Science in Christian Perspective

Book Reviews



JASA Book Reviews for September 1977.

Table of Contents
SELF ESTEEM by Craig W. Ellison, Editor. Oklahoma City: Southwestern Press, 1976. 134 pp. (paper).
THE FUTURE OF RELIGION by James 0. Unwin, Exposition Press, N.Y. 1973, 126 pp., $4.50.
RELEASE FROM FEAR AND ANXIETY by Cecil Osborne, Waco, Texas: Word Book Publishers, 1976, 209 pp., $3.95.
by Eberhard Jungel. (translated by lain and Ute Nicol), Westminster Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1974). 141 pp. $6.95.
The Medical, Moral, and Legal Dilemmas of Euthanasia, by Jerry B. Wilson, The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1975, hardback, $7.50, 208 pp.
FRANCIS SCRAEFFER'S APOLOGETICS: A CRITIQUE by Thomas V. Morris, Chicago: Moody Press, 1976, 128 pp., $2.50.
SCIENCE AND BELIEF: COPERNICUS TO DARWIN published by the Open University of Great Britain, distributed through Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, N.Y. 10022. Paperback, 8" x 111/2" (1974).
Volume 1. The Conflict Thesis and Cosmology by C. A. Russell, R. Hooykaas and D. C. Goodman, 128 pp., $6.00.

Volume 2. Towards a Mechanistic Philosophy by D. C. Goodman and
J. H. Brooke, 96 pp., $5.25.
Volume 3. Scientific Progress and Religious Dissent by R. Hooykaas, C. Lawless, D. C. Good man, N. Coley, and G. Roberts, 112 pp., $5.75.
Volume 4. New Interactions between Theology and Natural Science by
J. H. Brooke, R. Hooykaas, and C. Lawless, 88 pp., $5.00.
Volume 5. The Crisis of Evolution by
J. H. Brooke and
A. Richardson, 128 pp., $6.00.
Volume 6. The New Outlook for Science by R. Hooykaas, C. Lawless and C. A. Russell, 72 pp., $4.50.
AN INCOMPLETE GUIDE TO THE FUTURE by Willis W. Harman, The Portable Stanford, Stanford Alumni Association, Stanford, CA. Paperback, 1976. 145 pp.
THE EXISTENTIAL PLEASURES OF ENGINEERING by Samuel C. Florman, St. Martin's Press, N.Y. 1976. $7.95, 160 pp.
IN TWO MINDS by Os Guinness, Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1976, 306 pp., $4.95.

SELF ESTEEM by Craig W. Ellison, Editor. Oklahoma City: Southwestern Press, 1976. 134 pp. (paper).

Here is good news. The Christian Association for Psychological Studies has sponsored and here published the first in a projected series of monographs on "Christian Perspectives on Counseling and the Behavioral Sciences." The editor of the series and of this monograph, Craig Ellison, is Associate Professor of Psychology at Westmont College. The intent of this series is in Ellison's words to: "describe and analyze relationships between the Christian belief-system and psychology from an orthodox theological perspective . . . to provide a systematic forum for evangelical professionals . . . valuable as supplementary texts in colleges and seminaries." The intent is timely, the goals laudable, and so we look forward to further offerings in this series.

Ellison opens with a survey of current research in social psychology on the determinants of self-esteem, including social sources, parent-child relationships, community and culture. Next follow Calvinist theology of self-esteem by Hoekema, and a Wesleyan theology by Wise. Busby reviews psychiatric theorists and Sbostrom presents a self-actualizing viewpoint. Moberg comments on social aspects of self-esteem, followed by a personal account by an Inter Varsity staff member, Cathy Schilke. Rottsebaffer concludes the clinical sections with an analysis of the relationship between selfesteem and depression. The final sections discuss self-esteem in education, and some psychometric means of measurement. Schilke was real, the psychologists abstract.

A broad waterfront is covered in a quick type of tourist excursion. You see the sights, but you really don't get to know the city. What have we learned? (1) The level of serious scholarship has gone up. It is a pleasure not to find much special pleading here, but rather some fairly serious scholars1lip, boih psychologically and theologically. (2) So much new territory whizzes by that at times the scenery is blurred. A clear definition of self is never given. So it is difficult to know what the difference is between self and self-esteem. Often these two concepts are blurred by the authors. (3) The discussions are more provocative and evocative than systematic, coherent, and explanatory. Thus I bad to continually re-orient myself in a maze of differing orientations as I progressed through the book. (4) The book does not lead to any really specific guidelines for either the therapist, minister, or educator. The tone varies from that of "just love everybody" to "it's better to be nice than nasty" to "you have to be realistic."

The most fundamental problem, however, is interdisciplinary. Psychology and theology each begin with different sets of constructs. The same words have different referents in each system. The "self" before God, is not necessarily the same as "self" before and between humans. The theological concept of the depravity of man is not necessarily the same as psychological depravity. And so on. I believe that an interdisciplinary discourse is both possible and necessary. But a careful vocabulary must be constructed. This book does not attempt nor provide that vocabulary.

Attempting a difficult task, the book does not fully succeed. But the attempt is noteworthy. If nothing else, it should provide students and professors with sources of ideas, and enlightened discussion. A great first step! Our congratulations to the CAPS organization and to Professor Ellison for a good beginning. Let us hope to shortly see more volumes in this series.

Reviewed by E. Mansell Pattison, M.D., Professor at Psychiatry and Human Behavior; Social Science; and Social Ecology. Vice-Chairman, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine.

THE FUTURE OF RELIGION by James 0. Unwin, Exposition Press, N.Y. 1973, 126 pp., $4.50.

Out of the hands of an active civil engineer comes a unique work attempting, through mathematics, to invalidate Christianity. In the introduction Unwin states that he is dealing "primarily with the Medieval Christian beliefs which are the basis of modern Christian belief" (p. 7), hoping by discrediting these beliefs to discredit Christianity today. His own theological background appears to be limited to Catholicism, and this is reflected in the statement, "Christianity is Judaism passed through the minds of a celibate clergy headed by an absolutist monarchial, religious-political authority, the Medieval Papacy" (p. 9).

The unique aspects of this treatise are centered around mathematics. Claiming an Arabic numeral system for the Hebrews, he tries to show the change to the Roman numeral system in Medieval Christianity as a leap in the wrong direction.

Chapter 2 "Infinity Becomes Limited", contains the argument that Christianity limits the infinite by confining God to the Trinity, bread and wine, and the risen Christ. He sees these in direct contradiction to Hebrew concepts of a less concrete Cod, and a commandment that "Thou shalt erect no graven image of God." Unrecognized in his text are equally "confining" Old Testament features such as the Ark of the Covenant and the Holy of Holies. This reviewer sees none of these Old or New Testament features as limiting, but for the sake of this argument, at least equivalent,

Among the following chapters are: "Abstraction: Law Becomes a Person"; "Abstraction: Law Becomes a Person Who Sets Aside the Law"; "Abstraction: Law Becomes a Person; Inalienable Rights Become Ahenable; Whatever the Top Man Permits." In each chapter he relates mathematical reasoning to the two religions, with the purpose of demonstrating that Judaism is the only logical belief system of the two.

Each chapter includes "alternative Christian beliefs" covering the periods before Christ and after Christ. These sections sum up the chapter's arguments about the particular math concept and its relation to Christians and Jews, and though the alternatives are not exhaustive, they do give good insight into Unwin's reasoning. For example, one option "After Christ" in the chapter "The Person Becomes Perfect" (referring to Jesus) states: "The Hebrew religion is still valid but obsolete". Unwin argues,

The Hebrew understanding of the lack of perfection of persons is the common sense one in agreement with modern mathematics. If it is obsolete, then common sense and modern mathematics are obsolete too, as is the idea of rule by the common people. Since common sense and modern mathematics are still valid, Christ is not perfect except in an imaginary 'make it up as you go along' sense. The New Testament concept of perfection of real objects is the old obsolete one, discarded along with the rest of Roman numerals about eight hundred years ago (p. 79).

On page 75 he extrapolates, "If one accepts the perfection of Christ, one must accet those who imitate Christ, the celibate Clergy, as eing perfect and as having the right to rule with Christ."

One readily obvious weakness of the book is the lack of literature citations. The bibliography is adequate, but reasoning in the text is diminished by the lack of referencing to both Scriptural and non-Scriptural sources.

A lack of objectivity by the author is evident at many places in the book, often taking what appears to be a bitter stance against the Church, such as, ". . . the imitation of the celibate who has a mythology that authorizes him to dominate and provoke others" (p. 49). His choice to write in such a way is a great detraction from the book's scholarship, though his cynicism is often entertaining.

The book is an interesting one to read, and one of special attraction to Christians in the sciences. It is doubtful that those well-grounded in the Scriptures will find it convincing. In fact, if the reader will track down Biblical references as the reading progresses, in all likelihood a reaffirmation of his own faith should occur.

This exercise at quantification (albeit a negative one) is admirable, but problems are naturally inherent. When reducing spiritual matters to strictly empirical ones, less than total representation occurs. This particular case of oversimplification, though down to a workable scale, misses the main features of Christianity (which are non-empiric), much as a knifewielding lumberjack who attempts to fell a giant Redwood, and unable to do so, settles for a piece of its bark.

Reviewed by E. Steve Casells, Asst. Prof. of Anthropology, Judson College.

RELEASE FROM FEAR AND ANXIETY by Cecil Osborne, Waco, Texas: Word Book Publishers, 1976, 209 pp., $3.95.

I stopped by the local Christian bookstore the other day to browse. A whole section caught my eye: paperback "do-it-yourself" books of counseling, self-help, self-understanding, sedf-therapy, self-release, self-actualization ... and on. This was one of the books-at least 50 copies thereof, so it must be selling well.

The book itself is not unusual for its type, not too good, not too bad. The author, a Baptist minister, pastoral counselor, and executive director of Yokefellows, Inc., focuses on guilt and anxiety as two basic troubling emotions. His intent is to give the reader insight into the workings of these and kindred emotions so that they can be used productively instead of destructively. His discussion is personal, homely, and pretty sane and savvy. The not so good part is a persistent ring-kissing obeisance to medical "authorities", whether they be psychiatrists, obstetricians, endocrinologists, family docs, or off-beat faddists. Painless childbirth, megavitamins, organic diets, primal screams, psychoanalysis, prayer, hypnotism, and sincere religiosity are given about equal weight throughout. Why not a little bit of everything on the happy road to good feelings?

Which leads me to my dissatisfaction not only with this book, but the whole section of similar books by well intentioned and variously informed and informing Christian psychologists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, astoral counselors, and lay healers, etc. First, the books all have a remarkable sameness even to the point of drabness; like bearing variations of the same rock tune, beat, and words on the local radio station. The message is the now accepted "conventional wisdom" of Christendom. We all know that Christians should and can rid themselves of those noxious and bothersome feelings. So maybe these books are not really "helping" change people; maybe they are just affirming how people are thinking, feeling, and behaving already.

My second dissatisfaction stems from the first. What does this say about our current operating assumptions about the desiderata of the Christian Life? Following the activism of the 1960's, the mood of the country has turned inward and personal private values have become paramount again. Personal satisfaction and the values of the life lived come not from contributions toward larger goals beyond the self, but simply from "feeling good -within oneself." In psychiatric jargon we label this narcissism-excessive preoccupation with the importance and function of the self. I know people who don't exercise because it makes their body ache, people who don't think about current social problems because it perplexes and frightens them, people who don't pray because it provokes awareness.

I am quite aware of the crippling disability that doubt, fear, guilt, anxiety, jealousy, hostility, timidity and the rest of the panoply of emotions can produce. There are certain segments of Christendom that have promoted denial, repression, and neurotic mismanagement of our emotions, and it is refreshing that we -have moved beyond that. But I still feel uneasy. We lack a coherent and consistent theology for construction of an emotional agenda for life. The genre of book under discussion seems to support the notion that the Christian life is fulfilled in internal emotional tranquility. Is this merely a sanctified version of cultural narcissistic pre-occupation? I find it remarkable that young people are flocking to religious and quasi-religious movements that call them to commitments that involve and extend them beyond themselves. Emotional pains may not all be neurotic, and so what if they are? Great men and women have probably exhibited more of their share of neurotic elements than the happy, healthy, sane everyman on the street. These books, whole shelves of them, seem to suggest that Christian fulfillment is a state of decent feelings. But I should like to quote a current popular song: "Is that all there is, my friend?"

Reviewed by E. ManseU Pattison, Professor and Vice-Chaiman, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine.

DEATH: THE RIDDLE AND THE MYSTERY by Eberhard Jungel. (translated by lain and Ute Nicol), Westminster Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1974). 141 pp. $6.95.

For each of us, death is the last ultimate reality we must confront on this earth. Death comes to every person and we are usually ill-prepared to meet it. Perhaps in ages past, when men lived closer to nature, when people interacted more closely and more frequently, death could be confronted and dealt with because it was seen, not hidden. Today our society is extremely depersonalized and compartmentalized. Until recently, death could not be employed as a topic for polite conversation; euphemisms were used when the subject was discussed to avoid facing the matter. Dying is no longer done at home; it takes place in the violence of the street or the battlefield or in the sterile, lonely hospital room where the patient is surrounded not by friends and family, but by intricate mechanical and electronic devices which quietly click and hum as they accurately measure out the last hours of a person's life.

There is a rebellion taking place against this hiding of death and once again we are feeling free to discuss openly this aspect of our existence. The pioneering work of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross opened the door to an extended consideration of death and a flood of books and articles have come forth since her work first appeared. Debate has been raised on the question of when death actually takes lace; many legal, medical and moral decisions depends on a reliable, consistent answer to this question. Much helpful information has come forth on practical aspects of dealing with death in the family. As our technology threatens to depersonalize us, we reassert our humanity by grappling anew with basic issues that affect us as persons.

Religion plays an important role in any discussion about death, for it is e role of religion to provide ultimate answers to man's questions. Eberhard Jungel enters the discussion by considering how theology approaches the findings of medicine, sociology and philosophy related to death. Formerly professor of systematic theology at the University of Zurich, Jungel is currently on the faculty at the University of Turbingen. His book is divided into two sections: the first is entitled "The Riddle of Death" and approaches the question from an anthropological, medical, psychological and sociological point of view; the second section, "The Mystery of Death" approaches death from a theological standpoint and dials with the Biblical teachings regarding death and the resurrection.

In considering death as one of life's questions, Jungel first explores the thoughts of a variety of authors and attempts a synthesis of the varied outlooks. Although coming from different directions, all the writers acknowledge the inevitability of the process and see some value in facing the reality of the question.

The discussion of physical death considers the various signs of death. Jungel does not explore one of the current and crucial questions surrounding death: when is a person "really dead"? He leaves the medical and ethical considerations of this key area to others to explore and contents himself with a simple description of some of the more obvious and less controversial aspects of physical death.

When he comes to philosophical aspects of death, Jungel begins to develop the theological concepts he will explore in the second section of his book. Unfortunately he limits his discussion to a consideration of pre-Christian Greek philosophy, probably out of his concern for their influence on early Christian thinking about death. Some mention of current philosophical approaches and problems regarding death would have been of value in dealing with contemporary questions about the subject.

When Jesus said "I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me will live, even though he dies . . ." (John 11:25), he laid down a challenge to all the forces which strive to limit our existence. When he was crucified, buried and then raised from the dead, he showed the power of God that transcends death and conquers it. The Christian faith affirms that we can overcome death and that our lives need not be limited by the grave. The Old Testament view of death is shown by Jungel to be a limited one, affirming God as giver of life, showing life to be a relationship with God and viewing death as terminating that relationship. There is no hope of life beyond the grave and death is seen as the end to all things. It is not until we come to Christ and the New Testament writings that a promise of life after this earthly one is offered. Jungel considers the role of the death of Jesus, his resurrection and all its implications to the Christian community.

The book is concluded with a consideration of the death of death. Since we die to sin, are buried with Christ in baptism and arise to walk in new life (Romans 6), physical death no longer offers a threat to the Christian. Removal of the fear of death of the body brings new responsibilities and new challenges to the Christian.

Eberhard Jungel has written a challenging book that raises many questions and offers answers to some. Its weakness (if it be such) is in the intricate philosophical discussions that may not prove especially useful to many in considering death in contemporary society. Its strength lies in an exploration of the Biblical concept of death and the implications for each of us in knowing that death has been conquered by Jesus Christ.

Reviewed by Donald F. Galbreath, Ph.D, Directorof Clinical Chemistry, Durham County General Hospital, Durham, North Carolina 27704.


DEATH BY DECISION: The Medical, Moral, and Legal Dilemmas of Euthanasia, by Jerry B. Wilson, The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1975, hardback, $7.50, 208 pp.

Jerry Wilson's book, from his Ph.D. thesis, fairly and objectively examines the pros and cons of "easy death," surveying various positions of the past and present with a critique of each. Included are surnin

views of Protestant theologians Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Paul Ramsey, Karl Barth, Joseph Fletcher, and H. Richard Niebuhr, and of Catholic theologians Gerald Kelley, Norman St. John-Stevas, Bernard Haring, and Joseph Sullivan. A discussion of Bible passages dealing with death and dying is responsibly presented.

Euthanasia is seen by Wilson as one of the contemporary moral crises intensified by scientific and technological developments in human medicine. But among the reasons why euthanasia is a problem are the following disorientations in our customary points of view: (1) The secularization of our cultural orientation toward death. (2) The sick attitudes of our society toward death and dying, such as avoidance, denial, the conspiracy of silence, the inability of the patient's family "to acknowledge the inevitability of his death and to overcome their grief and guilt," and the belief and practice of some doctors to "preserve life as long as possible regardless of how hopeless the patient's condition."

Anxiety and fear of death account for the failure of both the medical profession and society in general to grasp the potentially demonic consequences of useless extension of life, on the one hand, and of furtive ad hoc decisions to 'release, the sufferer, on the other.

(3) The outdated definition of legal death. "Appropriate terminal decisions could be made with much less difficulty if human life were understood to include at least the potentiality for consciousness and if death were recognized when the physical substratum for this level of existence has been destroyed or has degenerated." The distinction between loss of vital functions and organic death or brain death should be taken seriously. When the sanctity of life is understood in human terms then brain death is the "appropriate basis for a legal as well as a medical definition of death."

Wilson gives a good discussion of the sanctity of life principle. "As a basic principle of Christian ethics, the sanctity of life affirms a person I s right to live," but "does not translate this right into a necessity." "From the perspective of Christian faith, the sanctity of life is not destroyed by death, for death is under stood as a process of life as it is created and sustained by God."

A theocentric medical ethic rejects absolutistic medical and legal norms against euthanasia because they place more importance on the life of the patient than on his personal needs. Theocentric love begins with the needs of patients as persons. The patient, in so far as he is able, should be permitted to make his own medical decisions. When "his suffering cannot be relieved adequately or his condition renders his life hopelessly intolerable, he should be permitted to refuse treatment to prolong his life."

Voluntary euthanasia, both active and passive, ought to be sanctioned in response to the needs and claims of the dying,' because each person is the master of his own body. Euthanasia is justifiable at the request of a competent terminal patient or when it is not against his wishes, with his nearest relative or guardian deciding in his incapacity. 'The right to die should not be denied!

In October 1976, California became the first state in our nation to legalize the "living will" for death with dignity whereby a terminal patient of sound mind may declare his refusal of treatment to prolong his life. Legislation to permit voluntary euthanasia with the safeguards mentioned would protect each patient's right to die and to preserve his right to live. A reform of "professional and legal standards of medical practice to make them more responsive to patients who are suffering and dying" must be made by people of "faith and good will in order to exercise wisely and humanely the power of life and death created by contemporary science and technology."

Wilson summarizes 5 principal arguments for euthanasia: (1) The dignity of life is superior to the value of life per se. (2) The relief of suffering is more important than the physician's responsibility to prolong life at all costs. (3) The patient's right to be at liberty has precedence "over the value of life which is radically restricted" (the principle of individual autonomy to decide what is to be done to his person) * (4) The right to justice or fair treatment in permitting the practice of euthanasia. Although

the law in theory is a product of medical ethics and social norms that take seriously the role of the physician as the preserver of life . . . . the legal decisions that are made and the judgments . . . that are rendered suggest that we tend to regard the practice of euthanasia less as a moral evil or crime and more as the unfortunate but necessary and humane response to human need and suffering.

Many cases are cited to illustrate his points. (5) The principle of utility or "usefulness as a means to the ends prescribed by society" considers the burdens of suffering and dying without euthanasia that are placed on society. However, "responsible medical care cannot condone euthanasia as a eugenic measure."

All Christians need to evaluate these concerns and think through their own responses based on biblical principles, as Wilson does in this book.

Reviewed by Jerry D. Albert, Mercy Hospital and Medical Research Facility, San Diego, CA 92103

FRANCIS SCRAEFFER'S APOLOGETICS: A CRITIQUE by Thomas V. Morris, Chicago: Moody Press, 1976, 128 pp., $2.50.

Francis Schaeffer is one of the most active and prolific Christian apologists today. It is no surprise then that someone, such as Morris, has written an analysis and critique of Schaeffer's apologetics. The book is divided into two parts. The first outlines Schaeffer's apologetic particularly as presented in The God Who Is There and He Is There and He Is Not Silent. According to Morris, Schaeffer's arguments are largely "arguments from design". Schaeffer looks at the universe and man around him, then demonstrates that the nature of the universe and man is such that certain presuppositions or hypotheses (in this case Biblical Christian presuppositions), explain it better than others. He subsequently argues for the truth of the presuppositions which fit best with the facts about man and the universe. His argument follows the same pattern as that of a scientist in defending the "best" of several competing hypotheses.

In the area of metaphysics, for example, Schaeffer argues that human personality is real, and hence a model of the universe (the Christian one) which explains origins in terms of a personal beginning has greater validity than a cosmogonic model based on an impersonal beginning. He claims that the impersonal beginning does not adequately explain human personality, man's need for fulfillment, meaning, purpose. love, beauty, and order. Similarly, in the area of epistemology, Schaeffer rejects the modern position that the universe is a closed system of cause any effect, in favor of the biblical view of an open universe. He claims that the former leads to a divided field of knowledge, because when the universe is viewed as a determined machine, there is no place for purpose or meaning in human life. Since man cannot live consistently without purpose and meaning he has to reintroduce them irrationally into a separate compartment of his mind. Thus, the biblical view provides a better basis for man's knowledge of himself and of the world around him. Schaeffer also goes on to demonstrate the congruity of the Christian gospel with man's moral nature. On the basis of these arguments be claims to have demonstrated the necessity of the Christian position, and hence elicits assent from his reader to the truth of Christianity.

Morris criticizes Schaeffer's position in two ways. In each argument, Morris maintains that Schaeffer has overstated his case. He has claimed to have shown that the Christian position is the only tenable one. However, according to Morris, he has shown only that the Christian position is a relatively more probable one, in that it fits better with our knowledge of our own humanity and the real world around us. Morris's second major criticism of Schaeffer is that be views human thought and decision making processes as much too logical and mechanical. There are a multitude of nonlogical aspects of human thought. We do not necessarily think in a series of logically necessary steps. We are influenced by our emotions, predispositions, metabolic state, etc., and Schaeffer does not adequately consider these non-logical aspects of human thought.

The second part of Morris's book attempts to justify the use of apologetics in evangelism. Morris states that the major role of apologetics is to make the claims of Christianity more probable to the listener, and to move his thinking closer to the Christian position. However, he recognizes the limitation of apologetics, and points out that an apologetic alone is incapable of bringing a person into the Kingdom of God. Jesus said, "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him".

This is a very valuable book for anyone interested in Schaeffer's presentation of the gospel or in the role of apologetics; in evangelism. Morris raises some serious criticisms of Schaeffer's work. Most important, in my mind, is the charge that Schaeffer often overstates his case and reaches conclusions unjustified by his data. However, the criticism is leveled in a constructive manner, and should be of great use to anyone who uses Schaeffer's books and arguments as one means of presenting the gospel. I would rather have the weaknesses in my arguments pointed out in Christian love by a friend, than by my adversaries.

Reviewed by Steven R. Scadding, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

SCIENCE AND BELIEF: COPERNICUS TO DARWIN published by the Open University of Great Britain, distributed through Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, N.Y. 10022. Paperback, 8" x 111/2" (1974).

Volume 1. The Conflict Thesis and Cosmology by C. A. Russell, R. Hooykaas and D. C. Goodman, 128 pp., $6.00.
Volume 2. Towards a Mechanistic Philosophy by D. C. Goodman and
J. H. Brooke, 96 pp., $5.25.
Volume 3. Scientific Progress and Religious Dissent by R. Hooykaas, C. Lawless, D. C. Goodman, N. Coley, and G. Roberts, 112 pp., $5.75.
Volume 4. New Interactions between Theology and Natural Science by
J. H. Brooke, R. Hooykaas, and C. Lawless, 88 pp., $5.00.
Volume 5. The Crisis of Evolution by
J. H. Brooke and A. Richardson, 128 pp., $6.00.
Volume 6. The New Outlook for Science by R. Hooykaas, C. Lawless and C. A. Russell, 72 pp., $4.50.

These books, together with additional reading (Genesis and Geology by C. C. Gillispie, Science and Religious Belief: A Selection of Primary Sources by D. C. Goodman, Religion and the Rise of Modern Science by R. Hooykaas, and Scien-ce and Religious Belief: A Selection of Recent Historical Studies by C. A. Russell), and radio and TV programs, constitute a course by the Open University of Great Britain. They are a resource which is invaluable to anyone involved in understanding the historical relationships between science and Christian thought, and particularly to anyone who is teaching a course or seminar in this area. Taken as they stand, supplemented with external reading, the books form an excellent basis for a year-long course that would provide profound insight into many of the controversies that still exercise those seeking to relate science and Christian faith.

The orientation of the writing is toward deriving understanding of historical events and opinions from an analysis of the historical writings themselves. Thus references to original writings of scientists and others are sprinkled throughout the text, as well as being referred to in the supplementary reading selections. The student everywhere is encouraged to think for himself, is provided with clearly stated guides for the evaluation of his progress, and is constantly given opportunities for thinking through a problem before proceeding to the author's particular responses. Starting with an assessment of the problems involved in writing a history of scientific thought, the books pick up the issue with the Copernican controversy and follow it through the aftermath of the Darwinian controversy.

A very brief sample of the topics covered would include: four historical treatments of the science and belief theme, biblical exegesis and the motion of the earth, Galileo and theology, a thorough analysis of Descartes including his account of living things, mechanical philosophy and the Providence of God, three pitfalls of historiography, English deists and freethinkers, Voltaire, evolution vs creation in the 18th century, Quaker contributions, the rise of natural theology, reigious attitudes of geologists, uniformitarianism vs catastrophism in the early 19th century, the nature of life, the balance of nature, Darwin, difficulties in the reception of the Darwinian hypothesis, history of nature, historical and physical causality in nature and history, and the specific challenge of Darwinism to religion.

The student fortunate enough to be guided through these pages by a perceptive teacher will be struck repeatedly by the continuity of ideas over the past several hundred years, and by the similarity between many issues now aggravating the Christian community and corresponding issues of the past. It has been said that whoever neglects the past and fails to learn from it is sentenced to relive the past. In our own time we find a distinct disinterest in the lessons of history. Careful attention to the material of these booklets will be a healthy antidote.

AN INCOMPLETE GUIDE TO THE FUTURE by Willis W. Harman, The Portable Stanford, Stanford Alumni Association, Stanford, CA. Paperback, 1976. 145 pp.

THE EXISTENTIAL PLEASURES OF ENGINEERING by Samuel C. Florman, St. Martin's Press, N.Y. 1976. $7.95, 160 pp.

Here are two books written by non-Christians with quite different perspectives, which if taken together make a fascinating basis for a seminar among engineering students in a Christian context. They both agree that the basic trouble with the world lies in human nature; Harman sees a way out through a new consciousness, whereas Florman sees no way of changing human nature. Using these two perspectives as counterpoint to the Christian approach provides useful insights.

Harman carries out an analysis of the causes of our present social predicament and prescribes solutions for that predicament. His book consists of three welldefined parts, with no necessary connection between them, First he offers a cogent analysis of the nature of future dilemmas (growth, work-roles, distribution, control) and of their basis in the presently accepted industrial paradigm (industrialization, scientific method, material progress, pragmatic values). Then he proposes ideals for social restructuring through a new social paradigm emphasizing the importance of value postulates, a re-evaluation of science, recognition of a spiritual order, an ecological ethic, and a teleological perspective. Although all of these ideals are exactly correlatable with the biblical perspective, Harman rejects the historical religions as being authoritarian and enters into instead what might be briefly described as special pleading for monistic pantheism. The ultimate weakness of his conclusions lies in his implicit assumption that to know what is ethically beneficial will automatically provide the human will to do that which is ethically beneficial. He makes the traditional error of almost all non-Judaeo-Christian religious perspectives in seeing ignorance as evil and education as salvation.

It is Florman's task to challenge all the modem prophets of doom who see technology as the cause of society's troubles and the engineer as the ally of the devil. He argues that it is not a lack of morality on the part of the engineer that has gotten us into such troubles as technology may have brought us, but rather the nature of human wants. He boldly takes on the prophets of anti-technology such as Jacques Ellull Lewis Mumford, Rene Dubos, Charles A. Reich and Theodore Roszak, and does a reasonably effective job of standing their arguments on their heads. Flormar's major weakness is his conviction that positions calling for a change in the nature of man are hopelessly idealistic.

Contemporary man is not content because he wants more than he can ever have. . . . Man has always been afraid of his urge to do more and know more. . . But he is constitutionally unable to restrain himself. (p. 75)

Florman is also challenging when he argues that there is a proper and necessary place for "materialism" in human life. He makes the needed distinction between letting material things become our gods, and the healthy rejoicing in the works of our hands. He finds a healthy regard for human craftmanship in the Homeric tales and in the Old Testament, and a disquieting depreciation of human craftmanship in the Periclean Age and in the New Testament. In the Old Testament,

The engineering impulse comes to man as a gift from God. Material enterprise is not to be shunned; it is to be pursued energetically, but with the service of God always kept uppermost in mind. (p. 112)

In the New Testament, however,

The lesson is repeated again and again in resounding prose. It is foolish as well as profane to be concerned with material goods, since they do not endure. Fire, rust, and moth are ever at the ready to destroy our handiwork. It is prudent as well as pious, therefore, to concentrate on thoughts of eternity. (p. 103)

. . the effect of our Greek and Christian heritage has been to convince us that materialism is a defect in human nature. We refer to our materialistic society with shame. We feel guilty because we are not more spiritual. (p. 103)

Here are questions for Christians to consider, especially in the context of the meaning and significance of applied science, engineering and technology in society today. The exploration of their full significance appears to lie at a very fundamental level of the relationship between Christian faith and applied science. I would like very much to see ASA members develop a Christian response to Florman, which is a somewhat more difficult task than to formulate a Christian response to Harman.1

1R. H. Bube, "The Biblical Basis for a New Social Paradigm," The Reformed journal, (1977).

Reviewed by Richard H. Bube, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.

IN TWO MINDS by Os Guinness, Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1976, 306 pp., $4.95.

Os Guinness was a former associate of Francis Schaeffer at L'Abri Fellowship in Switzerland. He now lives in London. His first book, The Dust of Death, was designated by Eternity magazine as the most significant book of the year.

In Two Minds is about the dilemma of doubt and how to resolve it. Guinness defines unbelief as a willful refusal to believe or of a deliberate decision to disobey whereas doubt is a state of suspension between faith and unbelief. He thinks that it is possible to distinguish between faith, doubt and unbelief in theory: to believe is to be in one mind, to disbelieve is to be in another, and to doubt is to be in two minds. In practice the distinction is not always clear.

The book is divided into four main arts seventeen chapters. In part one, Guinness defines the problem of doubt. In part two, he talks about families of doubt. In part three, he writes of care and counsel for the doubter. In part four, Guinness deals with doubt from insistent inquisitiveness and doubt from impatience or giving up.

Guinness writes well and he has the ability to express complex issues simply He readily supplies apt illustrations. He deals with doubt sympathetically from both the psychological and biblical perspectives. His insights are very helpful. Their impact will be felt especially by doubters who happen to read this book, and that includes everyone at some point in life.

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, Professor of Psychology, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.