Science in Christian Perspective



Literature on Glossolalia
Department of Philosophy and Religion
Averett College Danville, Virginia 24541

From: JASA 26 (December 1974): 169-173.

Comparatively, there is little material available on glossolalia although the amount of literature has increased drastically since April 3, 1960, the date usually regarded as marking the "new-pentetration" of tonguespeech into the mainline denominations. Prior to 1950 there were only a handful of studies available, and some of these were not accessible to English readers. 28,35,46 Generally, the literature reflects a lack of clarity on several fronts, especially regarding definition. Moreover, much of the writing is characterized by a highly prejudicial viewpoint with respect to the usefulness of the phenomenon. Thus the description of what is happening is frequently lost in the attempt to either justify the experience or consign its adherents to the sphere of the demonic.

The reader who is not at all familiar with the tongues phenomenon would do well to look at some general introduction to the subject for orientation and reference. The volume by Anthony Hoekema20 or that by Larry Christenson6 would be found inclusive though non-technical. In addition, there are numerous popularly written articles that are nonetheless accurate,64,65.66,71 although many of the so-called "secular" magazines present the phenomenon in a rather negative light89-92 A volume appearing too late to he included in the references below is Speaking in Tongues: Let's Talk About it, edited by Watson E. Mills (Word, 1973). The book contains ten essays by leading authorities in the subject. The foreword is by Martin Marty.

The literature on glossolalia falls into one of several categories. Since the purpose of this essay is basically bibliographic, an attempt will be made to indicate something of the nature and usefulness of the various materials included in the bibliography proper.

Primary Materials

The reference to tongues in Acts and I Corinthians exhaust the direct instances of the phenomenon in the biblical record. The reference in Mark 16:1.7 is interesting but there is no reason to include this spurious text among the primary ones, a conclusion reached by virtually all scholars including Pentecostals.69

The Old Testament background is important and can be approached in terms of prophetic ecstaticism.17,27 Extra-biblical references bearing on glossolalia have been examined by Stuart Currie,54 and Ira Martin30,62 has assembled some of the tests that could be regarded as glossolalic in nature. The church fathers provide several references to the phenomenon.106,114 These are discussed thoroughly in Kenneth Bruce Welliver.98

There are numerous sources for obtaining transliterated samples of tongue speech. 7,16,40 These examples are worthy of careful study and evaluation,

Reference Materials

Probably the earliest published bibliography in English on glossolalia appeared over two decades ago.70 In 1970 Ira Martin produced a bibliography that contained 678 entries.31 The latter is virtually definitive except for some obscure periodical articles and privately printed materials. While some attention is given to foreign works, the list is basically English. A more recent list by this writer includes contemporary writings as well.50 These can be supplemented with the extensive bibliographies found in recent hooks on tongues. 22,23,25,33,40

Only recently, David W. Faupel compiled a bibliography of the American Pentecostal movement.48 It does not refer to any works on tongues not already alluded to in the lists cited above, although it does treat other areas of Pentecostalism in much greater detail than existing bibliographies.

There are numerous dictionary 79,84,86 and encyclopedia articles78,80,81,88 that can be consulted with profit. Of particular interest are the articles by Elias Andrews 73-75 in the Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. Additional reference materials can be found in Kittel,77 Bauer,76 and other lexicons72,85,87 and lexical aids .82,83

Historical Studies

For years the standard treatment of the history of glossolalia has been that of George Barton Cutten.7 It is an objective and inclusive account of the occurrences of tongues throughout the history of the church. The work is frequently cited in more recent attempts to trace the movement. Certainly, Cutten's work is more "historical" than "psychological" although he did anticipate this latter dimension that is presently receiving considerable attention.

The Pentecostals themselves offer the reader many histories; however, glossolalia is often given only cursory attention since it is but one facet in the broader context of Pentecostal studies.

Among the many works of Donald Gee, a good example of his history writing abilities may be seen in The Pentecostal Movement.13 Another Pentecostal effort is that of Frank Ewart,9 and still more recently the historian Vinson Syrian has treated Pentecostalism in America.44 These writers do basically what Cutten did though they are not quite so detached as he.

Stanley H. Frodsham has written an excellent work that treats not only the history of glossolalia and its present-day occurrences in America, but also in Chile, West Africa, China and Egypt.11

Pentecostalism in its larger context is the subject of a recently translated German volume by Walter Hollenweger.21 This massive tome is the most definitive statement of modern Pentecostalism. It contains a wealth of information about events, leaders and beliefs. The historical section is obviously selective and is not so comprehensive as Nils Bloch-Hoell4 or John T. Nichol.36 All of these volumes pay considerable attention to glossolalia though this is always done within the broader framework.

Sociocultural Studies

Enthusiastic, ecstatic possession and other similiar phenomena have long intrigued anthropologists. There have been a number of cross-cultural studies of ethnographic data on glossolalia. Carlyle L. May63 did a survey of glossolalia and related phenomena in nonChristian religions. He found the roots of the phenomenon to be in the ancient religions of Asia Minor. He further concluded that glossolalia and kindred phenomena are confined to those areas where spirit possession is found.

Erika Bourguignon has done studies on the larger question of religion in native societies.47 She notes a variety of forms of glossolaba among the primitives. In some cases the practice was part of a fabric that included trances and the like; other times tongue speech occurred as isolated behavior. Her student, Felicitas D. Goodman, recently published a monograph16 that follows a similar tack. Her cross-cultural study essentially views glossolalia as aberrant behavior. The glossolalist modifies his speech into a certain pattern because he is in a mental state that approximates a trance. Glossolalia then becomes an artifact of a hyperaroused mental state.

BA. Knox studied the occurrences of glossolalia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.24 Looking at traditional Christian groups he discovered that tongue speech is aimed at reestablishing an experimental basis for religious faith-a dimension that had been replaced by intellectualism. He concluded that glossolalia was a proof of the presence of God in the believer's life, a view that has been advanced to explain the references to tongues in Acts.33

In some studies prior to 1960, the attempt was made to relate glossolalia to Pentecostal and Holiness groups. These groups were usually characterized by their marginal socioeconomic position in society as well as by a lower degree of intellectual sophistication. The various forms of ecstatic behavior, including tongues, served both as an outlet for repressed conflicts and as a means of demonstrating that regardless of one's plight within society there is a certain degree of righteousness available.26,53

But with the inroads of glossolalia into virtually every Protestant denomination, a newer position is to regard the phenomenon as a rite de passage93 since the participants are neither marginal socially nor intellectually. They do, however, need to demonstrate significant hehavorial change.

Tongues and Other Traditions

The spread of glossolalia into the various denominations of Protestantism can he traced in the various publications of the Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International. These include Voice101 and View 105 and numerous others.99,100,102,103 Trinity, 104 the now defunct publication of the Blessed Trinity Society, is an excellent source for testimonia.

It is difficult to evaluate the spread of neo-Penteeostalism into Catholicism because it is so recent a development and there has not been sufficient time for a critical study to appear. There have been a number of helpful books,9,14,37 however, including two significant works by Dorothy and Kevin Ranaghan.38,39 These authors estimate that 30,000 people may be involved in the spiritual renewal within Catholic ranks, Several articles by Kilian McDonnell59-61 are valuable since he affords the reader an inside view of the emerging Catholic-Pentecostal tradition.

As glossolalia began to crop up in the various mainline denominations the need arose for some official pronouncement on the subject from the various groups whose lives were touched by it. The episcopal diocese of California issued the late Bishop Pike a "preliminary report"94 in 1963. His "pastoral letter"67 grew out of the findings of the twenty page report submitted by a panel of nine persons.

Other official reports include those issued by study commissions of the Lutheran95 and Presbyterian" churches.96

Psychological Studies

Since William James, students of religion have sought to explain most so-called religious phenomena in terms of various psychological models. The practice of speaking in tongues did not escape close scrutiny by those disciplined in psychology of religion. Cotten did not hesitate to postulate that glossolahia could be "explained by recognized psychological laws."7 Once established, the "psychological" dimension of glossolalia afforded those most opposed to the phenomenon another way to disparage it. Some initial studies enabled the critics to dismiss the one who speaks in tongues as being pathological29 or engaging in some kind of automatic speech.28 Eddison Mosimann35 likened glossolaba to an hypnoptic state, while Martin labeled it a psychic catharsis akin to ecstaticism.62 These earlier estimates55-57 gradually gave way to more exacting studies and to the chagrin of many, the glossolalist was pronounced no more 'abnormal" than the ordinary non-tongue speaking Christian.

Formal studies such as that recently completed by John P. Kildahl25 have substantiated the fact that there is very little difference between the mental health of active churchgoers who speak in tongues and those who do not. This conclusion has been supported by numerous other studies.16,40 Goodman regards the glossolalic behavior as a state of dissociation while Wayne Oates51 speaks of "psychological communication." Both refuse to regard the behavior as pathological. Generally, at the moment, there is a reluctance to regard the "state" into which a glossolabst goes when he speaks, however defined, as a pathological one.

Biblical Studies

The vast amount of scholarly research that has been done with reference to Acts is slow to find its way into the discussions about glossolalia. The problem of the sources used in the composition of Acts, for example, as well as the role of the redactor, has received little attention except in one or two recent works. 33,52 Traditionally, interpreters have regarded the "other tongues' in Acts 2:4 as either a reference to foreign languages,3,18,43 to a miracle of hearing,7,41 or to unintelligible speech.15 There is, of course, considerable variation within the groups, but few attempts to interpret tongues within the broader context of Lukan theology.

The apparent ambivalence over glossolalia in Paul has allowed him to be the champion of both those who support58 and those who oppose1 tongues. Consequently, there is little agreement among scholars regarding the interpretation of tongues in I Corinthians. Some find the background of the phenomenon in Hellenism, noting there numerous examples of ecstatieism.19,34 Others looks to a Palestinian background. This religionsgesehiete approach is fascinating but in such discussions the meaning of glossolalia often goes wanting.

The problem of the exact relationship between the tongues in Acts and I Corinthians is an area that needs careful attention. The majority of scholars concede that Paul was not attacking tongues per se, but rather he was attempting to give some estimate of their relative value. His attitude appears to have been reserved but not altogether negative.68

Theological Studies

There have been several works that are critical of glossulalia from a theological perspective. 5,32 Anthony Hoekema points to basic inconsistencies that develop if the validity of glossulalia as a spiritual experience is maintained alongside other doctrines of orthodoxy.20 The basic point where most studies of this variety end is the biblical principle put forth by Paul: "Does glossolalia help build up the community?" (I Cor. 14:5). Again, this only attests to the need for a definitive evaluation of the biblical evidence.

Positive theological evaluations arise mainly from within the Pentecostal tradition. These studies include works by Larry Christenson,6 a Lutheran pastor, and W.H. Turner.45 Although writing from outside of Pentecostal ranks, John Kildahl25 and Watson Mills33 give some theological overview. A symposium edited by Wade Horton22 consists of seven articles by prominent Pentecostals'. It affords the reader a good summary of glossolalia from varying perspectives within Pentecostalism.


Within the Pentecostal publications the list of testimunia would be legion. The reader is referred to the various periudicals99-105 where any number of case histories are reported.

A popular book by John Sherrill42 written in journalistic style recounts the reporter's study of the phenomenon together with his own involvement in it. More detailed and carefully drawn case studies are reported in Goodman,16 Kildahl,25 Samarin,40 and Vivier.97

Marcus Bach's work is readable and traces the quest for the "inner ecstasy" through the use of hallucinogenic drugs and various meditative practices to glossolalia.2

Unpublished Materials

Lincoln M. Vivier's doctoral dissertation97 remains one of the must significant unpublished items for the study of glossolalia. It treats the biblical evidence and the occurellees of tonguespeech within Christian history. Also, it includes the results of a survey he conducted in which he concludes that glossolalists are somewhat below average in their psychological adjustment.

There are numerous other reports, papers and theses on the subject. Lists may be found in Martin.31

The literally thousands of privately printed tracts and pamphlets prevent any bibliography on glossolalia from being definitive. Perhaps the best collection of these may be found at the Oral Roberts University, though it is by no means complete.



1Anderson, Sir Robert. Spirit Manifestation and the Gift of Tongues. Neptune: New Jersey: Loizeaux Brothers, nd.
2Bach, Marcus, The Inner Ecstasy. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1909.
3Barnett, Maurice. The Living Flame. London: Epwarth Press, 1953.
4Bloch-Hoell, Nils. The Pentecostal Movement: Its Origin, Development, and Distinctive Character. London: Allen and Unwin, 1964.
5Burdick, Donald W, Tongues: To Speak or Not to Speak! Chicago: Moody Press, 1969.
6Christenson, Laurence. Speaking in Tongues and the Significance far the Church. Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship Publishers, 1968.
7Cutten, George B. Speaking with Tongues: Historically and Psychologically Considered. New York: Yale University Press, 1927.
8Daltan, Robert C. Tongues Like as of Fire. Springfield, Missouri: Gospel Publishing House, 1945.
9Ewart, Frank J. The Phenomenon of Pentecost: A History of the Latter Rain. St. Louis: Pentecostal Publishing House, 1947.
10Ford, J. M. The Pentecostal Experience: A New Direction for American Catholics. New York: Paulist Press, 1970.
11Frodshani, Stanley H. With Signs Following: The Story of the Pentecostal Revival in the Twentieth Century. Revised edition. Springfield, Missouri: Gospel Publishing House, 1946.
12Gee, Donald. Concerning Spiritual Gifts, Springfield, Missouri: Gospel Publishing House, 1947.WATSON E. MILLS
13_________________________The Pentecostal Movement, Including the Story of the War Years, 1940-47, London: Elim Publishing Company, 1949.
l4Gelpi, Donald L, Pentecostalism: A Theological Viewpoint. New York: Paulist Press, 1971.
l5Gognel, Maurice, The Birth of Christianity. Translated by H. C. Snape. New York: Macmillan and Company, 1954.
16Goodman, Felicitas D. Speaking in Tongues: A Cross Cultural Study of Glossolalia. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1972.
l7Guillaume, Alfred. Prophecy and Divination Among the Hebrews and Other Semites. London: Hodder and Stoughton,
18Hayes, Dnremus Almy. The Gifts of Tongues. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham, 1913.
19Hering, Jean. The First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. Translated by A. W. Heathcote and P. G. Allcock, London: Epworth Press, 1962.
20Hoekema, Anthony A. What About Tongue-Speaking? Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1966.
21Hullenweger, Walter J. The Pentecostals: The Charismatic Movement in the Churches. Translated by R. A. Wilson.
Minneapolis: Angsburg Publishing House, 1972.
22Hnrton, Wade H. (ed.). The Glosrololia Phenomenon. Cleveland, Tennessee: Pathway Press, 1966.
23Kesey, Morton T. Tongue-Speaking: An Experiment in Spiritual Experience. New York: Doubleday and Company,
24Knox, Ronad A. Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950.
25Kildahl, John P. The Psychology of Speaking in Tongues, New York: Harper and Row, 1972.
26Lanternari, Vittorin. The Reigiuns of the Oppressed: A Study of Modern Cities. New York: A. A. Knupf, 1965.
27Lewis, I. M. Ecstatic Religion. Baltimore: Penguin Banks, 1971.
28Losnbard, Emile, De la Glossolalie chez les premiers chretiens et des pheuosnenes similaires. Lausanne: G. Bridel, 1910.
29Mackie, Alexander. The Gift of Tongues. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1921.
30Martin, Ira Jay. Glossolalia in the Apostolic Church: A Study of Tongue-Speech. Berea, Kentucky: Berea College Press, 1960.
31_______________ Glossolalia, the Gift of Tongues-A Bibliography. Cleveland, Tennessee: Pathway Press, 1970.
32Metz, Donald. Speaking in Tongues: An Analysis. Kansas City, Missouri: Nazarene Publishing Company, 1964.
33Mills, Watson E. Understanding Speaking in Tongues. Grand Rapids: Eerdosans Publishing Company, 1972.
34Moffatt, James. The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1938.
35Mosimano, Eddisoo. Dos Zungenredeu geschichtlich nod psychologisch uurersucht. Tubingeo: J. C. B. Mohr, 1911.
36Nichol, John T. Pentecostalism. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.
370'Connor, Edward D. The Pentecostal Movement. Notre Dame: ,Ave Maria Press, 1971.
38Ranaghan, Dorothy and Kevin (eds.). As the Spirit Leads Us. Parmus, New Jersey: Paulist-Newman Press, 1971.
39________________ Catholic Pentecostals. Parmus, New Jersey: Paulist-Newman Press, 1969.
40Samarin, William J, Tongues of Men and Angels: The Religious Language of Pentecostalisms. New York: Macmillan
and Company, 1972.
4lScott, F. F. The Spirit in the New Testament. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1923.
42Sherrill, John. They Speak with Other Tongues. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.
43Smith, Miles W. On Whosn the Spirit Came. Philadelphia: The Jndson Press, 1948.
44Synan, Vinson. The Pentecostal-Holiness Movement. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971.
45Turner, W. H. Pentecost and Tongues. Shanghai: Modern Publishing House, nd.
46Weinel, Heinrich. Die Wirkungen des Geistes und Geister insnachapostolischen Zeitalter his auf Irenasss. Leipzig: J. C.
B. Mohr, 1899.

47Bourguinoo, Erika. "World Distribution and Patterns of Possession States," in Trance and Possession States, Raymond Prince, editor, Montreal: B. M. Bucke Memorial Society, 1968, Pp. 3-34.
48Faupel, David W. "The American Pentecostal Movement: A Bibliographical Essay." Wilmore, Kentucky: Asbury Theological Seminary, 1972.
49Hinson, E. Glenn. "A Brief History of Glossolalia," in Frank Stagg, et al, Glossolalia: Tongue Speaking in Biblical, Historical, and Psychological Perspective. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1967. Pp. 45-75.
50Mills, Watson E. Speaking in Tongues: Classified Bibliography. Franklin Springs, Georgia: Society for Pentecostal
Studies, 1974.
51Oates, Wayne E. "A Sucio-Psychological Study of Glossolalia," in Frank Stagg, et al, Glossololio: Tongue Speaking in
Biblical, Historical, and Psychological Perspective. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1967, Pp. 76-99.
52Stagg, Frank. "Glossolalia in the New Testament," in Frank Stagg, et al, Glossolalia: Tongue Speaking in Biblical, Historical, and Psychological Perspective. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1967. Pp. 20-44.


53Boisen, A. T. "Religion and Hard Times: A Study of the Holy Rollers," Social Action, V (March 15, 1939), 8-35.
54Currie, Stuart D. "Speaking in Tongues: Early Evidence Outside the New Testament Bearing on 'Glossais Lalein,'
Interpretation, XIX (1965), 274-294.
55Lapslvy, James N. and John H. Simpson. "Speaking in Tongues: Infantile Babble or Song of the Self?" Pastoral
Psychology, XV (September, 1964), 16-24.
56_______________________________. "Speaking in Tongues: Token of Group Acceptance and Divine Approval," Pastoral Psychology, XV (May, 1964), 48-55.
57___________________________. "Speaking in Tongues," Princeton Seminary Bulletin, LVII (February, 1.965), 1-18.
58MaeDonald, William G. "Glossolalia in the New Testament," Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society, VII,
(Spring, 1964), 59-68.
59McDonnell, Kilian. "Catholic Charismaties," Commonweal, IVC (May 5, 1972), 207-211. 
60________________ "Catholic Pentecostalism: Problems in Evaluation," Dialog, IX (Winter, 1970), 35-54. 
61________________ "Pentecostals and the Holy Spirit Today," Sisters Today, XXXX (May, 1969), 497-506.
62Martin, Ira Jay. "Glossolaha in the Apostolic Church," Journal of Biblical Literature, LXIII (1944), 123-130.
63May, L. Carlyle. "A Survey of Glossolalia and Related Phenomena in Non-Christian Religions," American Anthropologist, LVIII (February, 1956), 75-96.
64Mills, Watson F. "Glossolalia: Christianity's 'Counterculture' Amidst a Silent Majority," Christian Century, LXXXIX (September 27, 1972), 949-951.
65 ______________ "Reassessing Glossolalia," Christian Century, LXXXVII (October 14, 1970), 1217- 1219.
66Newport, John P. "Speaking in Tongues," Home Missions XXXVI (May, 1965), 7-9, 21-26.
67Pike, James A. "Pastoral Letter Regarding 'Speaking in Tongues,'" Pastoral Psychology, XV (May, 1964), 56-61.
68Sweet, J. P. N. "A Sign for Unbelievers: Paul's Attitude to Glossolalia," New Testament Studies, XIII (April, 1967), 240-257.
69Van Elderen, Bastiaan, "Glossolalia in the New Testament," Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society, VII
(Spring, 1964), 53-58.
70Woodside, Edmund B. "Glossolalia, the Gift of Tongues: A Bibliography," Fuller Library Bulletin, Number 11 (JulySeptember, 1951), 3-5.
71Wright. Arthur. "The Gift of Tongues: A New View," Theological Monthly, V (1891), 161-169, 272-180.

Lexicons, Dictionaries, Encyclopaedias

72Abbott Smith, C. A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testa went. Third edition. London: T. & T. Clark, 1937. P. 93.
73Andrews, Elias. "Ecstasy," The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. 4 volumes. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962. A-D, 21-22. 
74___________________"Spiritual Gifts," The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. 4 volumes. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962. R-Z, 435-437.
75___________________ "Tongues, Gift of," The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible. 4 volumes. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962. B-F, 671-672.
76Baner, Walter. A Creek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christina Literature. Fourth revised edition. Translated by William F, Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952. Pp. 161-162.
77Behm, Johannes. "Glossa," Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. 9 volumes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 19641974. 1, 719-727.
78Clark, Elmer T. "Modern Speaking with Tongues," Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. L. A. Loetscher, editor. 2 volumes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmaos Publishing Company, 1955, II, 1118.
79Clemcns, J. S. "Pentecost," A Dictionary of the Apostolic Church. James Hastings, editor. 2 volumes. New York: Scribner's Sons, II, 160-164.
80Easton, Burton Scott. "Tongues, Gift of," The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 5 volumes. Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company, 1915. V, 2995-2997.
8lFeine, Paul. "Speaking with Tongues," The New Schaff-Herzag Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 5, M. Jackson, editor. 15 volumes. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1950. XI, 36-39.
82Harvey, Van A. "Glossolalia," A Handbook of Theological Terms. New York: Macmillan and Company, 1964. Pp. 104-105.
83Johoston, George. "Spirit," A Theological Word Book of the Bible. Alan Richardson, editor. New York: MacMillan and Company, 1952. Pp. 233-247.
84Keilbach, W. "Zungenreden," Die Religion in Geschichte ussd Gegeoscart. Kurt Galling, editor. 6 vols. Tubissgen: J. C. B, Mohr, 1962. VI, 1941-1942.
85Liddell, George H. and Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon of New Testament Greek. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1895. P. 312.
86Pope, R, Martin. "Gift of Tongues," A Dictionary of the Apostolic Church. James Hastings, editor. 2 volumes. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1908. II, 598.599.
87Thayer, Joseph Henry. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Edinburgh: T, & T. Clark, 1901. Pp' 118-119.
88Tongues, Gift of," Encyclopedia Britannica, 23 volumes. Chicago: William Benton, 1962. XXII, 288-289.


89Bess, Donovan. "Speaking in Tongues-the High Church Heresy," The Nation, CXCVII (September 28, 1963), 173-177.
90Carter, Richard. "That Old-Time Religion Comes Back," Coronet (February, 1958), pp. 125130.
91Phillips, McCandlish. "And There Appeared to Them Tongues of Fire," The Saturday Evening Post (May 16, 1964), pp. 31-33, 39-40.
92"Speaking in Tongues," Time, LXXVI (August 15, 1960), 53, 55.

Unpublished Materials

93Gerlach, L. P. and V. H. Hine. "The Charismatic Revival: Process and Recruitment, Conversion, and Behavioral Change in Modern Religious Movement." Unpublished paper, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1966.
94"Preliminary Report." .A report of the Division of Pastoral Services of the Episcopal Diocese of California, Study Commission on Glossolalia, 1963.
95"Report on Glossolalia." .A report of the Commission on Evangelism of the American Lutheran Church, Minneapolis, 1962.
96"Report of the Special Study Committee on the Work of the Holy Spirit." A report of the United Presbyterian Church of the U.S.A., Philadelphia, 1970.
97Vivier, Lincoln Morse Van Eetveldt. "Glossolalia." Unpublished Doctor's dissertation, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1960.
98WcIliver, Kenneth Bruce. "Pentecost and the Early Church," Unpublished doctor's dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, 1961.

Glossolalia-Orientated Periodicals

99Acts: Today's News of the Holy Spirit's Renewal. Los Angeles: Acts Publishers, 1967ff.
1005Charisrna Digest. Los Angeles: Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International, 1953ff.
101Fnll Gospel Business Men's Voice. Los Angeles: Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International, 1953ff.
102Logos: An International Charismatic Journal. Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1932ff.
103Paraclete: A Journal Concerning the Person and Work of the Holy Spirit. Springfield, Missouri: Assemblies of God, 1967ff.
104Trinity. Van Nnys, California: Blessed Trinity Society, 1962-1966.
105Viesc: A Quarterly Journal Interpreting the World-Wide Charismatic Renewal. Los Angeles: Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International, 1966-1968.

Church Fathers

106Apollinaris, quoted in Euscbius, Church History, V, xvi.
107Augustine, On Baptism, Against the Donatists, III, xvi, 21.
108  ________________The City of God, XVIII, 49.
109 _______________. Homily on the First Epistle of John, VI, x.
110Chrysostom, Homily, XXIX, XXXII, XXXV.
111Gregory of Narianzen, Oration XLI, "On Pentecost."
112Irenaieus, Against Heresies, I, xiii, 3; III, xii, 1; V, vi, 1.
113Origen, Against Celsus, VII, ix.
114Tertullian, Against Marcion, V viii.