Multiple Intelligences

( Howard Gardner and others )

        People can think productively in a variety of ways, as described in a theory of Multiple Intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal) developed by Howard Gardner (co-founder of Project Zero at Harvard).*  For a quick overview of Multiple Intelligences, read summaries by Howard Gardner (Multiple Intelligences in Seven Steps) and ERIC Digest and explore its many facets with Andy Carvin.

* Here is Gardner's list of "at least seven separate forms of analysis" that he defines as intelligences:
1. Linguistic intelligence (as in a poet);
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence (as in a scientist);
3. Musical intelligence (as in a composer);
4. Spatial intelligence (as in a sculptor or airplane pilot);
5. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence (as in an athlete or dancer);
6. Interpersonal intelligence (as in a salesman or teacher);
7. Intrapersonal intelligence (exhibited by individuals with accurate views of themselves).
[note: More recently, Gardner has added Naturalistic intelligence, and is considering others, as explained in Wikipedia.]

        You can continue exploring with a brief analysis of brain-hemispheres, learning modalities & styles, plus "The Intelligences in Gardner's Words" ;  and a comprehensive listing of selected resources for Multiple Intelligences (links for web-pages, and reviews of books);  read about emotional intelligence;  or explore in ERIC.
        A starting point for exploring educational implications and applications is a series of articles (about Teaching for Multiple Intelligences, in a special issue of Educational Leadership) that are listed out-of-sequence in this page of search-results.

        Bloom's Taxonomy describes a wide range of thinking skills in terms of domains (cognitive, affective, psycho-motor) and levels, as you can see in this overview (of the original & revised versions) & introduction & elaboration & educational applications.

        Since we have multiple intelligences, we also have multiple learning styles, so we should try to find teaching strategies that will be more effective for students with different LEARNING STYLES.  One interesting approach to thinking is VISUAL LOGIC.

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Copyright © 2007 by Craig Rusbult, all rights reserved