Science in Christian Perspective
The Dying of the Giants
WILLIAM A. SPRINGSTEAD
P.O. Box 605 Pinedale, Wyoming 82941
From: JASA 22 (September 1970): 91-97. Critique by Roger J. Cuffey
There are numerous mysteries that plague the searching minds of men engaged in science. One of these is the rather sudden, geologically speaking, demise of all the land and sea dinosaurs. This mystery has been called "the dying of the giants." But such a title might more appropriately be given to the much more sudden extinction of giant mammals at the close of the Pleistocene age. This article accordingly will be devoted to the discussion of the nature and possible causes of such great dying.
The Pleistocene epoch is the most recent of the geological ages and yet it has proved the most puzzling and most controversial. Its length, cause, and nature are all subject to widespread differences of interpretation. It has been dated all the way from three million years to three hundred thousand years and less, There have been at least fifty different theories presented as to its possible cause and scientists are not agreed on the number of glacials occurring during its span of time. Most scientists are agreed however that it was a time of dynamic change.
Jerome Wyckoff points out "rarely if ever in the geologic past has there been a period of layer making to match the Pleistocene.1 Earlier he writes, "The Pleistocene ice did perhaps the greatest bulldozing operation of all time.2 Ericson and Wellin note: "Today it is generally accepted that the relatively short span of the Pleistocene brought greater changes to the face of the earth than any that had occurred during the previous seventy million years of the Cenozoic Era.3 Loren Eisley is quoted by Dunbar as writing of "that series of ryhthmie and overwhelming catastrophes which we call the Ice Age."4 Objective appraisal of the nature of the Pleistocene, of necessity, must modify any undeviating quietistic views of uniformitarianism.
Three Unusual Events
At least three unusual events occurred during the last geological epoch called the Pleistocene or Ice Age. The most familiar event was that of continental glaciation in the northern hemisphere and of increased pluvials elsewhere. This dramatic change in climate was thus worldwide in its scope.
Second and lesser known was a great amount of land rise and mountain building. Hallam L. Movius, Jr., elaborates: "From the beginning the Pleistocene was a period of climatic instability and crustal movements of considerable magnitude."5 Elsewhere Morris asserts: "Second only in importance to climate are the diastrophic events connected with mountain building movements."6 Ericson and Wellin write: "The Pleistocene was a time of exceptional mountain building and volcanic activity."7 Richard Flint in similar vein says: "Mountain uplifts amounting to many, many thousands of feet have occurred within the Pleistocene epoch itself."
Third, and perhaps still lesser known was the sudden extinction of a great number of large animals. In the preface of theft significant work entitled "Pleistocene Extinctions", Paul S. Martin and H. E. Wright state: "Together glaciers and extinct large vertebrates characterize dramatically the Quarternary".9 Elsewhere in the work Martin states: "A sudden wave of large animal extinction, involving at least 200 genera, most of them lost without phyletie replacement, characterized the late Pleistocene."10
At least three unusual events occurred during the Pleistocene: (1) continental glaciation in the northem hemisphere and increased pluvials elsewhere, (2) great amount of land rise and mountain building, (3) sudden extinction of a great number of large animals.
The cause of such widespread and enormous extinction of life has occupied the
attention of scientists since the time of Darwin, Wallace and Lyell. A variety
of explanations have been offered. Among them are extreme climate, overkill by
hunters, the use of fire, prolonged drought, disease, etc. No doubt
each of these
were partial factors in causing death. N. J. Bertill for example
points out: "All
these extinctions coincided with the presence of man."11 Wm. Howells
also notes: "With the end of the Ice Age the hunting people were pressing
into every part of the habitable world."1
The Soviet scientist Kazimierz speaks of the climate as a factor: "The Wurm glaciation brought a great extinction of the Scandinavian ice sheet and the total destruction of the fauna of northern Europe.13
It should be pointed out that most of the extinctions occurred, according to the present fossil record, among larger mammals. Wright and Frey have noted: "Generic extinction is not seen in the late Pleistocene record of plants, invertebrates or small vertebrates: these endured in fact."14
The fossil record however is confessedly not as complete as paleontologists would like it to be. Fossil records of birds are very meager, as are those of snakes and insects. The records of most island faunas are very poor. Australia's and Madagascar's pre-Pleistocene records are yet quite incomplete.
The extinction of large mammals was exceedingly numerous. Norman V. Newell says: "Quite recently, therefore, roughly three quarters of the North American herbivores disappeared and most of the ecological niches . . . were vacated."15, Bryan Patterson states: "The dramatic extinctions, involving whole groups of mammals of both northern and southern ancestry took place at the end of Pleistocene times."16 Later he writes: "The late Pleistocene extinction left South America shorn of nearly all its really large mammals."17
George G. Simpson speaks of Australia as suffering "a marked decline and mass extinction from Pleistocene, probably late Pleistocene, to now.18 Daniel Cohen declares "Some 70% of all native North American mammals with an adult body weight of 100 lbs. or more died out during a 1,000 year period at the end of the Pleistocene.'19 Leon Croizat writes: "Madagascar suffered marked biological depletion from Pleistocene to recent in the wake of climate changes of general scope attending the Glacial Ages."20
Significantly many of these larger mammals are represented by smaller mammals at present. Bjorn Kurten elaborates: "A number of the animals are now considerably smaller, on the average, than their ancestors at the end of the Pleistocene."21 John B. Chervaise says of Australia: "Most present marsupials possessed gigantic relations in that voluminous (Pleistocene) time."22 Teilbard De Chardin, the French Paleontologist wrote: "Once constituted at the beginning of the Quarternary the Pleistocene fauna hardly changes any more up to the Holocene era."23
The following authors describe some of the giants: Wright and Frey, "These (Bison Latifrons) were truly giants."24 William E. Scheel describes the wooly rhinoceros as being 14 to 16 feet long, of beavers nearly 10 feet in length, of glyptodonts fourteen feet long and five and one half feet high."25 A. S. Romer states that "Madagascar lemurs included forms as large as the great apes."26 Martin and Wright speak of the giant grey kangaroos of Australia, giant birds of Madagascar, giant baboons of East Africa and giant browsing ground sloths as tall as giraffes. It was as far as mammals are concerned, a world of giants indeed.
The tendency of animals to migrate has filled the pages of numerous books. J. L. CloudsleyThompson notes that "Migratory behavior is instinctive" and observes that "the origin of migration is little understood, although the habit may have evolved at the time of the retreat of the last ice age."27 Richard Foster Flint observes "comparatively few forms of life appeared during the Pleistocene Epoch which was characterized rather by repeated migrations of entire floras and faunas,"28 Alfred Wallace pointed out long ago: "All animals are capable of multiplying so rapidly, that, if a single pair were placed in a continent with abundance of food and no enemies, they might fully stock it in a very short time."29
It has been the special research of Biogeographers
The reduction in size of the large herbivores was very likely the result of the impoverishment of their ecological habitats following the flood.
and Zoogeographers to attempt to account for the appearance of various similar
kinds of fauna and flora in different parts of the world. Animal life
and migrates the fastest would of course he birds, winged insects,
Water barriers would not be as great for them as for others, George
us that "Insects are notorious for their unwelcome invasions of
Locusts and cicada migrate in enormous numbers. Butterflies have been observed
far out at sea. Bats have early invaded areas like Australia, New
Guinea and New
Zealand. Many wingless insects are blown by the winds for hundreds of
The emigration of invertebrates to other lands is likewise known. Walter Heape writes: "Mass emigration amongst species of invertebrate animals is no less common than amongst vertebrates, and when it occurs the numbers of individuals concerned may frequently be reckoned, not in millions, but in hundreds or thousands of millions."31 The prolific increase and invasion of bees, ants, rodents, and rabbits is well known.
When water exists between land bodies, how do the biogeographers account for similarity of species in both lands? The answer in great measure is that of land bridges. Authority for the existence of land bridges in the past should be noted: "The North Sea lay dry as far as the Dogger Bank at the transition Pleistocene-Ilolocene."32 Maleom S. Rogers says: "During the terminal Pleistocene, the Bering Strait, now a fifty six mile wide strip of water ... was a plain a thousand miles or more in width."33 H. B. Van heckaren feels that "Also during the Pleistocene Java must have been connected repeatedly by land bridges with the Malay Penninsula."34
It is felt by many of these who espouse land bridge connections that many occurred at the close of the Pleistocene time. Walter and Sisson write of the British Isles: "From the early postglacial times when northern Ireland was actually joined with Scotland ..."35 Geoffrey Bibby says concerning a land bridge connection of Africa to Europe: "Only at the end of the ice age was the bridge across the Mediterranean down."36 Birket and Smith speak of Indonesia: "As late as in the Ice Age, it was possible to walk through the valleys of Indochina to Indonesia and perhaps across New Guinea to Australia and Tasmania."37 David Bergamini is very specific: "By 4700 B.C. Australia was once more cut off."38
The shallowness of the ocean between continents and continental islands is a matter of knowledge. The Shahul shelf between Australia and New Guinea; the Dogger Bank between England and France; the Bering Straits between Siberia and North America; and the shallow seas between Ceylon and India, Japan and China, Malaya, Sumatra, Java and Borneo are well known.
The relative timing for land bridges less than ten thousand years ago is numerous. Irving Rouse states that Trinidad was attached to the mainland about 6,000 B.C."39 D. J. Mulvaney says "In the north the shallow seas which separated Australia from New Guinea and submerged Carpentia may be as recent as 6,000 B.C."40 Sherwin Carlquist says Great Britain was separated from the main land only about seven thousand years ago."41 A geological treatment of the Japanese islands states: "The Holocene (last 10,000 years) is the age when the Japanese Islands finally separated from each other."42 Wright and Frey write of Beringia: "The land bridge clearly was in existence during most of the Wisconsin glaciation ........."43
It may be observed that any rise of the ocean waters would occur simultaneously around the world. Land bridges would be covered at approximately the same time. Beringia, the Gulf of Gibralter, the China Sea, the Java Sea, the British Channel, and the Tasman Sea were covered virtually at the same time.
Giant Mammal Disappearance
It is important also to note that the giant mammals disappeared at a corresponding time. Bob H. Slaughter thus says, "The staggering fact that about 95% of the North American megafauna became extinct during a short period some 8,000 years ago."44 Hester in the same work notes: "It has been demonstrated that many of them became extinct within a short time between 8,000 and 6,000 B .C."45 John H. Guilday elaborates on Europe and Asia: "The Eurasian continent lost elephants, rhinoceri, hippopotami, many bovids, and the large beaver trogon therisot Agein."46
Wright and Frey refrain a repeated question: "Why did the most conspicuous extinctions occur so late and after the last glaciation?"47 Writing of islands Carlquist observed: "A number of island creatures did not survive the Pleistocene ."48 The most are mentioned as disappearing at this time. H. A. Stirton notes of Australia: "The first Australian aborigines appear in the record before some of the large marsupials died out."49
McGowen and Hester say of North America: "Mastodon, Columbian
Wolf, Camels, Horse, Bison occiclentalis, all existing here till past
ago."50 Hopkins says of Beringia, "The abrupt extinction of much
of the mammal fauna about 10,000 years ago is as mysterious an event
as it is in other parts of the world."51 Martin, referring to
Carbon 14 dating
notes: "More dates support the view that extinction in South
with or slightly post-dates that in North America. "52
The Biblical Flood
All daring is of course relative, not absolute. The proximity therefore of the time of the land bridges and the world wide extinctions of giant mammals is very close. Is there a plausible answer that an unbudging uniformitarianism may have discountenanced too long? Is it possible that a world wide climatical change such as the Genesis deluge might be the most satisfactory explanation? Dr. Merrill Unger in his Bible Handbook says the deluge probably took place before 5,000 B.C. or over 7,000 years ago.53 Such a time therefore is close to that postulated for that of both land bridges and animal extinctions.
Genesis 7:23 states that as a result of the severity of the flood: "every living thing was destroyed upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth." According to Genesis the one notable exception was the wide variety of life in the ark and in the ocean waters. Besides Noah and his family, Genesis 7:14 reads: "They and every beast after his kind, and all cattle after his kind, and everything that creepcth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort," all went into the ark.
It may be pointed out that the flood itself was of very brief duration. (Genesis 7:11-12, 17, 24, and 8:3-6, 13-14). Following a deluge of approximately a year's length, God said to Noah, "Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth and be fruitful and multiply upon the earth." Life was thus preserved to multiply once again in the earth and to migrate over the earth.
The reduction in size of the large herbivores was very likely the result of the
impoverishment of their ecological habitats following the flood. Geographical
areas, such as the Great Sahara and the continent of Australia were once areas
of brimming rivers and abounding vegetation and well within the
The past 7 or 8 millenia have seen continuing dessication and impoverishment of
vegetation. The larger mammals, such as elephants, hippopotomi and
abundance of food and water to maintain themselves in the wild.
The vast majority of scientists however are so wedded to a Lyellian quietism that they would strenuously object to such a cause of extinction as a worldwide flood. It should be reemphasized therefore that both the extinctions and the change of weather were most severe. Frank Hibben writes "It has been estimated that forty million animals died out at this time."54 Hopkins notes that "The great end-Pleistocene extinction coincides with a time of rapid change."55 In the preface of their book Martin and Wright raise the searching question: "Are meteorologists prepared to recognize the possibility of a climatic shock wave of unprecedented dimension within the last 15,000 years?"56
Source of Flood Water
The problem of sufficient water to cover the earth may not he as difficult as some have imagined. One factor to be considered is the recent elevation of many of our highest mountains. M. M. Strakhov elaborates: "The Alps, the Caucuses, the Central Asiatic ranges, the Altai, the Salair-Saymir ranges, the mountains of eastern Siberia and the mountainous structures acquired their present geomorphological heights during the Quarternary."57 Richard J. Russell says of the Pleistocene that it: "witnessed what may have been an unprecendented rapidity of mountain uplift in many parts of the earth."58 R. W. VanBemmelen notes: "The Pleistocene in Indonesia was a period of powerful mountain building," and again, "in many parts they continued into Holocene times."59 Augusto Gansser in his geology of the Himalayas writes of his belief, "The main elevation of the Himalayas was an event witnessed by the earliest men."60 Ericson and Wellin postulate that during this time "the heights of the Himalaya increased
Rhodes W. Fairhridge: "The last great upsurge apparently culminated in the deluge described in the Old Testament."
by some two thousand meters."61 These are but a few of the
in mountain rise during the Ice Age. Augusto Gansser states that "In most
mountain ranges more catastrophic events than is generally believed
the Pleistocene to recent glacial phases."62
The extent of water necessary to cover the earth with mountain ranges of lesser height is perhaps difficult to ascertain. But the following facts may he noted. Water covers 71% of the earth's surface already. The Pacific ocean is nearly three miles in average depth. The Atlantic is over two miles. Alfred Wallace observed that "the total cubical contents of the laud above sea level would be only 1/36th that of the waters which are below that level."63
One fifth of dry land is flat desert area easily inundated by rising water. The continent of Australia has less than five percent of its land over 2,000 feet above the level of the sea.64 Western Siberia is larger by two thirds than the United States and is one of the most level areas on earth. The Yucatan Peninsula has only a very small area in the north centre which rises to about 200 feet in height.65 "The depression of Europe by six hundred feet would destroy twothirds of its landed surface" according to James Bonwick.66 Lorus T. Milne and Margery Milne have observed that "If the ocean rose 3,000 feet, three fourths of the present land area would be under water. "67 What would it take for a much lower land area of the past?
Has There Been a World-Wide Flood?
Has there been a time when the world oceans arose simultaneously to inundate the land? Scientific evidence would point to the time following the melting of continental glaciers as a time of unprecedented sea rise. C. C. Reeves Jr., in correspondence from R. F. Dill points out that "widespread submerged cliffs, terraces and Pleistocene fossils now indicate a Wisconsin lowering (of the ocean) of about 600 ft.68 The melting
of the continental ice thus formed on the continents would release catastrophic volumes of water. Whitmore, Jr., Emery and Swift point out that "the present continental shelf is not older than the Wisconsin glaciation."69 According to M. T. Mirov, "a sea occupied a considerable area of western Siberia," during the Quarternary period.70 Levin and Potapov have recently pointed out "Fundamental new studies by A. I. Popov radically changed the known facts of the Ice Age in Western Siberia, The dominant observable phenomena of the Quarternary was one extensive marine transgression, not a glaciation."71 Milne and Milne point out that "geologists go back a few thousand years farther to find clear proof that the level of the ocean has risen more than four hundred feet along most coasts.72
The existence of a world-wide flood has of course many complex problems for modern science. How modern marsupials returned to Australia from the Biblical land site of the ark in Armenia is a problem that cannot be answered at this time. How modern Lemurs returned to Madagascar is another. Perhaps more will be uncovered from the ever increasing knowledge of multiple sciences to answer such questions.
In spite of unavailable solutions to present problems the ability to explain world wide extinctions of enormous numbers of mammals within a very short time remains unanswered by other explanations. Neither human agency, nor disease, nor gradual ecological impoverishment can be the overlying cause or causes. This author thus suggests that a world-wide flood needs to be reevaluated by objective men of science as a possible cause in the light of the evidences here set forth. The existence of contemporary land bridges connecting oceanic islands with nearby continents and of continents connecting each other or larger land bodies, provides the possibility of animals migrating hack to former habitats. The effects of both unprecendented pluvials and much lower mountain ranges would conceivably allow for major and even complete submergence of the earth. The effect of melting glacia. tion would in turn account for the submergence of former land bridges. The recency of continental shelves witness to the former extension of dry land on all continents.
Of necessity this article must have a terminus. It is, however, interesting to note that a few present day scientists acknowledge the existence of the Genesis Deluge. William Foxwell Albright, America's leading Palestinian archaeologist has written; "I see no reason any longer for refusing to connect the traditions of the Great Flood in most regions of the Eurasia and America including particularly Mesopotamia and Israel with the tremendous floods accompanying and following the critical melting of the glaciers about 9,000 B.C."73
Rhodes W. Fairbridge, another eminent scientist, has written; "The greatest and fastest rise yet discovered in the geological record reached its crest about 6,000 years ago. The cumulative incursion of the sea flooded low-lying coastal lands in every part of the world. This was the deluge that drowned the homes and troubled the legends of the ancients." Elsewhere he specifies; "The last great upsurge apparently culminated in the deluge described in the Old Testament."74 To be sure a world-wide deluge is not yet acknowledged by the present generation of scientists. But ever accumulating evidence may compel serious reappraisal of such a catastrophe in the coming years. Old theories have a way of being renewed and even made respectable.
1Jerome Wyckoff, Rock, Time and Land Forms, Harper and Row, New York, 1966, p. 25.
2lbid., p. 194.
3Ericson and Wellin, The Deep and the Post, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1964, p. 212.
4 N. J. Dnnbar, Ecological Development in Polar Regions, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1968, p. 60.
5Hallam L. Movius, Jr., Early Man and Pleistocene Stratigrophy, Cambridge Museum, 1944, p. 9.
6ibid., p. 23.
7Ericson and Wellin, Op. cit., p. 250.
8Riehard F. Flint, Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch, Wiley PuhI., N.Y., N.Y., 1947, p. 4.
9Panl S. Martin and H E. Wright, Pleistocene Extinctions, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1967, Preface
10ibid., p. 75.
11N, J. Berrill, Inherit the Earth, Dodd, Mead and Co., N.Y. 1966, p. 40.
12William Howell, Back of History, Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y., 1954, 1). 135.
13Martin and Wright, Op. cit., p. 354.
14Wright and Frey, The Quarternary of the U.S., Princeton, 1965, p. 451.
15Nonnan D, Newell, Crises in the History of Life, Scientific American, Vol. 208, No. 2, Feb. 1963, p. 81.
16Bryan Patterson and R. Pascual, The Quarterly Review of Biology, "The Fossil Mammal Fauna of South America", Vol. 43, Oct. 1961, p. 447.
17ibid., p. 447.
18Georgc G. Simpson, The Geography of Evolution, Philadelphia and New York, Chilton Books, 1965, p. 229.
19Daniel Cohen, The Great Dinosaur Disaster, Science Digest, New York, March 1969, p. 46.
20Lenn Croizat, Pan Biogeography, Vol. Il-a, Published by Author, Caracas, Venezuela, 1958, p. 69.
21Bjorn Knrten, The Rate of Evolution, in Science and Archeology, by Bnthwell and Higgs, Basic Books, Inc., Thames & Hudson, N.Y., p. 219, 1963.
22Jnhn M. BeChervaisc, "Australia, World of Difference, Adelaid Rugby, Limited, 1967, p. 176.
23Teilhard Do Chardin, The Appearance of Man, Harper and Row, New York, 1956, p. 80.
24Wright and Frey, Op. Cit., p. 201.
25William E. Scheele, The First Mammals, World Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1955, pp. 70, 110, 116.
26A. S. Rnmer, Vertebrate Paleontology, University of Chicago, 3rd Edition, 1966, p. 345.
27J. L. Cloudsley-Yhompson, Animal Behavior, Macmillan, New York, 1961, p. 106.
28Riehard Foster Flint, Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch, John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., 1947, p. 10.
29Alfred Wallace, The Geographical Distribution of Animals, Hafner Publishing Co., New York and London, 1962, p. 7 and 10.
30George Laycock, The Alien Animals, Natural History Press, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, N.Y., p. 10, 1966.
31Walter Heape, Emigration, Migration and Nomadism, Wittef fer & Sons, Ltd., Cambridge, England, 1931. p. 133.
32 Brinkman, Geologic Evolution of Europe, (translated from German) Hafner Pub]. Co., Inc., New York, N.T. 1960, P. 139.
33Roger C. Owen, James Deetz, Anthony Fisher, The North American Indians, Macmillan, New York, N.Y., 1967, p. 3.
34H. R. Van Heekeren, The Stone Age of Indonesia, 's Graven bage, M. Nijhoff, 1957. P. 3.
35Walter and Sisson, The British Isles, University of Edinburgh, Nelson Pub., 1964, p. 2.
36Geoffrey Bibhy, The Testimony of the Spade, Alfred Kuopf, New York, N.Y., 1956, p. 74.
37Birket-Smith, The Paths of Culture, University of Wisconsin Press, 1965, P. 456.
38David Bergamini, The Land and Wildlife of Australia, Time, Inc., New York, N.Y., p. 171.
39lrving Rouse, Prehistory of the West Indies, in Joseph Caldwell, New Roads to Yesterday, Basic Books, N.Y., N.Y., 1966, P. 380.
40D. J. Mulvaney, The Pleistocene Colonization of Australia, in Antiquity, Vol. XXXVII, 1964, P. 266. \V. Heffner & Sons, Cambridge, Eng.
4lSherwin Carlquist, Island Life, Natural History Press, for the Museum of Natural History, 1965, p. 79.
42Associatian for Geological Collaboration at Japan, The Geologic Development of the Japanese Islands, Tsukki Co., Ltd., 1965, p. 352.
43Wright and Frey, Op. cit., P. 365.
44Martin and Wright, Op. cit., Bob. Slaughter, p. 155.
45bid., P. 170, by Hester.
46John H Guilday, in Martin and Wright, 0p. cit., P. 125.
47Wright and Frey, 0p. cit., P. 520.
48Sherwin Carlquist, Op cit., p. 313.
49R A. Stirton, Time, Life and Man, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1963, P. 352.
50McGowan and Hester, Early Man in the New World, Double day Anchor Book, P. 196,
51David M. Hopkins, The Bering Land Bridges, Stanford Uni versity Press, Stanford, Calif., 1967, p. 476.
52P. S. Martin, in Martin and Wright, Op. cit., P. 111.
53Dr. Merrill Unger, Unger's Bible Handbook, Moody Press, Chicago, 1966, P. 9.
54Frank Ffihhen, The Lost Americans, Thomas Crowell Co.,
New York, 1966, p. 172.
55David M. Hopkins, Op. cit., P. 476.
56Martin and Wright, Op. cit., Preface.
57 M. Strakhov, Principles of Historical Geology, Part II, Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1962, P. 345.
58Richard J. Russell, Fossil Mammals of Florida, Florida Geo logical Survey, edited by S. J. Olson, 1959, P. 69.
5911, W. Van Bemmelen, Mountain Building, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1954, P. 151.
60Augnsto Gansser, Geology of the Himalayas, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 1964, p. 261.
61Ericson and Wellin, The Deep and the Past, Alfred I. Knopf, New York, 1964, P. 243.
62Augusto Gaosser, Op. cit., p. 34.
63Wallace, Alfred, The Geographical Distribution of Animals, Hefner, N.Y., 1962, p. 36.
64Barrett, Charles, Blackfellows of Australia, C.M.Z.S., London and N.Y., P. 4,
65Roncek, Joseph S., in Collier's Encyclopedia 23, Crowell Collier Co., 1964, p. 713.
66James Bonwick, Daily Life of the Tasmanians, Johnson Re print Co., London, 1870, p. 249.
67Lorus T. Milne and Margcry Milnc, The Mountains, Time, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962, p. 44.
68G. C. Reeves, Jr., Developments in Sedimentology, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London, N.Y., 1968, p. 164.
69Whitmore, Jr., Emery and Swift, "Elephant Teeth From the Atlantic Continental Shelf" from Science, Vol. 156, No. 3781, June 16, 1967, 1). 1477.
70CM. T. Mirov, Geography of Russia, John Wiley and Sons, New York and London, 1951, p. 91.
7lLevin and Potapov, The Peoples of Siberia, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1964, Footnote p. 14.
72Milne and Milne, Pattern of Survival, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1967, p. 305.
73William F. Albright, From Stone Age to Christianity, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1957, p. 9.
74Rhodes W. Fairbridge, The Changing Level of the Sea, Scientific American, May 1960, Vol. 202, No. 5, p. 75, 70.