Science in Christian Perspective

 

 

The Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation At 50
Modest Beginnings, Maturing Vision, Continuing Challenges

John W. Haas, Jr.*

with David O. Moberg,** Richard Bube,* and Wilbur Bullock*

From: Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 50 (December 1998): 241-249.

The Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith beginning March 1987) has offered discussion on science and (primarily) Christianity for fifty of the fifty-eight years of ASA history. Seven editors have served for periods of two to fifteen years. Content has been wide-ranging, occasionally controversial, and, in retrospect, often far ahead of the Christian community in addressing new issues. Our purpose remains that of open dialogue on questions of science and faith within the framework of evangelical Christianity.

Golden anniversaries are rare species in the field of science and religion. Only the British Journal of the Transactions of The Victoria Institute has had a longer history.1 As Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith (PSCF) reaches 50, let us consider our journal through the eyes of some of those who have been responsible for its production. The 199 issues reflect the thought of two generations of evangelical, physical and social scientists, and scholars from related disciplines, such as theology, philosophy, and history. ASA's pioneers soon learned that their "enthusiasm and dedication [was] fully matched by their inexperience."2 What had been viewed as simply weaving the Bible and science into a common cloth became more complex. Fifty years later the task has become far more elusive, as scholarship has opened up the complexity of the task. Controversy and diverse views have enlivened our pages as we have debated classic questions and new questions that have emerged from the culture of ongoing science. Our study will reflect a perusal of the 8,600 pages of copy and the reflections of some who have brought them to you. PSCF, the most public face of the ASA, represents the ongoing attempt of Protestant evangelicals to grapple with the scientific issues that influence their faith and worldview.3

The first constitution of the American Scientific Affiliation (1942) established two goals for the fledgling organization: (1) to promote and encourage the study of the relationship between the facts of science and Holy Scriptures and (2) to promote the dissemination of the results of such studies. It was not until 1949 that a periodical took shape.

The Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation (the Journal) appeared January 7, 1949 (Fig. 1). For the first year, it was subtitled, The American Scientific Affiliation Bulletin. Editor Marion D. Barnes indicated that each submitted paper would be reviewed by specialists in the field before publication, while those presented at the Annual Meeting would be evaluated by the discussion that followed the presentation. In the early years, most papers came via the latter route. Today, the opposite is the case, partly because of the time pressures in annual meetings which result in very short blocks of time for individual presentations. The cover design for the initial nineteen-page mimeographed issue remained constant until 1964, except for some adjustment of the Bible graphic to include the Bohr model of the atom in March 1952 (Fig. 2). In the initial editorial, ASA President F. Alton Everest extolled the membership to send a copy of the Bulletin to each institution of higher learning in the United States. For Everest:

 "The work of the ASA is just what we few members, by the grace of the Lord, make of it. If we are lethargic, the work will shrivel; if there is no vision, no progress."4

The founders of the Journal chose the large page size favored by most science journals of the time rather than the smaller size of the literary quarterlies to emphasize the scientific roots of the publication. They (wistfully) hoped that it would be accounted a place along with the Journal of the American Chemical Society and Nature in science libraries.

Over the years the number of pages per issue has gradually grown from nineteen to eighty. In 1964, Editor David Moberg initiated the blue cover which reigned until 1969, when Editor Richard Bube introduced the current four-color rotation. Bube also added graphics designed to make the journal more appealing.

The early years saw contributions by major evangelical leaders such as Bernard Ramm, Carl F. H. Henry, Alan MacRae, Laird Harris, and Wilbur Smith. This close cooperation with evangelical theologians would not be maintained as scientists felt compelled to take positions unacceptable to their theological allies. In the early days, the ASA had a higher representation of working scientists and engineers. Buzzwords such as paradigm, deconstruction, social construction of science, deep ecology, and methodological naturalism had not arisen to require the aid of philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science to interpret the word maze.5 We are constantly challenged with the need to publish that which is scholarly and accurate yet accessible to our intended audience.

And now a word from our editors

David O. Moberg, Editor (1962˝1964)

 At least two significant changes occurred during my editorship. Most obvious was a new logo and color for the cover. The March 1964 issue (vol. 16, no. 1) saw the introduction of a blue cover with the double-arrow logo created by Robert Friderichsen under the supervision of our editorial staff (Fig. 3). The logo has been used in ASA ever since.

The symbol can be interpreted in many ways, but we see it primarily as a representation of the fact that two perspectives, two types of truth, two sources of knowledge, two commitments, confront each other and converge in the ASA. We aim to remain on the exciting frontier of the confrontation of Christianity and science.6

The second major change was the introduction of abstracts for all major articles. This practice facilitates scanning by our readers and, more importantly, allows the inclusion of ASA contributions in abstracting and indexing services.

A "Letters to the Editor" section was introduced in December 1962. In March 1963, we added a "News and Notes" section to replace the columns in specific disciplines (Archaeology, Biology, Chemistry, Philosophy, Sociology, etc.). Former columnists became contributing editors and this new section, which had a greater variety and scope, incorporated the content of the previous columns. Some notes were also used as fillers at the ends of articles.

A new name for the Journal was considered. Don Fair won a name contest with the title, Science and Christian Faith, but the Editorial Board recommended Theos and Cosmos. ASA's Executive Council resolved the issue by its decision to retain the current name.7 Numerous suggestions for future ASA ministries appeared. Some have been implemented, but most are as fresh and valid today as they were over three decades ago.8

There was no oversupply of publishable manuscripts. So, for example, papers on "Ethical Decisions of Christians in Science," given at the April 1962 program of ASA's North Central Section were published in September, and several from the 1962 annual meeting were in print by December.

In terms of content, one subject exceeded all others: evolution. Only two of the eight issues did not have a paragraph or more on the subject, and the September 1963 issue (vol. 15, no. 3) was almost entirely devoted to it. Its introductory editorial commented on the emotional overtones and variety of meanings attached to words like "evolution," "creationist," and "theistic evolution;" the oppositional spirit that infuses far too many discussions on the subject; the infusion of both religious traditions and the spirit of the age into such exchanges; the confusion of evolution-as-research with evolution-as-worldview; the uncommon combination of Christian commitment and scientific knowledge in ASA's membership; the importance of keeping open lines of communication among members; the need to be open to new scientific data but cautious of value judgments (especially interpretations based upon scientism); and the need to retain ASA's positive stand on the doctrine of God as Creator and to "help our contemporaries see the relevance of the Bible and of Jesus Christ for their lives."9


At least two significant changes occurred during my editorship. 
Most obvious was a new logo and color for the cover
[and] the introduction of abstracts for all major articles.


Additional articles, letters, and news notes touched directly upon evolution and still others on the closely related subjects of creation and The Genesis Flood by Henry M. Morris, an ASA Fellow, and John C. Whitcomb, Jr., on which there were several book reviews and responses.10 A news note in December 1963 reported the formation of a new organization, the Creation Research Society (CRS), with several ASA members on its steering committee. CRS's belief statement emphasized, inter alia, that "the account of origins in Genesis is a factual presentation of simple historical truths" and that "the Noachian Flood, was an historic event worldwide in its extent and effect."11

Not directly stated but in the background of the founding of CRS were earlier attempts to persuade the ASA to adopt the positions that God created the world and its inhabitants in six 24-hour days and that the great flood of Genesis 6˝8 covered the entire planet. If the ASA had committed itself to those and related interpretations of the Scriptures, the religious and scientific diversity of its evangelical membership would have been diminished by the departure of theistic evolutionists, Christians who interpret the flood as a regional event, and others compelled by biblical hermeneutics or scientific knowledge to interpret much of Genesis 1˝11 as nonscientific and prehistoric literary accounts, rather than as positivistic science records. As I wrote in response to a letter by William J. Tinkle, one of CRS's founders:

 The ASA has no official position on evolution Can there indeed be any one Christian interpretation of Genesis and related passages as long as Christians remain human, hence finite beings who know only in part, seeing things as if "in a glass darkly"?12

I added some questions. One, to my knowledge, has not yet been answered by research: "Has anyone made a careful scientific study of the influences of theistic evolution on Christian faith as distinct from faith in human interpretations of the Bible?"13

Reactions of readers ranged widely. Several believed that God could have created living things through an evolutionary process, but he as Truth could not at the same time declare that he did so through a series of fiat acts.14 Regarding ASA's lack of an official position:

This seems to say that the ASA does not stand for anything. If [that is so], we will never make much impression either on the scientific or the religious world.15 

Another reaction was disgust with "the constant harping on evolution and Christian dogma[After] two hundred years to talk about this , nothing has changed of any consequence in the thinking of extreme conservatives, middle-of-the-roaders, or liberal Christians. Furthermore, we haven't even dented the scientific community... "16

The 1962˝1964 volumes (vol. 14˝16) are still treasure troves of rich materials on Christian values in relationship to the assumptions, commitments, ethics, findings, limits, methods, and theories of the sciences and many other aspects of science and Christian faith. Amazingly little has been outdated by technical and scientific developments. Most materials have confirmed and strengthened our faith in Jesus Christ as the Living Word and the Bible as God's Written Word (not merely "containing" it).

Russell L. Mixter, Editor (1965˝1968)

Russ, at 92, found himself unable to comment on his editorial experiences. The best record of his life and ASA contributions is the paper, "Christian, Teacher, Scientist, Mentor: Dr. Russell L. Mixter," presented by Dorothy F. Chappell at the Fiftieth Anniversary meeting of the ASA in 1991.17 We are much indebted for the contributions of this humble biologist who worked under the pressures of a crushing work load and an environment often hostile to the purposes of the ASA.

Richard H. Bube, Editor (1969˝1983)

I joined the American Scientific Affiliation in the early 1950s. I had just received my Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University in 1950. The ASA had been formed in 1941 by a small group primarily to be of service to college and university students as they encountered questions interrelating science and their Christian faith. The ASA has had uncertainties through the years trying to define its identity. Should it be fundamentally: A service organization to help pastors, laypeople, and students? An evangelistic branch of the church to convert scientists to Christianity? An academic association to promote scholarship in dealing with scientific philosophy and Christian theology? Or a part of a futuristic vision which sought to identify science and Christianity more closely in one discipline? This uncertainty is understandable. For the years of my association with the ASA, I have repeatedly testified that it is one of the few such groups in the world (others are Christians in Science and The Victoria Institute both in England) which seeks to maintain both the integrity of authentic science and the integrity of authentic Christian theology.

Editorial Experiences

After the completion of my year as ASA President (1968), I became Editor for the Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation (the Journal), a position I held for the next fifteen years until 1984. It was a remarkable opportunity that really allowed me to enjoy my editorial predispositions. During the years of my tenure as editor, I held every job simultaneously. For fifteen years, with the able and constant help of Book Review Editors, Stephen W. Calhoon Jr. and Bernard J. Piersma, and Consulting Editors whose number increased from eighteen to twenty-five, I had the fun of serving as editor-in-chief, managing editor, correspondent to referees, advertising manager, photographer and illustrator, proof reader, and layout and paste-up of the "dummy" designer. I was also responsible for whatever else might need to be done. It was great! And it was all done by typewriter and by handˇno computers were involved during this ancient period.

The Consulting Editors who served faithfully for the same total fifteen years included Dewey K. Carpenter, Gary R. Collins, Walter R. Hearn, Robert D. Knudsen, Gordon R. Lewthwaite, Russell Maatman, Russell L. Mixter, W. Jim Neidhardt, E. Mansell Pattison, and Claude E. Stipe. I was also constantly supported by the others who served for part of that period and by the Executive Office with Executive Directors, H. Harold Hartzler, Bill Sisterson, and Bob Herrmann. The number of published pages per year of the Journal increased from 136 in 1969 to 256 in 1983.

The Journal naturally shared in the same search for identity as the ASA itself, as mentioned above. It was my conviction that the Journal must, of course, be academically sound both in science and in theology, but that it also ought to be enjoyable to read and challenging to its audience. I therefore used a variety of techniques that had not been used before and included cartoons and photographs in the text and on the cover. Even so, the contrast between the Journal and almost any other Christian publication deepened over the years. Most other publications adopted styles and devices for catching the eye of the Christian public, while we had as our primary goal to keep the Journal a semiprofessional publication with strong scientific and theological integrity.

Special Points of Interest

In this section, I list a few of the hopefully interesting variations and innovations in the Journal between 1969 and 1984.

June 1969. A new feature, "What Do You Think of That?" was introduced, listing quotations from contemporary publications of a provocative nature related to the consideration of science and Christianity.

June 1969˝September 1969. The authors of the articles in these first three issues read like a Who's Who of ASA: W. Jim Neidhardt, Donald Munro, V. Elving Anderson, Irvin W. Knobloch, Russell Heddendorf, Wilbur Bullock, Walter Hearn, Jerry Albert, etc.

September 1969. We recruited the artistic services of Annie Bien, at the time a high school classmate of my daughter. She drew headings for sections and also contributed cartoons and other drawings on occasion through 1973. Her first artwork was a header for the Communications section (See p.276).

June 1970. A new feature entitled, "Periodicals on Parade," was started with quotes from current articles of interest.

December 1970. This was a special issue on "Is Man Only a Complex Machine?" with a related back-cover cartoon by Annie Bien. For the first time, this issue showed the new subtitle for the Journal: "An evangelical perspective on science and the Christian faith." This continued as the subtitle until it was adopted as the official title over a decade later.

June 1971. This issue started with a five-point summary of the purpose of the Journal for the conservative Christian community, the liberal Christian community, the nonscientifically-trained laypeople, the non-Christian professional scientist, and the evangelical Christian scientist. In connection with an article on "Evangelical Theology and Technological Shock" by Bernard Ramm, Annie Bien drew a cartoon likening shopping for genetic features to supermarket grocery shopping. An active Communications section produced many feedbacks. In this issue was one that every Editor loves to hear:

I find the Journal too good nowadays. I feel like a caged lion. Practically every article makes me want to respond or have a three day discussion on the problem (W. F. Campbell, 23 [1971]: 76).

December 1971. Like many issues, this one also had a special topic: "Creation and/or Evolution." It was introduced by an editorial, "We Believe in Creation," which has remained a standard summary for this issue in subsequent years.

March 1972. This issue featured a special article in which H. Harold Hartzler reminisced about thirty years of ASA. Again the Communications response warmed an Editor's heart:

I am impressed with this Journal, and I am giving this subscription to my fatherI suggest that advertisement and sample copies be sent to every clergyman in America. It is time we faced the issues head on with some intelligent and rational thought (E. B. Stetson, 24 [1972]: 39).

June 1972. A photo of the 1971 ASA Annual Meeting was included. In this issue, I instituted the category, "Dialogue." Two authors with a difference in conviction agreed to enter into a dialogue together. Before publication, each one wrote a defining statement, each one read the other's statement and wrote a response, and each one read the other's response and wrote a rebuttal. Then these six inputs were assembled and published together in the same place in the same issue of the Journal. The first Dialogue to appear in print was "Inerrancy, Revelation and Evolution" (June 1972) followed by others, such as "Paleontology and Evolution" (December 1972) and "Is There a Christian Basis for a Sexual Revolution?" (June 1974).

September 1972. Native evangelist John Dare contributed an article, "Evangelism in India." I followed up on this personally. As a result, over the past twenty-five years, I have supported the work in Bangalore which he started, his widow carried on, and her co-worker, Mrs. V. Murthy, continues today.

December 1972. This issue marked the initiation of the first full-time ASA Executive Secretary, William D. Sisterson, succeeding H. Harold Hartazler. A special feature, "The Torch Passes," honored Hartzler for his service to ASA through the years.

March 1973. For the first time, the "Contents" of the Journal moved from the front cover to the back cover. Subsequently the front cover featured special headlines or photos.

June 1973. A special tribute to Paul Tournier and a photo of the 1972 Annual ASA Meeting were highlighted in this issue.

September 1973. It was described as "A Vital Message for all Readers" and was illustrated by a cartoon on the cover by Annie Bien (Fig. 4). The cartoon pictured a bridge between the scientific and Christian communities, and raised the question, "Why isn't there somebody on the bridge?" The editorial called ASA members to live actively as a "bridge over troubled waters." It is only they who know personally what it means to be both a member of the Christian community and of the scientific community. In addition, readers were called upon to pledge financially to the support of such a venture. The same issue ventured out into troubled waters by running a special feature titled, "Would You Give This Woman an Abortion?" with six case histories (taken from Abortion: The Personal Dilemma by R. F. R. Gardner, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans 1972) printed in special boxes throughout the issue. A final box showed how Christian groups had voted in the past.

 

December 1973. This issue featured a treatment of "Catastrophism" by Velikovsky, two photos of the Annual ASA meeting in 1973, and the last of Annie Bien's artwork.

March 1974. In this issue, I introduced a new format for the inside front cover of the Journal.

September 1974. A new section, "The Student Corner," featuring brief papers written by university students was introduced.

March 1975. The first of several subsequent front cover photos appeared. The first was of a mountain peak seen over a tree-rimmed lake, with the verse, "Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?" Job 38:4.

March 1976. The front cover showed the almost exponentially increasing membership of the ASA after 35 years of existence (on the year of the bicentennial of the USA). I started my series of articles on "Science and the Whole Person." Also, two new art editors, Darwin and Valley Hennings, joined our staff and introduced the new Communications and Book Reviews headings as shown on pp. 284 and 294 respectively.

December 1976. The front cover featured a creative drawing, "What is man?" by the Hennings.

March 1978. A separate category for Communications was introduced, separating them from "Letters to the Editor."

June 1978. This issue featured a special symposium on the Recombinant DNA controversy. The cover was one of the most creative (and controversial), drawn by Consulting Artists for the Journal, Darwen and Valley Hennings. It showed a mouse/carrot genetic variation (Fig. 5). The Hennings left the Journal staff in December 1978.

March 1979. The Thirtieth Anniversary of the Journal was marked with a Journal history on the opening pages and a photo of F. Alton Everest and Peter Stoner. A special feature was a series of "Christian Answers on Homosexuality."

  December 1979. A special Festschrift for Bernard Ramm was featured.

  September 1980. This issue covered ten topics.

March 1981. A new series, "Reflections on the Practice of Outworn Creeds," by Walter Thorson began.

December 1983. My final issue appropriately had a photo of Hoover Tower through the trees of the Stanford campus, and the verse: "Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom; and with all thy getting get understanding" Proverbs 4:7, 10.

Major topics of each issue covered a wide range: e.g., Economics (March 1977), Creation/Evolution (June 1977), Stewardship of Natural Resources and Homosexuality (September 1977), Philosophical Challenges (December 1977), Health, Nutrition and Medicine (September 1978), Science vs. Miracles (December 1978), Mind/Matter (December 1981), Social Sciences (June 1982), I.Q. (December 1982), and Unity in Creation (March 1983).

Wilbur Bullock, Editor (1984˝1989)

It was with some apprehension that I agreed to become the editor of the Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation in 1984. My apprehensions were partly due to my limited experience. While I had served on two editorial boards for scientific journals, I was never the editor. Furthermore, I was following in the footsteps of Richard Bube, who had carried on a fantastic, almost one-man operation in overseeing the many functions involved in the publication of an interdisciplinary, scholarly journal. In brief, this was a real challenge!

Several factors, however, contributed to a rewarding six years. Most helpful to me was the division of the labors of this work by the establishment of the position of "managing editor" to carry out the critical work of corresponding with authors, reviewers, and publishers. During my time as editor, Ruth Herr, Ann Woodworth, and Nancy Hangar carried out these functions in a most helpful and efficient manner. In addition, their location in the Ipswich officeˇa brief one-hour drive from Durham, New Hampshireˇallowed for the periodic consultations at the critical period of each issue of the Journal. At times these visits included helpful meetings with Executive Director Bob Herrmann and the Executive Council of the ASA.

As I indicated in my first editorial (March 1984), I aimed to continue the goal of our journal: "to present evangelical perspectives in a way that will be professionally competent and, at the same time, understandable to people from other sciences." In addition, weˇat least sometimesˇaimed to present science to pastors and church members and our Christian faith to scientists. A further aim of the journal (well-observed by Editor Bube) was to present a diversity of evangelical views on some of the controversial issues involved in "perspectives on science and Christian faith." While our objective was to do this with "gentleness and reverence" (1 Peter 3:15, 16), it was occasionally a challenge to practice the calmness and understanding we aim for in our journal. Two issues proved particularly challenging in this respect.

An issue of Christian against Christian was the emotional furor stimulated by Gareth Jones' book, Brave New People (1984). Franky Schaeffer, Gary North, and others condemned Jonesˇand IVPˇfor his supposed views on abortion and eugenics because he didn't agree with them 100%. Some even questioned Jones' salvation. These critics failed to demonstrate "gentleness and reverence" and some of Jones' statements were distorted and/or misquoted. I believe that we made a positive contribution to this controversy by the publication of Dr. Jones' paper, "Coping With Controversy: Conflict, Censorship and Freedom Within Evangelicalism" (March 1988) as well as several letters from Journal readers.

An issue that involved a confrontation with secular scientists was the reaction of some science publications to our ASA booklet, Teaching Science in a Climate of Controversy. A distortion of this ASA attempt to present an honest middle ground appeared in the Science Teacher in which nine scientists negatively distorted and criticized the ASA booklet in an article entitled: "Scientists Decry a Slick New Packaging of Creationism." Replies to this and other criticisms of the ASA booklet were published in the September 1988 issue.

Our present editor has continued this ASA approach to controversial subjects, subjects that involve more complicated solutions than the simple either/or answers that many people would like. The interrelationships of science and Christian faith will continue to challenge scientists, theologians, and laypeople. PSCF is an important vehicle for meeting the challenge in an honest and godly manner.

John W. Haas, Jr., Editor (1990˝1999)

The electronic revolution of the `90s has made radical changes in the way that manuscripts are handled and the journal is produced. It will not be long before there is a seamless transition via internet from the author to the ASA office to reviewers and then back to the office for editing and incorporation in an issue via desk-top production. The final transmission is to our Pennsylvania publisher for printing and distribution to our readers. In the process, many e-mail communications will be exchanged. What will not change is the difficulty involved in turning down a paper and (in some cases) the task of producing timely reviews.

Lyn Berg is a savvy, exacting, and permanent Managing Editorˇa welcome change in the light of a rapid-fire succession of three Managing Editors in the first few years of my tenure. Book Review Editor, Richard Ruble, has been a faithful colleague. I appreciate the contributions of authors who offer their manuscriptsˇin some cases, with the hope that their work will not appear posthumously! The almost two years between receipt and publication of manuscripts discourages authors and diminishes the timeliness of PSCF. Perhaps alternate publication on the ASA web page would cut the bottleneck. The new millennium will see our web page as the major public face of the ASA. I thank those who have given so many hours in the review of manuscripts. The passing of W. Jim Neidhardt was a loss of one on whom I had greatly depended.

The major cosmetic change in this decade has been the conversion to "perfect" binding (Dec. 1990). Stand-out issues include the ASA Fiftieth Anniversary issue (Dec. 1991), the issue devoted to discussion of Intelligent Design and Theistic Science (Sept. 1997), and, as an example of good balance, that of June 1993. Recent innovations are the "Young Scientist Corner" and "News and Views." The working arrangements with Executive Directors, Bob Herrmann and Don Munro, and nine Executive Councils have been cordial and affirming.

 Conclusion

The Journal began with the desire to deal with science-faith issues important in the late 1940sˇa seventy-five-member organization spread over a huge land mass. Engineers, chemists, biologists, mathematicians, and a sprinkling of biblical scholars, philosophers, and social scientists sought to come to grips with issues that had challenged the greatest minds since the ancient Greek philosophers. Above all, the literal Bible and the historic Christian faith were to be defended against science-based attack. It was assumed that the Bible and nature, properly understood, would not be in conflict. The increasing numbers of evangelicals emerging from post-WWII graduate schools were actively recruited to the new organization to join the battle against unbelief. All too quickly, it became clear that the issues were not easily resolved; even evolution would creep in. The "Harmonious Dissonance" of the early days would erode.18

Today, it is clear that evangelicals will not allow scientists to be the spokespeople on science-faith issues. Instead, clerics and pundits with a critique of science vie to catch the evangelical ear. The ASA seems to be one more element in a plethora of voices on the science-religion front. New educational strategies are needed to help students and the person in the pew see the wisdom and majesty of God in creation. Clamorous disputes over fine points of interpretation and lack of humility are impediments to our vision. We must continue to actively bring our faith to bear on emerging issues of the day.

ę

 

                                   Appendix I

Editors                                                        Affiliations During Editorship 


Marion Barnes (1949˝1951)        Research Chemist,,  Lion Oil Company 

Delbert N. Eggenberger (1951˝1962)  Research Physicist, Argonne National Laboratory 

 David O. Moberg (1962˝1964)   Professor of Sociology, Bethel College,, St. Paul,, MN 

 Russell L. Mixter (1965˝1968)   Professor of Biology, Wheaton College 

 Richard Bube (1969˝1983)          Professor of Material Science Stanford University 

 Wilbur Bullock   (1984˝1989)      Professor of Biology, University of New Hampshire 

 John W. Haas, Jr.  (1990˝1999)  Professor of Chemistry,  Gordon College 


ę1998

Notes

1The Victoria Institute or Philosophical Institute of Great Britain was established in 1865 to counter the increasing antireligious emphasis of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The original journal, Journal of the Transaction of The Victoria Institute, became Faith and Thought in 1988. In 1989 it was joined with Science and Christian Belief, the journal of our sister organization, Christians in Science. The heyday of The Victoria Institute in the late Victorian period saw a distinguished membership of amateur and professional scientists, clergy, and political figures. The ASA founders framed the organization in part on this venerable institution.

2 Growth and Early Development (privately printed, 1986), 93, 97. See also 100˝4.

3I suspect that our web site and listserve will soon become the most public outreach of the ASA.

4Journal of the ASA (JASA) 1, no. 1(1949):3.

5Richard Bube's extended series of columns "Penetrating the Word Maze" ran from June 1988 through December 1990.

6Editorial, "Expanding Horizons in a Shrinking World," JASA 16, no. 1 (1964): 3.

7Ibid. [Today "confrontation" might be better seen as "interaction," (Jack Haas, ed.)]

8Possibly the most pertinent is F. Alton Everest, "Challenges Before the American Scientific Affiliation," Ibid., 10˝1. See also Henry Weaver Jr., "Critical Issues Modern Science Poses for the Christian Church Today," Ibid., 4˝7; Mary Key, "The Role of the ASA," JASA 16, no. 2 (1964): 32; Editorial, "The Past Is Prologue," Ibid., 33˝5, and David O. Moberg, "Ethical Decisions of Christians in Science: Introduction to a Symposium," JASA 14, no. 3 (1962): 66˝7.

9V. Elving Anderson and David O. Moberg, "Christian Commitment and Evolutionary Concepts," JASA 15, no. 3 (1963): 69˝70.

10See JASA 15, no. 4 (1963): 118; and JASA 16, no. 1 (1964): 27˝ 31, 59˝63.

11"Creation Research Society," JASA 15, no. 4 (1963): 115.

12See Ibid., 118; JASA 16, no. 1 (1964): 27˝31; and JASA 16, no. 2 (1964): 59˝63.

13"Evolution," JASA 14, no. 4 (1962): 126.

14Ibid.

15Dan E. Wonderly, "Letters to the Editor: Evolution," JASA 15, no. 2 (1963): 67.

16Kenneth W. Allen, Ibid., 67.

17Oscar L. Brauer, Ibid., 67˝8.

18See Mark A. Kalthoff, "The Harmonious Dissonance of Evangelical Scientists: Rhetoric and Reality in the Early Decades of the American Scientific Affiliation," Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 43, no. 4 (1991): 259˝72.