Science in Christian Perspective
ANCIENT ORIENT AND OLD TESTAMENT by
K. A. Kitchen,
Chicago: Inter-Varsity Press,
BASIC TYPES OF PASTORAL COUNSELING, Howard J. Clinebell. Abingdon Press, 1966
TWO CONCEPTS OF RACE. HUMAN LIFE ZONES: THE ROAD TO ACADEMIC INTEGRATION. Valle, M. M., Lima, Peru: Institute of Human Studies, 1964.
ANCIENT ORIENT AND OLD TESTAMENT by K. A. Kitchen, Chicago: Inter-Varsity Press, 1966
The author of this major evangelical contribution to biblical scholarship is a Lecturer in Egyptology at Liverpool University. In the field of Egyptology he is the author of Suppiluliuma and the Amarna Pharaohs, and the forthcoming The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, as well as numerous articles in scholarly journals. In the area of biblical studies Professor Kitchen has contributed important articles to The New Bible Dictionary, and the article "The Aramaic of Daniel" in the recent work, Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel. Forthcoming are two promising titles, Hittite Hieroglyphs, Aramaeans and Hebrew Traditions, and The Joseph Narrative and its Egyptian Background. The present volume was first published in a German translation in 1965 as Alter Orient und Altes Testament.
On the basis of his acquaintance with Near Eastern literatures in general and with Egyptian literature in particular the writer criticizes the artificial standards of the prevailing documentary hypothesis of the Bible. He points out that the criteria used to establish separate documents in the Pentateuch would make nonsense if used in analyzing Egyptian texts. He also criticizes certain aspects of form criticism which seeks to isolate various literary genres and establish their Sitz im Leben ("situation in life") contexts.
A positive contribution of the author's study is a comparison of the covenant between Jehovah and Israel in Exodus 20 ff. with various covenants from the ancient Near East. An analysis of the component elements reveals that the Sinai Covenant is similar to covenants of the late second millennium but not to those of the first millennium, thus supporting the Mosaic date of the Covenant against critics who would place it later.
An original suggestion of Kitchen (first proposed in the article on "Chronology of the OV in the New Bible Dictionary in 1962) is a serious attempt to resolve the seeming impasse between archaeological data and biblical data for the date of the Exodus. Since Israel is first mentioned as being in Palestine in a stele of Pharaoh Merenptah c. 1220 B.C., the latest date for the Exodus must come at least some 40 years prior to this. The destruction of various Palestinian cities in the 13th century B.C. and the mention of Racameses as one of the store cities built by the Hebrew slaves (Exodus 1:11) favor a "late" date for the Exodus c. 1280 B.C.
On the other hand, I Kings 6:1 says, "In the four hundred and eightieth year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel . . . he began to build the house of the Lord." According to W. F. Albright Solomon reigned 961-922, and according to E. R. Thiele 971-931. [A recent article, Eric Uphill, "The Date of Osorkon II's Sed-Festival," Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 26 (1967), 61-62, would place Solomon's death between 930-925.1 Adding 480 years to Solomon's fourth year we have an "early" date for the Exodus c. 1448-1438.
Most conservative scholars have favored the "early" date. Cf. Merrill F. Unger, Archaeology and the OT, ch. 12; Samuel Schultz, The OT Speaks, pp. 48-49; Gleason Archer, A Survey of OT Introduction, pp. 21223; and John Rea, "The Time of the Oppression and the Exodus," Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society, 3 (1960), 58-69. A few have inclined to the "late" date, widely adopted by archaeologists and nonconservative biblical scholars. Cf. C. de Wit, The Date and Route of the Exodus; J. A. Thompson, The Bible and Archaeology, pp. 62-63; and Charles F. Pfeiffer, Egypt and the Exodus, p. 38.
Kitchen points out that if one were to add all the individual genealogies from Exodus to I Kings one would get a total of over 553 years, and not just 480. He further notes that in other Near Eastern chronologies the ancients arrived at totals that were larger than the elapsed time by adding up the reigns or genealogies of rulers, some of whom lived not consecutively after each other but in part contemporaneously with each other. The figures of 480 or of 553 plus years may perhaps be taken as aggregate sums larger than the elapsed time of some 300 years permitted by the "late" date for the Exodus.
One of the most striking features of the workwhich may dismay some lay readers but which will delight serious scholars-is Kitchen's thorough documentation, evincing a comprehensive grasp of all of the major areas of Near Eastern research.Reviewed by Edwin M. Yarnauchi
In this book Clinebell has performed an extremely valuable service for those interested in the area of Pastoral Counseling. The reader will find a very broad sampling of different theories and approaches to counseling as well as hints about applying these techniques to a wide variety of situations. The book is especially notable for the degree of sophistication that Clinebell exhibits regarding current trends in the fields of psychotherapy and counseling. Many of the newer concepts and theories in this area are presented and related to the area of pastoral work. The author combines a well balanced presentation of theory with specific, down-to-earth information about how to apply the theory in practical situations. He leads the way in pastoral counseling by indicating that the old model of pastoral counseling which involves a combination of Rogerian and Freudian techniques is now in need of revision. Clinebell opts for what Perry London in his Modes and Morals of Psychotherapy, as well as others, have dubbed "action therapy." Action therapy refers to a number of new approaches to psychotherapy which break away from the insight model and stress various kinds of problem solving, learning theory, social learning, social interaction and related approaches to treatment.
Clineball rightly points out that the minister who clings to the old model and perceives his role of counselor as taking place only within the confines of an hour in the pastor's study for certain selected individuals each week results in a very limited approach to the area of pastoral counseling. He makes clear in Chapter Two and throughout the book that the minister, in all of his contacts with people in the life of the church, can have a therapeutic and redeeming influence that extends far beyond the confines of the pastor's study and counseling "sessions."
The book is well written and a pleasure to read. Seldom is it possible for a reviewer to recommend a book with equal enthusiasm for the beginner as well as for the advanced student in a field. However, this can be safely done with Clinebell's book. His approach is sufficiently insightful and creative that the professional in the field will find a number of new ideas and will benefit from the surveys of current trends in psychotherapy as applied to pastoral counseling. In addition, the book, for the most part, presents ideas with sufficient clarity and completeness that even the beginner can very readily follow the points being made. The book is well indexed and contains a number of references for further reading which will guide the interested student in bis further pursuit of the subject. As is the case with many of the other writings of Clinebell, this book is destined to be a classic and should be on the shelf of every pastoral counselor.
For those interested in learning what the field of pastoral counseling is all about in order to be better laymen, as well as for the pastoral counselor and professional psychotherapist, this book is highly recommended.C. Eugene Walker, Ph.D.
Chairman Division of Education and Psychology Westmont College, Santa Barbara, Calif.
TWO CONCEPTS OF RACE. HUMAN LIFE ZONES: THE ROAD TO ACADEMIC INTEGRATION. Valle, M. M., Lima, Peru: Institute of Human Studies, 1964.Valle's works over the years have championed and attempted to propagate the thesis of environmental determinism in his own particular ecological emphasis upon temperature, or thermal zones. He seeks to discredit traditional racial taxonomy by describing the "two concepts of race," morphorace, by which be refers to the racial designations according to morphology such as Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid; and thermorace, or divisions of mankind according to temperature zones.
A certain confusion in taxonomic usage is indicated throughout. For example, in the early pages he speaks of morphorace taking man "out of the sphere of natural life, isolating him from the world of plants and animals . . ." To illustrate this he points out that
. . . we cannot speak of Mongoloid, Caucasoid or Negroid plants and animals, e.g., a Caucasoid animal, a Mongoloid insect, or a Negroid fish, since we would openly fall into absurdities. It is apparent that the classification of man into Mongoloid, Caucasoid and Negroid has been stamped on the concept of race as an arbitrary and forced division only applicable to Homo sapiens. (p.9)
One could as well point out that we cannot speak of an Airedale Eagle, a Terrier insect, or a Collie fish; or that the classification of dogs into Dalmatians, Terriers, Spaniels, Hounds, etc., has been stamped on the concept of breed as an arbitrary and forced division only applicable to Canis familiaris. What Valle fails to appreciate is that to whatever extent it is valid, the concept of thermorace is and has long been incorporated in most detailed anthropological considerations of the characteristics and distributions of morphoraces.
Of course, it is perfectly legitimate for anyone to abstract such a particular ecological aspect of human race for purposes of specific emphasis. But to offer it as "a new specialized meaning" and improvement over against other "arbitrary" categories which are "irrelevant to the biological order of life" is, at best, overdoing a good thing.
I Even though temperature is important in human ecology and has some formative influence on race, Valle's limitation of consideration to this one feature as of primary importance to man throughout all of his history neglects the balanced appreciation of "environment" as a complex combination of interrelated influences such as human culture and social selection, altitude, occupation, famine and nutrition, not to mention growth rates, immunities, and other features of environmental adaptation.
The general thesis, then, while containing some valuable points of emphasis, is indiscriminately applied, both to physical as well as cultural features, and is pushed far beyond legitimate or realistic bounds. The author traces
the distribution of certain linguistic sounds, finding in warm regions a greater frequence of soft, liquid sounds, written with abundant vowels; in contrast, along the cold belts, we discovered a stronger, fricative or guttural pronunciation using abundant consonants. (p. 54)
The scientific methods of linguistic analysis and the historic study of comparative linguistic would sustain no such findings.
Valle quotes as "two of the greatest American race specialists" (p. 49) J. C. Nott and G. R. Gliddon, whose writings of a hundred years ago were based upon the notorious pseudo-scientific proposition that slavery of Negroes was justified because of the inherent inferiority of this race. He also quotes recent antbropologists to support his thesis. It is significant to note that these quotations may be seen in two categories: (a) those who treat environmental influences upon race in the perfectly normal way of modem science which combines "morphorace" and "thermorace" in their methodology without specifying the distinction in terms; and (b) those who write more specifically of the influence of environment upon race and are quoted by Valle out of context because their conclusions do not agree with his, or else because he does not understand them in the first place. As an example of the latter, the following is taken from Valle, p. 56 followed by the text from Boas, including the passages omitted by Valle:
Our results are perhaps what Franz Boas was incessantly seeking. "Climate and soil exert an influence upon the body and its functions, but it is not possible to prove . . ." "Here belongs the attempt to explain history as determined by the nature of the country in which the people live. A relation between soil and history cannot be denied, but we are not in a position to explain . . ." "The frequent occurrence of similar phenomena in cultural areas which have no historical contact suggests that important results may be derived from their study, for it shows that the human mind develops everywhere according to the same laws. The discovery of these is the greatest aim of our science. To attain to it many methods of inquiry and the assistance of many other sciences will be needed." (Op. cit., p. 637)
Turning to Boas, F., Race, Language, and Culture, p. 637, we find the essay "The Aims of Ethnology" in which Boas in 1888 was already assessing the reliability of contemporary methods in the study of human culture. Notice the original sentence order:The frequent occurrence of similar phenomena in cultural areas that have no historical contact suggests that important results may be derived from their study, for it shows that the human mind develops everywhere according to the same laws.
The discovery of these is the greatest aim of our science. To attain it many methods of inquiry and the assistance of many other sciences will be needed. Up to this time the number of investigations is small, but the foundations have been laid by the labors of men like Tyler, Bastian, Morgan, and Bachoffen. As in other new branches of science there is no lack of hasty theorizing that does not contribute to healthy growth. Far-reaching theories have been built on weak foundations. Here belongs the attempt to explain history as determined by the nature of the country in which the people live. A relation between soil and history cannot be denied, but we are not in a position to explain social and mental behavior on this basis and anthropo-geographical "laws" are valid only as vague, empty generalities. Climate and soil exert an influence upon the body and its functions, but it is not possible to prove that the character of the country finds immediate expression in that of its inhabitants. (Emphasis mine.)
Boas goes on to show the fallacy of contemporary examples of this thinking. Far from "incessantly seeking" such explanations, Franz Boaz was actively debunking all such unilateral attempts to interpret human history in simple correlations.
Perhaps this will suffice to indicate the general unreliability of the author's applications of his thesis and the lengths to which he will stretch reference to scholarly authorities to support his views. Where modem scientists make mention of environmental and climatic influences upon race Valle considers them to be following him. Where they disagree with him he quotes with no conscience for context. (See Franz Boas, The Mind of Primitive Man, 1938 edition, pp. 189-193 for his mature conclusions on environmental influence.) Furthermore Valle clearly misunderstands the substance of some of those whom he quotes as, for example, the "relies of a culture stage" discussed by Nordenskiold confused with "the mental preference of the inhabitants," (p. 55); and his total misunderstanding of Dobzhansky's use of "culture" in Mankind Evolving (1962), (pp. 36, 120-121), and of Carlton Coon's contributions on race (pp. 64-65, 122-127).
It is unwise for a reviewer to impugn the author's motives. One may only wonder at the implications of the following:
It is wise for most people to cling to their own optimal habitat, harbinger of biological success to their descendants. If not already there, they should plan to return to the climate to which they belong, particularly when they perceive the first ominous warnings of deterioration and disorders. (p. 39)
In conclusion we can do no better than to quote from M. F. Newman's review in the American Anthropologist (April, 1956) of Valle's major work Observations on Geography. The review is reprinted as an appendix to the present work. Newman speaks with reference to Valle's attempt to show the effect of climate upon culture:
In the reviewer's opinion, the demands of sound, scientific
procedure regrettably lack fulfillment here. Research into
the influence of environment upon man cannot move out of the
logical assumption stage until the environment itself is recognized as the multifaceted intertwined complex it is, and until
we can distinguish the specific effects upon man of at least
the major facets. (p. 105)
Reviewed by James 0. Buswell III, St. John's University, Jamaica, N.Y. 11432.