Theology of Creation,
Scientific Evidence,
and Education
top-of-page banner

Modern Humans - Single Origin (Out of Africa) versus Multiregional

In the homepage for Human Evolution? Science & Theology a subsection about unresolved scientific questions explains that "although most scientists... have reached a confident consensus about the major questions, there is disagreement about some details," including the shape of an evolutionary family tree.  For example:
• There are two main scientific theories about the biological development and migration patterns of modern humans: Single Origin (Out of Africa, Population Replacement) and Multiregional.  Single Origin claims that all ancestors of modern humans originated in Africa; they migrated outward and displaced other hominid populations throughout the world.  Multiregional Continuity claims that our ancestors evolved continually in separate groups, but interbreeding between groups produced a unity of the human species across races.  Single Origin is dominant among scientists, although Multiregional has some support.

• note:   Three other controversial questions ask, "What is the genetic relationship between Neanderthals and Humans?" and "If small hobbit-like creatures were a separate species (Homo floresiensis), where do they fit into the family tree of modern humans?" and "Did the history of human origins include Human Evolution with Common Descent?"

I.O.U. This page will have more content later.

Here are a few starter-pages:

Ģ An introductory overview (18 k) is Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa? by Donald Johanson, who says "the current best explanation for the beginning of modern humans is the Out of Africa Model."

Ģ The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans by Jim Bindon is a PDF file of PowerPoint. (an information-filled 14k)

Ģ In his weblog, John Hawks explains the difference between multiregional evolution and multiple origins.

Ģ Multiregionalism vs. Out of Africa by Susan Carr, says "a catastrophic event [eruption of a super-volcano] approximately 71,000 years ago may one day blow both theories out of the water and give rise to new questions."

Ģ A genetic study in Africa published in 2009 suggests that "the region in southwest Africa [near the border of Angola and Namibia, near the Kalahari Desert] seems, on the present evidence, to be the origin of modern humans."

Ģ IOU - We'll also have young-earth views, such as