Science in Christian Perspective



Book Reviews for June 1984

Table of Contents

IN THE GAP, by David Bryant. Inter-Varsity Missions, Madison, 1979
MORE DIFFICULT SAYINGS OF JESUS, by William Neil and Stephen Travis, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1981, vi & 128 pages. Paperback (no price given).
THE SMALL CHURCH IS DIFFERENT!, Lyle E. Schaller. Nashville, Abingdon Press, 1982, 192 pp.
HOLY SCRIPTURE: CANON, AUTHORITY, CRITICISM by James Barr, Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1983, 182 pages, $9.95, paperback.
SPIRITUALITY AND HUMAN EMOTION, by Robert C. Roberts. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1982. 134 pp., $7.95.
BETRAYERS OF THE TRUTH by William Broad and Nicholas Wade. Simon and Schuster, NY, 256 pp. $14.95, 1982.
A CHRISTIAN CRITIQUE OF THE UNIVERSITY by Charles Habib Malik. Downers Grove, IL., Inter-Varsity Press, 1982, 118 pages, $4.50
CREATIVE COUPLES by Wallace Denton and Juanita Holt Denton, Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1983, 153 pages, $8.95 paperback.
NUTRITION FOR CHRISTIANS, by Mary Ruth Swope, Swope Enterprises, Inc., Melbourne, Florida 32901, (1981), 309 pp.
THE APOCALYPTIC PREMISE: NUCLEAR ARMS DEBATED, edited by Ernest W. Lefever and E. Stephen Hunt, Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1666 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, December 1982; 430 pp. $9 paper.
ISLAM AND CHRISTIAN WITNESS, by Martin Goldsmith, InterVarsity Press, 1982, 157 pp. Paperback, $4.95
THE OUTLINE OF SANITY by Alzina Stone Dale, Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1982, 354 pages, $18.95.
REPORT ON THE SHROUD OF TURIN by Dr. John H. Heller. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 225 pp., $15.95, 1983.
EMPIRICISM AND GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT: FROM FRANCIS BACON TO ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT by Margarita Bowen, (Cambridge Geographical Studies, 15) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981, XV-351 pp, $49.50.
THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD IN AN AGE OF EMANCIPATION. By William Adolp Visser't Hooft. Philadelphia; Westminster Press, 1982. pp. xi + 163. $7.95.
GREEK RHETORIC UNDER CHRISTIAN EMPERORS by George A. Kennedy, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1983, $35.00 cloth, $11.50 paper, 333 pages.

IN THE GAP, by David Bryant. Inter-Varsity Missions, Madison, 1979

In the Gap, a part of the World Christian Handbook Series, is designed to change the life of its readers. Bryant gives the testimony of how he became a world Christian (not a worldly Christian!), explains why the reader should also become one, and then gives directions of what to do to keep and share the vision he has sought to transmit through the book.

To sit down and read In the Gap is an exercise I would recommend to all Christians. But this fact-packed volume deserves more than one reading. It contains so much data that assimilation requires re-reading. And it is, as the name of the Series suggests, a handbook for action. There are suggestions of what to do to acquire more information, how to interest others, and check lists to be followed. But throughout it all there is the fervor of exhortation and the thrill of being involved in an all-encompassing cause.

The gap referred to in the title is that between the Holy God and sinful people. Bryant points out that this gap is wider in some places than in others, because the message of the Christ who closes the gap is unavailable to more than half the world's population. So he calls people to be world Christians' aware of the gap, and moved by God's love for the world to place themselves in the gap so that needy people may hear the Gospel. This Gospel, as presented by Bryant, is not for disembodied souls but concrete persons. There is no spiritmatter dichotomy, but a healthy Kingdom perspective in the cause to which we are called.

In the Gap is a useful tool for creating missions awareness and action. It can be used in study groups, Sunday School classes, or as a basis of discussion among students or others.

Get In the Gap.

Reviewed by Joseph M. Martin, professor of Missions. Edward Lane Bible Institute, Patrocinio, M.G. Brasil

MORE DIFFICULT SAYINGS OF JESUS, by William Neil and Stephen Travis, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1981, vi & 128 pages. Paperback (no price given).

This thoughtful little book is replete with insights from Sacred Scripture and illuminating examples from Jewish tradition. Thirty-one brief chapters, a bit more than three pages each, make for easy reading, the sort of book you read when you really do not have the time to read, before bed, on the bus, or waiting for an appointment. Those who read THE DIFFICULT SAYINGS OF JESUS will be grateful to Stephen Travis for finishing William Neil's work terminated by death.

The brevity and facility of style do not camouflage paucity of insight. The thoughtful reader will be checking other commentaries as well as reading the original. One value of this brief text will be not only the light it sheds on the difficult sayings but also the encouragement it gives to read the gospels again.

There are difficulties; I mention only three. The authors' attempt to include the rich in the company of the poor is not convincing (pp.98-99). But Christians have always had problems with Jesus' sayings about the rich and the poor.

More serious is the authors' denigration of the Judaism of Jesus' day as well as our own. No Jew is likely to agree that, "Orthodox Judaism tended to become more arid, while liberal Judaism lost the backbone which the law had provided and became a flabby accommodation to the ways of the world." (p. 45) Thoughtful Christians hesitate to identify anyone's religion as arid. Even worse is the grammatically meaningful use of the comparative form of that adjective.

The authors enthusiastically endorse the inner-worldly asceticism which motivated Christians to seek mastery over themselves at the same time as they tried to improve the world. This movement was identified by Max Weber as one of the significant factors contributing to the rise of capitalism. The authors' support for this movement may be more easily understood than their casual dismissal of monastic piety as "spurious and totally misleading" (p.16). If we truly know people from what they have done, then the writings of the desert Fathers and the modern works of the monks of Taize in France are a compelling testimony to the value of asceticism.

Even when this book stimulates your disagreement, the dialogue continues. That may be its greatest accomplishment.

Reviewed by William J. Sullivan, S.T.D., Associate Professor of Religious Studies, St. John Fisher College, Rochester, New York

THE SMALL CHURCH IS DIFFERENT!, Lyle E. Schaller. Nashville, Abingdon Press, 1982, 192 pp.

The exclamation point at the end of the title shows that Schaller considers important the differences between smaller and larger churches. He observes that "the normal size for a Protestant congregation on the North American continent is one that has fewer than forty people at worship on the typical Sunday morning" (p. 9). Starting with the assumption that this is the "natural" and "normal" size for a church, he describes the characteristics of small churches. He lists and discusses twenty differences. Among them are emphasis on the social life of the congregation, the importance of people rather than programs, and toughness which leads to survival.

Schaller, a prolific writer and authority on church growth, advocates emphasizing strengths rather than lamenting weaknesses. He suggests many alternatives for staffing and supporting small churches. He describes how they grow, and why many don't grow.

This book is filled with lists of various types-"Three Neglected Criteria," "Ten Questions," "Six Alternatives." In a table of contents these lists seem mechanical and uninteresting. But to those trying to plan programs and develop ministries, these lists, the copious statistics, and concrete illustrations offer models and suggestions which can lead to new life in stagnant congregations.

Schaller has written in a popular style. Lay leaders of small churches, as well as pastors and denominational leaders should take heart and gain insight from this hope-filled volume.

Reviewed by Joseph M. Martin, Professor of Missions, Edward Lane Bible Institute, Patrocinto, MG, Brazil

HOLY SCRIPTURE: CANON, AUTHORITY, CRITICISM by James Barr, Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1983, 182 pages, $9.95, paperback.

Based upon lectures delivered at Union Theological Seminary in Virginia in 1982, this book is written by James Barr, a professor at Oxford University.

As the title of the book suggests, Barr deals primarily with three topics: canon, authority, and criticism. Perhaps a quote from him on each of these topics will convey something of his ideas and writing style. The idea of an Old Testament canon is unsatisfactory, says Barr, "for it implies a clear distinction between scripture and nonscripture, inspired and noninspired, divine and human, authoritative and nonauthoritative, which very probably was not there."

On authority of scripture, Barr writes: ". . . in many cases it is 'conservatism,' or 'Calvinism,' or 'evangelicalism' that is the actual authority.... The Bible is fully authoritative, but it does not have the authority to question the accepted doctrinal tradition. "

of biblical criticism, Barr says it "followed Reformational exegesis in emphasizing what the biblical text actually said.... It is important to realize this, because hostile critics of biblical criticism have tended to represent it as if its criterion lav in so-called 'critical methods,' in schemes, theories, and approaches which have been worked out in isolation and then imposed upon the text."

This book will be of interest to the biblical scholar concerned with how the canon came to be and how authority became attached to it. Barr is a renowned scholar who reflects in this book his erudite learning and writing skills. Some of the implications contained in Barr's assertions will certainly disturb conservative Christians. Barr says that the words of Jesus in John 10:36 may be unhistorical (p. 16), Wellhausen's critical opinions of the Torah may be right (p. 7), the doctrine of scripture should never be a reason for separation from fellowship (p. 19) and II Timothy 3:16 says nothing about inerrancy or historical accuracy (p. 20).

The book is recommended reading because it will not only inform but stimulate further reading and discussion on a fundamental doctrine of the Christian faith, i.e., the canon and authority of scripture.

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.

SPIRITUALITY AND HUMAN EMOTION, by Robert C. Roberts. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1982. 134 pp., $7.95.

Spirituality and Human Emotion, in the words of its author Robert C. Roberts (who is a philosophy professor at Western Kentucky University), "requires a rather special reader, one who combines a certain ability to think with a desire to become something more than an intellectual master of Christianity" (p. vii). If we assume epistemologically that "intimacy is prior to symbol" (as enunciated, for example, by transpersonal theorist Ken Wilber), then we find that Roberts wishes, with admirable humility for the most part, to draw the intellectually inclined reader by means of analytical thought (i.e., "symbol") into a deeper "intimacy" with God.

Roberts' goal is thus to provide a credible, systematic f oundation for the "thought-full" Christian which will facilitate movement into that preeminently personal domain of character formation and faithful integrity.

Chapters 1 and 2 lay the basic groundwork. Roberts describes two contrasting approaches to "solving" the modern problem of widespread extra- and intra-ecelesiastical unbelief in the Christian gospel: (a) the "reinterpretation" approach, and (b) the "therapy" approach. Roberts reacts negatively to any "reinterpretation" of Christianity (a la Bultmann) which would "throw the baby out with the bath-water" in its attempt to make palatable to modern humanity the historic Christian faith. Rather we should look to "therapy" approaches such as that of Kierkegaard if we are to discover and remedy the source of our present alienation from Christianity: ourselves. The task of Christians is thus understood as one consisting of personal change through the cultivation of emotions (defined as "ways of 'seeing' things that concern us") which are congruent with the central Christian story and tradition.

Roberts maintains in Chapters 3 through 5 that the core passion" which underlies all Christian emotions is represented in the human "yearning for an eternal life of moral purity." A framework for conceptualizing spiritual development toward this core "passion" is offered which begins with the basic human propensity for investing finite life with ultimate import (what I call "Absolutizing the relative"). We all begin, and live much of our lives, here. Next there arises in the human breast a yearning for life beyond temporal limitations; this is followed by a desire for loving fellowship with God and neighbor. These latter two developments we might construe as the "Godward side of our nature" which seeks to transcend space/time limitations by living forever in communion with God and His creation. The Christian gospel, Roberts maintains, speaks directly to such ultimate concerns.

The eternal kingdom is the "reward" of a spirit who has developed in such a way that such a kingdom can took like a reward to it.... To people (even regular church-goers) who are concerned only about their health, pleasures, reputation, real estate, and bank account, the gospel will not be greeted with joy and gratitude. But to those who have opened themselves to the fact of their death and who have become deeply enough developed ethically to know what sin is and bate it, the message of the kingdom can indeed be the source of a new emotional life. (pp. 50, 73)

In the final chapters (6-8) Roberts studies three central components of this "new emotional life" in Christ. First is gratitude, a way of paying close attention to the loving interpenetration of our lives by an active and caring God. For those deficient in such a "concern-based construal" (i.e., emotion), Roberts suggests "praising God in words, in songs, in silent thoughts, and in actions" as both a means to developing the emotion of gratitude within, as well as an end (insofar as we are created anew each moment to be mindful of God).

A second key emotion for the Christian is hope. This hope, as delineated by Roberts, suggests our genuinely rejoicing in this life. Yet we are always to remain just enough nonattached from "things" and "ism's" to recognize the transcendence of God amidst a world which, when frantically clung to, can never satisfy our deepest needs.

Third, and finally, is the emotion of compassion. We learn to construe others with genuine compassion insofar as we come to accept our own frailty and suffering. Self-transparence in the here-and-now to our own "shadow" aspects, as indivisible from our present self, engenders a profoundly Christian "broad-mindedness" toward others. And just as our actions tend to influence our grateful and hopeful construal of God and creation, so do our gestures of compassionate identification with others-in Nouwen's memorable phrase, as the "wounded healer"-lead us gently into an in vivo realization of I-thou solidarity with our human sisters and brothers.

I found Roberts' emphasis throughout on spirituality in-action ("meditation occurring in the midst of the activities and interactions of life") as both refreshing and constructive. This by no means indicates that I agree with all of his interpretations along the way. (For example, his superficial rendering of 14th-century mystic Walter Hilton (p. 60f.) and sideswiping sarcasm (p. 92) pointed against, among others, process theologians, seem to detract from his general flow.) Yet as a volume complementary to recent treaties on the inner life of Christians (e.g., Merton, Nouwen, William Johnston, Gerald May, James Finley), the thoughts of Roberts have a welcome place in the current dialogue between Christian spirituality, Western (and Eastern) philosophies, and contemporary psychology.

Reviewed by Robert S. Weathers, Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California

BETRAYERS OF THE TRUTH by William Broad and Nicholas Wade. Simon and Schuster, NY, 256 pp. $14.95, 1982.

This is an important book. The authors, both reporters for Science magazine (Wade is now with The New York Times) raise the discomforting issue of "Fraud and Deceit in the Halls of Science," the phrase serving as their subtitle. This book is written from a secular perspective and, as such, offers no explicitly Christian insights. However, because the authors write as well-informed non-scientists (isn't it interesting that the term layman is used in contrast to both clergyman and scientist?) they offer a valuable perspective on the issue of scientific fraud.

Broad and Wade cite examples from the history of science wherein famous people have been guilty of scientific deception. Claudius Ptolemy plagiarized the work of a Greek astronomer and published it as his own. The statistics in Gregor Mendel's work which served as the foundation of genetics are too good to be true. The authors also offer other, more recent examples of the misrepresentation of scientific results. Included are the case of Elias Alsabti, William Summerlin, and John Darsee among others. Alsabti plagiarized a number of scientific papers, perhaps sixty in all, moving from one institution to another each time he got caught. Surnmerlin tried to bolster his research by faking the results of skin transplants in mice (he painted black areas on white mice with a magic marker). Darsee fabricated data in his part of a multi-center heart study invalidating research costing nearly $200,000.

After shouting that the Emperor has no Clothes, which they seem to enjoy just a bit too much, Broad and Wade set out to see what can be learned (from their case studies of fraud) about the way in which science is actually done. They are on solid ground when they point out that, contrary to what scientists tell the general public and may believe themselves, science is not simply a clear-cut search for the truth. Truth is all very Well, but most of the people whom we think of as scientists are more concerned with the baser stuff of professional life: achieving tenure, getting recognition and prestige, or proving their pet theory. The result of this attitude, which we may as well recognize as pride, is that sometimes the truth suffers.

Broad and Wade also point out the problems with the scientific publication process. The issue of authorship is the most dif f icult here. Deciding who is to receive credit when a piece of research is published can be considerably more difficult to work out than the original research. The authors also argue persuasively that the majority of science that is published is not repeatable by another scientist who reads that article.

I pray that this book will have the effect of calling the scientific community to face a problem that is larger than we would like to admit. For example, I was pleased to see recently that the American Chemical Society has published a set of proposed guidelines which delineate the ethical responsibilities of each participant in the scientific publication process: the author, editor and reviewer. I don't know if this book was the impetus, but it is certainly timely. We who serve the Lord Jesus Christ in the scientific vocation must take part in the fight to see that what is published as science is neither false nor presented under false pretences. Reading this book is a good place to begin.

Reviewed by Bob Seevers Jr., Division of Nuclear Medicine, Michael Reese Hosmtal, Chicago, Illinois.

A CHRISTIAN CRITIQUE OF THE UNIVERSITY by Charles Habib Malik. Downers Grove, IL., Inter-Varsity Press, 1982, 118 pages, $4.50

Charles Habib Malik, the distinguished scholar and diplomat, has in this volume given us an expanded version of the lectures he delivered in March of 1981 at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. They comprise the third annual Pascal Lectures on Christianity and the University and follow those given by Malcolm Muggeridge in 1978 (The End of Christendom) and Donald MacKay in 1979 (Science and the Quest for Meaning.)

Dr. Malik writes with passion and conviction. His intent is to arouse slumbering Christians to the power of the university ("the dominating institution in the world today"), to encourage Christians to ponder what Christ thinks of the university, and to propose a line of action to foster its reclamation for Christ.

The university, he notes, is one of the greatest creations of Western civilization but it has wandered far from its initial moorings in Christ and his Church. In two central chapters of the book he surveys the situation of both the sciences and the humanities.

Discussing the sciences he makes various observations of which the following are examples: All truth is sacred and none falls outside Christ's province; anxiety and stress due to the strain of keeping up with advances in one's field is a mode of evil; competence in one field does not qualify one to speak authoritatively in other fields; the scientist is as human as another "in that he suffers, loses his temper, is tempted ... envies, resents, schemes, hates. . . ."

He notes that evolution has "almost replaced truth as the first principle of the university; it is itself the truth." Malik gives a philosophically prudent and measured response and then issues a novel and arresting challenge to the evolutionist to make an effort to acquaint himself firsthand with authentic religious existence. He argues that the scientist needs to become familiar with the irreducible, spiritual nature of human beings and suggests that he or she become familiar with the church's variegated liturgy, the Bible, great religious art, sacred music, Russian iconography, the lives of the saints, metaphysical poetry of the seventeenth century, and actually live for some time in an existing rooted Christian community. "There is," Malik says, 11 no truth without gathering in all the evidence" and authentic religious existence "unconceals a side of human nature (creatureliness, adoration, love, community, self-overcoming, self-giving, self-forgetting, hope, trust) that no other side dreams of."

Speaking of the humanities, Malik laments that universities today pass over in silence any reference to something genuinely transcendent. Secularism appears to be a studied policy with the atmosphere dominated by "rationalist-relativisthumanist-monist-immanentist" perspectives. Malik offers brief comments on such perspectives as well as others including naturalism, subjectivism, skepticism, technologism, cynicism and nihilism. Particularly sobering and to the point are his pages on the sway of superstition and magic in modern times.

In all of this Malik speaks as a sensitive, learned Christian humanist, a man devoted to Christ and the highest possibilities of human life under his Lordship. At times his prose becomes oratorical and the devotional element pronounced. Such a tone is unfamiliar, so accustomed have we become to separating mind and heart, intellect and spirit. In Malik, however, analysis and devotion blend in a way that arrests and challenges-and that alone is reason enough why this book should be read.

Malik's real burden surfaces in the last two brief chapters. There he proposes that Christians begin to undertake a long-term goal of recapturing the great universities of the world for Christ. Given the truth that the university is "a clear-cut fulcrum with which to move the world," Malik believes nothing (save evangelizing the world) to be more important than making a concentrated effort to bring them back to Christ's embrace even if it takes a century or more. To that end he proposes an "Institute" be formed that would meet four to six times a year and be located in Washington, Paris, or Rome. It would be composed of twenty-four members and be "dedicated to monitoring the university from the standpoint of Jesus Christ. " It would elaborate a full Christian critique of the university and it would utilize a staff of thinkers, researchers and technicians in its further work of formulating practical steps to "bring Christ back to the university." He recommends a feasibility study be done as soon as possible.

Malik's proposal is bold and visionary. What will become of it I cannot say. The magnitude of the task staggers the imagination. At the very least, a book such as this challenges our lethargy and focuses our gaze on horizons most of us have had neither the courage nor the spiritual vision to contemplate.

Reviewed by Martin R. Johnson, P.O. Box 18916, Asheville, N.C. 28804

CREATIVE COUPLES by Wallace Denton and Juanita Holt Denton, Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1983, 153 pages, $8.95 paperback.

The emphasis in this book is on enrichment not compatibility, growth not stagnation. The authors are interested in making marriages better-not in just trying to salvage those gone awry. They approvingly quote the slogan from the 1960s: "You don't have to be sick to get better." This book is for couples who want a better marriage.

The Dentons give sage advice based on personal experience and academic preparation. As parents they have learned something about child rearing, but they do not pose as experts. "We are convinced that anyone who professes to know much about how to rear your children will lie about other things as well." In addition, they have twenty-five years , experience in working with families, conducting family enrichment seminars, reading the literature and teaching family relationships.

The starting point in a good marriage is the individual. There can be no growing couples apart from growing individuals. The growth factor in marriage is dealt with by the Dentons as it relates to family, friends, sex, parents, and children. An appendix contains questions and exercises which could be used profitably in exploring the marriage relationship.

This book is written by a compassionate couple concerned with the nurture and care of marriages in a turbulent age. Their advice is informed and helpful.

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.

NUTRITION FOR CHRISTIANS, by Mary Ruth Swope, Swope Enterprises, Inc., Melbourne, Florida 32901, (1981), 309 pp.

Nutrition is indeed in many aspects a Christian issue with one of the strongest arguments arising from the need to maintain our bodies as temples of God. Unfortunately, most people fail to see the correlation between what they consume and their general state of health. Dr. Swope's book helps to create an awareness of dietary habits and health as she addresses the key issues of needed reform in the U.S. today: decrease consumption of fats, sugar, meat, salt, calories, etc. The spiritual concepts that she equates with nutrition are worth considering, for there are many parallels between nutrition and Christianity.

It is unfortunate, however, that Swope's book is not more scholarly; this criticism stems from the format as well as the content. The former is reprehensible due to frequent capitalization and to the large number of illustrations that seem to come from overheads appropriate for the "Nutrition with a Mission" lectures that she gives. These overhead type illustrations are out of place in a serious consideration of this topic. The content is faulty in several major areas. Attempts to base specific scientific principles on biblical verses are generally unsuccessful, and Swope's book is no exception. Many of the verses used for support of her nutritional philosophies have been extrapolated in a feeble manner. Trying to base our diet on the biblical fragments given on Jesus' diet is tenuous. Not only are there too many gaps in our knowledge, but even if a complete dietary recall was given it would be inappropriate because Westerners need a diet different from their Eastern counterparts due to differences in climate and evolutionary adaptations to those differences.

Nutrition is a constantly changing science and Swope realizes that it is difficult for the layman to sift through all the information proffered to the public. Some of the nutritional 11 truths" that she presents are open to criticism. For instance, saying that vitamin supplements are not efficient or economical and then condemning a "natural" granola type cereal because it doesn't measure up to its fortified counterparts is faulty logic. Her criticism of natural and organic foods is especially serious. The section on Spiritual Fitness, where analogies are drawn between spiritual concepts and nutrition is particularly weak.

Nutrition for Christians contains many thought provoking ideas and does have some sound nutritional concepts, but it is not a scholarly book. It is designed to be eye-catching to the layman but it is far from a serious treatment of complex issues.

Reviewed by Carol Wheeler, Houghton College, Houghton, New York 14744.

THE APOCALYPTIC PREMISE: NUCLEAR ARMS DEBATED, edited by Ernest W. Lefever and E. Stephen Hunt, Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1666 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, December 1982; 430 pp. $9 paper.

The debate on nuclear arms achieved new levels of public consciousness in 1982. Unfortunately, this debate thus far has concentrated upon the weapons themselves and generally has failed to discuss the short and long term effects of U.S. and Soviet nuclear and conventional arms on both western security and on the larger issue of freedom in the world. Too often public discussion of nuclear arms is distorted by ignorance, naivet6, deception, and exaggerated hopes and fears. And for this reason, The Apocalyptic Premise is a welcome addition to the literature about nuclear arms.

Ernest Lefever and Stephen Hunt have produced a book to help the thinking public appreciate many of the complex aspects of the nuclear arms debate. Their book, The Apocalyptic Premise: Nuclear Arms Debated, contains thirty-one selections that present a very broad and well-balanced perspective and that reveal many of the diverse views on nuclear arms held by American, European, and Russian political leaders, religious authorities, scholars, policy experts, journalists, and political activists. These selections are representative of the dominant themes in the current debate and are drawn from recognized leaders of those addressing nuclear arms issues. Included among the spokesmen are political leaders such as Edward Kennedy, Robert McNamara, Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and Leonid Brezhnev. Religious spokesmen include Pope John Paul II, Catholic bishops, the United Methodists Council of Bishops, and the National Council of Churches. Other authors range from Vladimir Bukovsky to Herman Kahn to Jonathan Schell. These thirtyone essays and addresses are grouped into f ive categories: Arms Control Issues, The Peace Movement, The Apocalyptic Premise (i.e., what would happen should there be a nuclear holocaust), The Churches and Nuclear Arms, the Official Views.

The Apocalyptic Premise does not allow the nuclear arms debate to restrict itself merely to the sobering nuclear aspects, but forces one to think more broadly about human freedom and justice. The reader is reminded of the ten million people who have died in the 140 conflicts since the end of World War 11, none of which has taken place in Western Europe which lies under the protection of the U.S. nuclear umbrella. Bukovsky's essay on "The Soviet Role in the Peace Movement" may disturb some with its description of Soviet brutal aggressiveness and duplicity. Jonathan Schell's article on "The Fate of the Earth" challenges the reader to consider the need for a move to utopia, but Lefever and Hunt's comments force the reader also to ask "how?"

Every responsible citizen, especially Christians, should be aware of the issues related to nuclear arms because of their potential impact on our world. Adroit editing of selections to focus attention upon essential elements of the arguments, brief introductions to selections which summarize their ideas and relate them to other elements of the nuclear arms debate, and the logical arrangement of the book make it especially valuable for the reader who has not been immersed in the literature of the nuclear arms debate. The editors leave the reader to decide which arguments are most compelling.

It is unfortunate that The Apocalyptic Premise does not include spokesmen explicitly representing Evangelical Christianity. Unfortunately, Evangelicals do not seem to have addressed this issue directly with sufficient depth and persistence to warrant inclusion of a representative selection in this book.

Reviewed by D. K. Pace, The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland.

ISLAM AND CHRISTIAN WITNESS, by Martin Goldsmith, InterVarsity Press, 1982, 157 pp. Paperback, $4.95

From the time of Mohammed, Christians have been eager to convert his followers, who number 700 million today (2 million in the U.S.A. with a large Islamic Center in Washington, D.C.). The author, sometime missionary to the Muslims in Southeast Asia, notes that this foreign mission field has spread to include home missions. Currently a lecturer on missiology at All Nations Christian College (Ware, England), he presents clearly the unique intellectual and spiritual challenge presented by Muslims,

In his Introduction be discusses the basics of Islam-One God, Mohammed, Heaven and Hell, The Quran, and The Five Pillars (faith, prayer, fasting, alms, pilgrimage). After a brief review of Islam's historical contacts in Chapter 1, be presents its four major fronts today; namely, Materialism, Marxism, Zionism and Israel, Mysticism and Eastern Religions. The next two chapters are devoted to Muslim theology. "Islam's Strengths" are that Islam is the final revelation, God is one, Islam is one, ethics, and that life has no separate compartments-" Man, Sin, and Satan." (It is regrettable that he does not discuss science and Islam.) The distinctive non-Christian features are the absence of original sin and the emphasis upon obedience to God in lieu of love.

Out of his field experience the author points out "Stumbling Blocks to the Gospel"-the Trinity, corrupted scriptures, the fact that "They don't think," and the slogan "Death to apostates.' Islam "stands strongly against the Christian Gospel." One is compelled to ask, What has Christianity to offer? The author suggests "a Gospel rooted in history," a different God, Jesus the Son of God, the Holy Spirit-not to mention Christian marriage. He gives specific advice on "How to Witness" by discussing whether it should be done by dialogue or proclamation, through existing churches or by groups or individuals, or with "Parabolic preaching." The missionary must adapt his methods to the Muslim situation. There is a chapter on "The Muslim Convert, " and his peculiar problem, whether to remain in Islam or to attend a so-called Messianic Church. The concluding chapter deals with "The Church Today in Muslim Societies," e.g., Indonesia, Malaysia, Tropical Africa, immigrants and students in Europe, Afghanistan, and the Middle East. The author calls attention to the unique opportunity afforded lay Christians to witness for Christ to Muslims all over the world.

The book is a valuable manual for "Sharing the Faith with Muslims, " its subtitle. it is highly recommended.

Reviewed by Raymond J. Seeger, (NSF retired), 4507 Wetherill Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20816.

THE OUTLINE OF SANITY by Alzina Stone Dale, Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1982, 354 pages, $18.95.

Gilbert Keith Chesterton gained fame in the first third of this century as a writer and public speaker. In addition, he was a Christian who was recognized by the Pope as the defender of the faith in England. Perhaps one reason he is not well known by evangelicals is that he was a member of the Roman Catholic Church. In England, the 1. rather clannish Roman Catholics" made up a significant part of Chesterton's audience. His Christian commitment was conveyed through his radio talks, religious books and public speeches and debates. One of his most famous adversaries in debate was George Bernard Shaw who claimed Christ was a failure. This elicited witty and persuasive rhetoric from Chesterton.

Chesterton visited the United States where he grew fond of Americans but disliked their materialism. In 1930, on his last visit, Chesterton was awarded an honorary degree by Notre Dame where he also saw Knute Rockne's undefeated football team beat Navy. In New York City he debated Clarence Darrow on creation versus evolution.

Many personal details about Chesterton are given such as his inability to manage money, time or appetite, and his belief that his brother Cecil was greater than he. Cecil wrote an anonymous biography of Gilbert which was error prone and detrimentally influenced subsequent biographies.

This book firmly places Chesterton in the social, political and religious context of his day. it provides a chronology of his prolific writing, showing bow it reveals his philosophy. Perhaps his most famous fictional vehicle for this was his priest-detective, Father Brown. Over 60 books have been Written about Chesterton, but this is the first complete biography in 40 years. It is thoroughly researched and documented (38 pages of footnotes and bibliography). Alzina Stone Dale has presented a renowned Christian writer in an interesting and helpful way. It is recommended reading.

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.

REPORT ON THE SHROUD OF TURIN by Dr. John H. Heller. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 225 pp., $15.95, 1983.

In 1978 a team of scientists from the United States spent 120 hours examining the Shroud of Turin with every piece of modern scientific equipment they could squeeze into a makeshift laboratory in the royal palace of the House of Savoy. The Shroud of Turin Research Project or STURP had prepared for that moment for some time. Since then they have spent uncounted hours analyzing the data they obtained. This book, by a member of the team, documents that preparation and the later analysis.

The Shroud of Turin's history is documented from the time it appeared in France over 600 years ago, but its origins are obscure. It is a linen cloth, fourteen feet long by three and a half feet wide. Two faint straw-colored images are on the cloth of the front and back of a nude man who appears to have been scourged and crucified. The question addressed by STURP was how did the image get there? it was already known that the image had two curious properties. First, it is the equivalent of a photographic negative (a concept unknown until the development of photography in the ninteenth century). Equally puzzling is the fact that the image contains three-dimensional information impossible to duplicate in a painting.

Naturally, the book focuses on Heller's own area of inquiry which was carried out on fibers obtained from the Shroud during the examination in 1978. In fact, Heller obviously had the cooperation of the team members who went to Italy, because his account of the preparations for and the actual examination of the Shroud gives the reader a genuine feeling of being there. As a matter of fact, I am glad that the book pays particular attention to Heller's search for blood on the fibers from the areas of the image which appear to be bloodstains because it is on this question that there has been the most public controversy. Walter McCrone examined the same fibers microscopically and reported his conclusions that the color is due to iron oxide and that the image is painted on the cloth. Heller devotes a large section of the book to a careful explanation of the biochemical work which led him to conclude that the red stains are undoubtedly blood. This is the best part of the book. Heller relates the thought processes which led him to develop the microchernical tests he performed to demonstrate the presence of hemoglobin on the fibers. One need not be a biochemist to understand Heller's explanations, but he does not oversimplify. He also shares his frustration and that of other STURP members with McCrone's unwillingness to discuss the variance of his conclusions from those of the rest of the team. Heller has included a complete bibliography of all the material published by members of STURP, including McCrone, in the scientific literature so that the reader can check for herself.

What does it all mean? Is the Shroud a silent witness to the truth of the Gospel accounts? The scientists who examined the Shroud were from various faiths and included atheists and agnostics as well. They have reported their conclusion that the image was formed on the cloth by no known process, but have refused to say that it was the burial shroud of Jesus. As one of the STURP members said, "We do not have a test for Jesus Christ." If the Shroud did not exist or if it were a fake, it would not change the Gospel evidence for the life, death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth and that is where my faith begins. I recommend this book for anyone interested in an entertaining, unsensationalized, and rather personal account of the scientific investigation of the puzzle posed by the Shroud of Turin.

Reviewed by Bob Seevers Jr., Division of Nuclear Medicine, Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Illinois.

EMPIRICISM AND GEOGRAPHICAL THOUGHT: FROM FRANCIS BACON TO ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT by Margarita Bowen, (Cambridge Geographical Studies, 15) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981, XV-351 pp, $49.50.

Admittedly, most ASA members are unlikely to view "Empiricism and Geographical Thought: From Francis Bacon to Alexander von Humboldt" as their cup of tea, but it is not without some relevance to the themes of science, faith and philosophy that perennially enliven our journal. Its central focus is the development (following Galileo and Bacon) of an allegedly reductionist approach to science which began with empiricism and terminated in positivism; a trend based on the assumption that the individual observer was in direct contact with objective facts which yielded objective truth regardless of the social and ideological context that framed his perceptions. In Margarita Bowen's view, such individualistic sense-empiricism initially fostered the growth of increasingly specialized individual sciences but inhibited attention to unifying concepts including that of an overarching terrestrial ecosystem. Geography, placed at a disadvantage, was reduced to mapping places and recording uncoordinated phenomena, and the area vacated by science was unscientifically filled by physico-theology with its "preordained world of divine providence" (p. 172).

Quite obviously, Margarita Bowen is not overly friendly to the divine design theory" (p. 159), nor to the early "mixture of religious dogma and useful pioneer contributions to the natural sciences" (p. 106). Pre-Copernican concepts lingered long in textbooks espoused by the devout, and even if the bymn-writer Isaac Watts up-dated the solar system his geography text mingled religiosity and mediocrity. Others stressed cosmic catastrophe and floodwaters as they described the surface of the very youthful earth, that volcanic eruptions (Oregonians please note) were providential alternatives to earthquakes, population increase was ordained to further colonial expansion, and they displayed a "tendency to associate geography with both European imperialism and Christian evangelism" (p. 148).

One need not deny the point of such remarks to wish that underlying issues in the developing relationship of science and religion had been more profoundly discussed, that the views of seventeenth-century Reformed scholars such as Keekermann and Carpenter on the proper independence of geography from theology had been mentioned, and that evolution was not simply contraposed to divine planning. But such issues are peripheral to the main thrust of the argument. This involves, chapter by chapter, a rather skillful alternation from the philosophy of science and epistemology in particular to the development (or impoverishment) of geography. As Bowen sees it, despite Isaac Newton's interest in Geographia Generalis, the premature death of its author, Varenius, and the dominance of empiricism left geography out of phase with the growth of the sciences until philosophers such as Kant and especially Humboldt-the patron saint of the book, as well as of the humanist movement-revived scientific concern for both the unity of knowledge and the "harmonious whole" of the cosmos. In his persistent search for the geographical and ecological interweavings of a complexity of phenomena inclusive of man and the products of his mind, in his application of firm statistical data to questions of economic and political justice, and in his effort to place the development of scientific concepts within their historical context, Humboldt is presented as adumbrating a postpositivist age concerned with both the sociology of knowledge and the moral implications of science.

This is scarcely the place for an evaluation of Bowen's views, interesting if debatable as they are, on the philosophy of science in general and task of geography in particular. Suffice to say that despite its plea for a holistic approach which embraces the moral nature and service of mankind, the book seems rather self-consciously secular. The morality it advocates seems "to be sought in nature itself, not from some supernatural source" (pp. 261-2). And if Bowen approvingly quotes Gregory Bateson regarding the existence of "a larger Mind of which the individual mind is only a sub-system," she hastily adds that this is a fallible mind shared by all humanity, 11 not the omniscient Mind of an infallible Creator" (pp. 274-5). Is there a hint that secularism, here as elsewhere, doth sometimes protest too much?

Reviewed by Gordon R. Lewthwaite, Professor of Geography, California State University, Northridge, California

THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD IN AN AGE OF EMANCIPATION. By William Adolp Visser't Hooft. Philadelphia; Westminster Press, 1982. pp. xi + 163. $7.95.

In this book Visser't Hoof t, former General Secretary of the World Council of Churches, seeks to delineate the relevancy of the fatherhood of God concept, which was central to the message of Jesus, for the contemporary situation with its emphasis on emancipation from paternalism. This is a crucial task, he notes, for

"We cannot eliminate fatherhood from the gospel without destroying its very meaning" (p. 1), but at the same time children raised in a non-paternal society might reject the gospel as an anachronism from the authoritarian past. The author's solution lies between two extremes with which he is sympathetic, but which be sees as leading nowhere, namely radical emancipation movements (including feminism) and the conservative defense of the cohesion of society and the validity of traditional norms.

After two short introductory chapters and a third which describes the Old Testament and Roman roots of Western paternalism, Visser't Hoof t devotes the major portion of the book to providing short historical sketches of the various emancipation movements in Western society, climaxed by 11 the revolt against the fatherhood of God."

The last third of the book contains Visser't Hooft's response to emancipation. His review of history brings him to conclude that the utopia envisioned by emancipators, whether evolutionary or revolutionary, has been disappointing, because it has brought a pluralistic society lacking an accepted system of values. Thus, "the struggle for emancipation has shown the depth of the human desire for freedom but has failed to satisfy the human wish for participation in a larger whole which would give deeper significance to the life of each individual" (p. 113). Nevertheless, the process of emancipation will continue, he suggests, even though the freedom it brings can be abused to the point of the disintegration of society itself.

It is this ominous possibility which brings Visser't Hooft back to the message of Jesus concerning the fatherhood of God. He notes from the New Testament that this message is not one of paternalism. Rather than resisting the coming age of his children, God gives them room to live in freedom. Therefore, emancipation from a paternal God is a welcomed revolt against a caricature. At the same time, however, emancipation cannot be the final goal, for it is unable by itself to build human society. This end demands an invoking of Jesus' message of the future kingdom of the Father in which sin and suffering will be overcome. This, the author concludes, is the message of the church in the contemporary setting.

Visser't Hooft has provided a succinct, but perceptive analysis of the roots of the current intellectual mood of Western society. His underlying thesis concerning the importance of an ordering vision for the cohesion of society is similar to that articulated by Robert Bellah and others, as is his understanding of the importance of the church in providing a transcendent vision. His "middle way" between radicalism and reactionary conservatism is also worthy of consideration by the church. The book would have been strengthened, however, if less space had been devoted to personal reflections on the past (perhaps excusable when coming from an elder statesman of the author's stature) and if the biblical materials dealing with Jesus' non-patriarchal understanding of God had been developed further.

Reviewed by Stanley J. Grenz, Associate Professor of Systematic Theology and Christian Ethics, North American Baptist Seminary, 1605 S. Euclid, Sioux Falls, SD 57105

GREEK RHETORIC UNDER CHRISTIAN EMPERORS by George A. Kennedy, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1983, $35.00 cloth, $11.50 paper, 333 pages.

This volume is the latest in a series of works on the history and development of rhetoric, especially that derived from the ancient world. Upon that base, the author carries it on through the Middle Ages. In this particular book, the third in a straight history of rhetoric, he concentrates on the period beginning with Constantine through the sixth century, with two shorter final chapters devoted to the medieval period from 600 through 1453 and the fall of the Byzantine Empire at the hands of the Turks.

The first portion concentrates on the forms and features of the rhetoric. The reason for this is given quite clearly. "The classical world regarded logical and eloquent speech, effectively delivered, as the most characteristic feature of civilized life." (p. 3) He then proceeds with judicial rhetoric, giving various examples of types and of the persons who made use of them. This is followed by deliberative oratory of a political nature as exhibited in late antiquity. Epideictic oratory is considered and is given a prominent place throughout the book. It illustrates the importance placed upon eloquence in public life. Prominent examples cited are funeral orations and speeches given on public festive occasions.

Later Greek rhetorical theory is taken up in detail. (ch. 2) It is set forth for the most part in transliterated Greek nomenclature. Again, ample examples are given. One of the most stressed is stasis. "Stasis is the basic issue of a dispute and results from the stance taken by the antagonists." (p. 75) Cases at law are a clear illustration. Then, various types of examples are provided.

In the third chapter, schools of the sophists are described. He explains, "Sophist is commonly used in the time of the Roman Empire to mean a lecturer in rhetoric." (p. 123) Himerius, Libanius and the schools of Antioch, Constantinople, and Gaza are described, leading to their closing by Justinian. With this the system ended. In the next chapter (4) considerable attention is given to the Arian controversy which rocked the Church, Athanasius, and Gregory of Nazianzus. Then John Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuesta and the Nestorian controversy as related to the oratory which accompanied the theological debate are recounted along with other persons and matters. The last two chapters delineate the continuance of rhetoric in medieval Constantinople, central figures being Photius and Michael Psellus. In an evaluation of this later period, be states, "The Byzantines provided few new insights into the nature of rhetoric; they preserved the heritage of antiquity in its technical, philosophical and sophistic strands as these had been defined in late antiquity and they applied this to their own speech and writing in the high style." (p. 325)

This book is of primary concern to the classicist. It makes constant reference to the technical terminology of the period. While a knowledge of Greek is not actually required, it certainly helps. Transliteration of these terms into Greek, mostly italicized, and making occasional reference to a classical Greek lexicon certainly serves to fasten down the definition and the point he is seeking to put across in given contexts. It is no volume for someone seeking suggestions to improve light, casual speeches. However, anyone wishing to know the methods used and the types of rhetorical devices utilized by some of the great orators and personalities of the period, this is an invaluable and detailed source. A careful reading will certainly increase knowledge of technical rhetorical nomenclature and the contexts in which it has been used. A glossary of the rhetorical meaning of some of these Greek transliterations in an appendix would certainly be most helpful to the less initiated. All in all, it is an excellent book for the serious student of the classical period in general and ancient rhetoric in particular.

Reviewed by Edmund R. Woodside, 3530 Damien Ave. #179, La Verne CA 91750