning is both possible and necessary."
                               H.P. Owen, in Encyc. of Phil., art.

      "Belief in God, where God is understood to be the single
 omnipotent and omniscient creator of everything else that exists.
 He  is regarded as a Being distinct from his creation though
 manifesting  himself through it,  and also essentially personal,
 caring for and  communicating with mankind, and infinitely worthy
 of human worship and  obedience.  Theism thus is clearly a central
 element in the whole  Judaeo-Christian religious tradition.
      The philosophical problems it raises are, in the first place,
 those  of maintaining the various elements of this conception of
 deity in a  coherent unity.  For example, there is the problem of
 doing justice to  the limitless nature of God without falling
 either into pantheism, or  denial of human freedom, or the belief
 that all concepts borrowed from  the finite world - including that
 of personality - are hopelessly  inadequate and misleading if
 applied to God.  On the other hand, there  is the difficulty of
 doing justice to the independence of creation,  without thinking of
 God simply as a First Cause, who after the initial  creative act
 leaves the world entirely to the operation of the laws of  nature.
 Furthermore, there is the problem of reconciling the  benevolence
 and omnipotence of the creator  with the presence of evil  in
 creation.  And, of course, even if the conception proves
 internally  coherent, there is the question of our grounds for
 claiming that  anything actually exists corresponding to it.
                                    Flew, 1979, art. "theism'

      "Generally used to denote any philosophical system that
 accepts a  transcendent and personal God who preserves and rules
 the world he has  created.  The term, probably invented by Richard
 Cudworth in 1678, Was  originally used as the antonym f atheism but
 later acquired a more  restricted and distinctive meaning in
 contradistinction to pantheism,  panentheism, and deism."
                                    MacGregor, 1989, art "theism"

 (1) Belief in the existence of a god or gods, especially belief in
 a personal God as creator and ruler of the world.

 (1) (a) Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a
 relatively wide variety of circumstances, especially a system of
 assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to
 analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a
 specified set of phenomena. (b) Such knowledge or such a system.
 (2) Abstract reasoning; speculation. (3) A belief that guides
 action or assists comprehension or judgment: rose early, on the
 theory that morning efforts are best; the modern architectural
 theory that less is more. (4) An assumption based on limited
 information or knowledge; a conjecture.

|Theosophy. An ancient faith having all the certitude of religion
|and all the mystery of science. (Bierce)

 (1)  Abbreviation(s): t., T.(a) A nonspatial continuum in which
 events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past
 through the present to the future. (b) An interval separating two
 points on this continuum; a duration: a long time since the last
 war; passed the time reading. (c) A number, as of years, days, or
 minutes, representing such an interval: ran the course in a time
 just under four minutes. (d) A similar number representing a
 specific point on this continuum, reckoned in hours and minutes:
 checked her watch and recorded the time, 6:17 a.m. (e) A system by
 which such intervals are measured or such numbers are reckoned:
 solar time.  (2) (a)  Often times.  An interval, especially a span
 of years, marked by similar events, conditions, or phenomena; an
 era: hard times; a time of troubles. (b)  times.  The present with
 respect to prevailing conditions and trends: You must change with
 the times.  (3) A suitable or opportune moment or season: a time
 for taking stock of one's life. (4) (a) Periods or a period
 designated for a given activity: harvest time; time for bed. (b)
 Periods or a period necessary or available for a given activity: I
 have no time for golf. (c) A period at one's disposal: Do you have
 time for a chat?  (5) An appointed or fated moment, especially of
 death or giving birth: He died before his time. Her time is near.
 (6) (a) One of several instances: knocked three times; addressed
 Congress for the last time before retirement. (b)  times.  Used to
 indicate the number of instances by which something is multiplied
 or divided: This tree is three times taller than that one. My
 library is many times smaller than hers.  (7) (a) One's lifetime.
 (b) One's period of greatest activity or engagement. (c) A person's
 experience during a specific period or on a certain occasion: had a
 good time at the party.  (8) (a) A period of military service. (b)
 A period of apprenticeship. (c)  (Informal) A prison sentence.  (9)
 (a) The customary period of work: hired for full time. (b) The
 period spent working. (c) The hourly pay rate: earned double time
 on Sundays.  (10) The period during which a radio or television
 program or commercial is broadcast: "There's television time to
 buy" Source: Brad Goldstein (11) The rate of speed of a measured
 activity: marching in double time. (12)  (Music) (a) The
 characteristic beat of musical rhythm: three-quarter time. (b) The
 rate of speed at which a piece of music is played; the tempo.
 (13)  (Chiefly British) The hour at which a pub closes. (14)
 (Sports) A time-out.

 ToE -- Theory of Evolution. (Darwin). Assumes primitive life exists
|on earth and presents a theory about how we got here. GToE (Grand Theory
|of Evolution) adds abiogenesis to the ToE.

 (1) Conformity to fact or actuality. (2) A statement proven to be
 or accepted as true. (3) Sincerity; integrity. (4) Fidelity to an
 original or a standard. (5) Reality; actuality. (6)  Truth.
 (Christian Science) God.
 refer to the quality of being in accord with fact or reality. Truth
 is a comprehensive term that in all of its nuances implies accuracy
 and honesty:  "Every man is fully satisfied that there is such a
 thing as truth, or he would not ask any questions" (Charles S.
 Peirce).  "We seek the truth, and will endure the consequences"
 (Charles Seymour). Veracity is adherence to the truth:  "Veracity
 is the heart of morality" (Thomas H. Huxley). Verity often applies
 to an enduring or repeatedly demonstrated truth:  "beliefs that
 were accepted as eternal verities" (James Harvey Robinson).
 Verisimilitude is the quality of having the appearance of truth or
 reality:  "merely corroborative detail, intended to give artistic
 verisimilitude to an otherwise bald and unconvincing narrative"
 (W.S. Gilbert).

|Truthful; veracious. (2) Coinciding with fact or reality; genuine
|or real.  

 Words: "When the nature of things is unknown, or the notion
 unsettled and indefinite, and various in various minds, the words
 by which such notions are conveyed, or such things denoted, will be
 ambiguous and perplexed." -- Johnson; Preface to his Dictionary of
 the English Language.