Science in Christian Perspective

Book Reviews


JASA Book Reviews for March 1982

Table of Contents
THE HUMAN PSYCHE, by John C. Eccles, Springer International, Berlin, 1980, 279 pp. Dm44.
THE MYSTERIOUS MATTER OF MIND, by Arthur C. Custance, Christian Free University Curriculum, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1980, 105 pp., $2.95.
WHAT ARE THEY SAYING ABOUT CREATION. by Zachary Hayes, O.F.M. Paulist Press, New York, 1980. 120 pp. $2.95.
WHATEVER HAPPENED TO EDEN? by John R. Sheaffer and Raymond H. Brand. Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, 11. 1980. Paperback, 151 pp. $4.95.
BIO-BABEL: CAN WE SURVIVE THE NEW BIOLOGY? by Allen R. Utke. John Knox Press, Atlanta. 1978. 247 pp. $11.95.
WHERE DO WE STAND? by Harry Blamires, Servant Books, 1980. 158 pp. $7.95. Ann Arbor, Michigan.
THE MESSIAHSHIP OF JESUS: What Jews and Jewish Christians Say and How Jewish Attitudes are Changing, by Arthur W. Kac (Compilator), Moody Press, Chicago, 1980, 351 pages. $9.95 (paperback).
THE EDGE OF CONTINGENCY: FRENCH CATHOLIC REACTION TO SCIENTIFIC CHANGE FROM DARWIN TO DUHEM by Harry W. Paul. 213 pp., bibl., index. Gainesville, Florida: University Presses of Florida, 1979. $15.00
THE POST-DARWINIAN CONTROVERSIES: A STUDY OF THE PROTESTANT STRUGGLE TO COME TO TERMS WITH DARWIN IN GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA, 1870-1900 by James R. Moore. xi+502 pp., bibl., index. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. $39.50, cloth; $19.50, paperback.
SCIENCE AND RELIGION IN AMERICA: 1800-1860, by Herbert Hovenkamp, Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978, 273 pages.
THE CHALLENGE OF MARXISM: A CHRISTIAN RESPONSE, by Klaus Bockmuehl. Downers Grove, III: Intervarsity Press, 1980. Index included; 187 pages, not including index. $4.95.
FOSSILS: KEY TO THE PRESENT, by Richard B. Bliss, Gary E. Parker, and Duane T, Gish, CLP Publishers, San Diego, California. Paper, 81 -pages. $4.95.
THE TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, by Ernst Wurthwein, 2nd English edition. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980. Pp. 244. $8.95
THE SPIRITUAL NATURE OF MAN, by Alister Hardy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979, 162 pp., $19.95. 
Ralph P. Martin, Eerdmans, 1980, $4.95, 142 pages.
by Eugene H. Peterson, Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1980, 197 pp., $4.95.

THE HUMAN PSYCHE, by John C. Eccles, Springer International, Berlin, 1980, 279 pp. Dm44.
THE MYSTERIOUS MATTER OF MIND, by Arthur C. Custance, Christian Free University Curriculum, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1980, 105 pp., $2.95.

The Human Psyche contains the 1979 Gifford Lectures delivered by Sir John Eccles at the University of Edinburgh. The lectures are an extension of those delivered as the first series of Gifford Lectures in 1978, and published as The Human Mystery (Springer, 1979). A review of this latter work appeared in the March 1980 issue of the Joumal of the American Scientific Affiliation, and much I wrote at that time applies with equal force to the present work. If anything, however, Eccles is more explicit about the dualism he envisages between brain and mind, while he openly acknowledges his indebtedness to Christianity.

Eccles is at pains to "restore to human persons a belief in their spiritual nature superimposed on their material body and brain" (p. IX). For him, this can be accomplished (perhaps, only accomplished) via the philosophical position of dualist-interactionism.

Chapter I is both a resume' of his fundamental position, based as it is on Popper's three-world philosophy, and a rebuff of criticisms of this position. The former of these is a useful summary, but the response to his critics is cursory and insubstantial. Radical materialism, pan-psychism, epiphenomenalism and the identity theory are each dismissed in a few paragraphs. The difficulty is that his refutations of these rival hypotheses are referred to repeatedly later in the book, as if the arguments on which they are based are thoroughly reasoned through. Unfortunately, they are not.

Eccles is at pains to elaborate a structural basis for brainmind interaction. As outlined in Chapter 2, this is provided by the subdivision of the brain's neocortex into columns (modules), each column consisting of a few thousand nerve cells. This is a fascinating chapter and most instructive for neurobiologists. Eccles' speculations about ways in which the columns may operate and interact are equally fascinating, and also highly creative. The speculations become questionable however, when a distinct self-conscious mind is introduced, necessitating liaison of this mind with the cortical columns and demanding its accommodation within neurobiological theory. This, of course, is crucial to dualistic interactionism.

But how, we may ask, is it possible to speak meaningfully of an ascientific concept interacting with a physical entity? What does it mean to say that: "the self-conscious mind can scan the activity of each module of the liaison brain . . 1) (p. 46), or that: "the self-conscious mind acts in modifying slightly some of these modules. . . . " (p. 47)? Eccles nowhere brooches this issue, and yet at the end of each chapter he uses terminology of this nature. This mixture of philosophy and neuroscience is tantalizing to the sceptic, and yet it seems to be the only means by which Eccles can solve "the impossible task of deriving a mental world out of a material world of neuronal circuits" (p. 49). For Eccles, mental and material worlds exist, the mental world controlling the material-that is, the mind controlling the brain.

Chapters on sensory perception, electrical properties of the brain, the emotions, levels of consciousness, creativity, and altruism and aggression are all strong on neurobiology but weak on philosophy. Remarkably little attention is paid to a detailed outworking of dualism in these areas. In some instances, the distinct impression is given of a God-of-the gaps approach. Unsolved neurobiological. problems are open to a dualistic interpretation, with the mind providing the final link in some piece of neuronal machinery. All too readily the mind assumes anthropomorphic characteristics, with its ready-made answers to immensely complex, and perhaps baffling, neuronal questions.

Eccles readily equates non-dualistic hypotheses with materialistic (in the philosophical sene) ones. When the proponents of such materialistic theories have no explanations of specific phenomena, they are condemned. After all, dualistic interactionism-by its very nature-always has answers: the mind can invariably be resorted to as the cause of an observed set of data.

It is sad to have to make such assessments of Eccles' major attempt at a brain-mind synthesis. It deserves better, and yet because Eccles never meets the philosophical issues head-on, it is doomed to failure. He tackles far too wide a compass, with the result that he has to depend on far too many unsubstantiated and wistful longings. It may be encouraging to be told that "human beings are born with the potentiality to become fine human persons living in harmony with their fellow beings" and that the writings of Morris and Ardrey are "subversive" (p. 212), but strong arguments are required to substantiate such statements. Eccles also demonstrates a tendency to rebut arguments by quoting contrary opinion. In this way he disposes of Monod's views expressed in Chance and Necessity. Again however, solid argumentation would have been more convincing.

Far too much is expected of dualist-interactionism, and yet Eccles revels in this. For him, it solves not only many neurobiological dilemmas, but also provides rationales for the uniqueness of individuals (unique individuality comes from the infused soul", p. 240), freedom of the will, and immortality of the soul. Finally, he reveals that he is "not antithetic to Christianity, in which I am a believer" (p. 252). It is unfortunate though, that he sees just two options: dualism-interactionism with its expression of a religious hope, and materialism with its lack of any eternal hope.

For Eccles, terms such as mind, soul and psyche are interchangeable, and together constitute one of the two essential substances of the world-alongside the material entities of brain and body. Arthur C. Custance in The Mysterious Matter of Mind, written for Probe Ministries, goes along with Eccles and other dualists in this distinction. Custance's book appears to be designed to promulgate the explicit dualism of Eccles and other neurobiologists, such as Sir Charles Sherrington and Wilder Penfield. Incidentally, Custance inaccurately states the Eccles' work was carried out in the British Isles; it should have been Australial

The views of these writers are clearly stated by Custance, whose book constitutes a relatively easy introduction to their thought. Unfortunately, his aim is to propagate dualism as exemplified by these writers, rather than critically assess it. Implicit throughout the book therefore, is the assumption that dualism is the position-of-choice for Christians. No attempt is made even to state this, let alone justify it, until the epilogue. Even here though it is inadequately dealt with; many unequivocal statements about the dual (body-soul) nature of man are not substantiated, but are simply put forward as the view of the biblical writers (p. 90). When biblical evidence is given (p. 93) it is again not worked through.

Custance's book demonstrates yet again the difficulties of fusing scientific and philosophical approaches. Custance is overly critical of scientific endeavor, because it fails to take account of concepts, such as mind, derived from outside science. Nonetheless, he is forced to rely on data about the brain gained, naturally enough, using strictly scientific procedures. This is a problem for dualist-interactionists, one I would like to see tackled in such a book as this.

In dealing with Eccles' position, Custance deals at length with the readiness potential described by Kornhuber. It may be significant that while Eccles placed greatest stress on these data in The Self and its Brain (1977) and The Human Mystery (1979), he is more concerned with cortical columns in The Human Psyche (1980). Perhaps this is a reflection of how rapidly interpretations have to change when adopting a dualistic-interactionist approach.

Christians should ask themselves some serious questions as they confront this debate. If there is a "mind" in the sense in which dualist-interactionists use the term, what do we know about it? How do we set about describing and understanding it? Our knowledge of the brain is increasing rapidly, but mind seems as elusive and vague as ever. It is not good enough for Christians to assume that the mind controls the brain, without looking hard at the Old and New Testament frameworks for describing human nature. Perhaps our frantic efforts to bolster up classic dualism with contemporary scientific data are in vain; accurate biblical exegesis may be more to the point.

Reviewed by D. Gareth Jones, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia.

WHAT ARE THEY SAYING ABOUT CREATION? by Zachary Hayes, O.F.M.. Paulist Press, NY, 1980. 120 pp. $2.95

"The current experience of environmental problems," says the author, "has only served to underscore the need for a solid, contemporary theology of creation. . . .". This professor of theology at the Catholic Theological Union in Chicago develops his thesis in this book which is one of a series with other volumes such as What Are They Saying About The Resurrection and What Are They Saying About Death And Christian Hope?

He believes that concordism was found wanting in relating science and Genesis except by some fundamentalists, nor does he feel science and theology are unrelated disciplines for ". . the major Western theological tradition operates on assumptions which imply that science has some relevance for theology."

"As often as the Old Testament gives expression to its religious faith in terms of the concrete world, this will take the form of the pre-scientific, mythical understanding available to it from the surrounding culture." The theological message of the Old Testament is that "God creates for the sake of the final fulfillment accomplished in Christ." "God creates not in order to gain something for himself but for the gain of his creatures."

The author expresses his ideas in such clear and forceful language that I can do him the best service by quoting some of his leading ideas, hoping you will get his book to appreciate the skillful elaboration of his evidence whether you agree with his convictions or not.

"The notion of creation from nothing is an attempt to express the real ground of the Christian confidence in life." He believes "theology emerges from religious experience and revelation, not from scientific proof."

Hayes accepts evolution as God's method of creation. "Contrary to the fears of many Christians, the concept of evolution as such does not eliminate God since it does not pretend to speak of primary causality but only of secondary causality." The human race did not need to ascend from one pair; but the story of the origin of sin in Genesis gives us the basis for believing in the universality of sin. "Theology speaks of sin at two distinct but related levels. First, individual actions and dispositions may be designated as sins." But even more basic than that is an underlying, existential condition called sin. It is the state of being in which human persons find themselves to be isolated from the holy." In considering New Testament theology he writes, "The object of Paul's teaching is not the biological descent of all humans from Adam, nor some primordial state of grace. Positively, Paul's principal concern is to affirm our solidarity in the grace of Christ who is the cause of redemption from all human beings." He also summarizes the teaching of the Council of Trent.

Regarding eschatology he states "Jesus Christ lives really with God .... We also have a future with God. And it is in that future that the mystery of our existence as created beings is ultimately vindicated." "We are to manage the world efficiently with respect and with the love which we have because of Christ's presence." "The ground or source of the creative process is a limitless mystery of creative love."

Read one of his conclusions, "Theology need not fear science nor tremble before the power of reason. Rather both theology and science need to stand in awe in the face of the mystery of God to which the world points."

Reviewed by Russell L. Mixter, Professor of Zoology Ementus, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187.

WHATEVER HAPPENED TO EDEN? by John R. Sheaffer and Raymond H. Brand. Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, 11. 1980. Paperback, 151 pp. $4.95.

Both authors have cooperated in endeavors to improve the environment in consulting, research, and political campaigning, hence practical solutions as well as current problems are considered.

Following a preview of the anticipated advancements in technology and biology, the authors survey the technologyenvironment clash and the energy crisis both from their own viewpoints and that of many other authorities from earlier times to the recent days. For example, they deal with "breathing without dirty, invisible pollution: radiation, and policing pollution". But they also emphasize the bounty nature has provided in air, sunlight, plants and soil. "Solar energy is the great unharvested power for the future. Its supply is unlimited, it is environmentally clean and it is increasingly c6mpetitive with fossil fuel costs." Sewage can be "waste to wealth."

The human community should use technology as a humanitarian tool. "If recognition of the value and interrelationships of flowers, birds, and people is the mark of an ecologist, Jesus Christ was an early model." ". . . Jesus taught the principle of efficient management of resources."

Because of nonrenewable power-going, and nuclear power-coming or going (?), the writers advocate solar energy and Brand follows his own advice in giving a vivid example of how he has adapted his own home to its use. Sheaffer received a top engineering award for directing the Muskegon County (Michigan) land treatment sewage development, which is explained along with ones at Lubbock, Texas, Northglenn, Colorado, and other efficient examples of energy from waste such as Mt. Trashmore.

This valuable book concludes with problems of world population and food, and managing our resources. "By joining the earth revolution, the life and health you save will be your own today and your children's legacy tomorrow." This book will aid you in this good cause.

Reviewed by Russell L. Mixter, Professor of Zoology Emeritus~ Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 610187.

BIO-BABEL: CAN WE SURVIVE THE NEW BIOLOGY? by Allen R. Utke. John Knox Press, Atlanta. 1978. 247 pp. $11.95.

"The biological revolution carries great potential danger for society. . ." writes Allen R. Utke, Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh. He recommends national polls and global cooperation to slow down the present pace of research, with science regulating itself and legal power exerted as influence guided by group pressure. During a moratorium there can be conferences to discuss research.

But these recommendations follow a fascinating account of accomplishment and possibilities of research in reproduction, physical and mental modification, the prolongment of life and creation of life.

Reproduction studies consider fertility control, abortion, control of sexual desire, artificial insemination, choice of sex in offspring, artificial inovulation, cloning, and baby factories.

Under physical modification, Professor Utke elaborates on prospects and results of transplanting, regenerating, or artificially making body parts, genetic engineering, artificially making body parts, genetic engineering, artificial and synthetic plants and animals, man-animal, man-plant, and plant-animal chimeras. The author is acquainted with many of the attempts that have been made and vividly states what results have been accomplished or are anticipated.

Rather than list the numerous studies under the various major topics, let me summarize just one in the author's study of the electrical control of the brain. ". . There have been definite indications that movement, affection, aggression, pleasure, anxiety, fear, violent behavior, and their opposites can be aroused and to at least some degree controlled through the electrical stimulation of the brain." It can prevent pain and even produce some sight by stimulating the visual cortex. "Eventually the researchers hope to perfect a functional artificial eye in the form of a tiny television camera mounted in the eye socket of a blind person."

Spectacular results and plans are clearly related by the author and sources for further information on these are offered. Utke also lists the dates when prospects for success may occur, the "possible arbitrary extrapolation into our biological future." He considers all this a modem Tower of Babel because "once again we are at work building massive monuments to our own glory." We have tended both to worship science and be afraid of its accomplishments. The author has many questions about both bio-blessings and bio-dangers. For example, "Certainly people are healthier and have more things than ever before, but have these facts made us better men?" "Would the ability to choose the sex of one's offspring result in an overall societal preference for one sex over the other?" He states that recently "a shift in preference toward females is actually underway."

Many benefits are listed such as preventing the extinction of rare and endangered species, eliminating genetic diseases, producing bacteria that could clear up oil spills, "... increasing the proportion of people in the maturing, mellowing, 'settling down' period of life" which would lead to a "more stable, more enjoyable society."

Also bio-dangers are noted with a multitude of questions asked on all the phases of the biological revolution. Anyone who wishes to write on such topics will profit by consulting this volume with its balanced and perceptive analysis of our scientific explorations. We all need an answer to "what are the responsibilities of the religious person and organized religion in the serious and even crucial questions which have now been raised?" and the author urges us to do it now.

A postscript adds recent developments which occurred after the author had written his valuable discussion. "Most books are at least somewhat out-of-date by the time they appear. . ." but I highly recommend this treatise as an excellent view of our exciting new biology.

Reviewed by Russell L. Mixter, Professor Emeritus of Zoology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187.

WHERE DO WE STAND? by Harry Blamires, Servant Books, 1980. 158 pp. $7.95. Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Enthusiasts of Blamires' earlier work, The Christian Mind should welcome this examination of the Christian's position in the modern world. Concerned that Christians find "the right footing for action", Blamires seeks to draw "the dividing line between faithful Christian witness and apostasy. "

Blamires identifies secularism as the critical problem facing the church. Readers in this country may wince at the suggestion that Christianity does not differ from secularism in many of its social concerns. We are inclined to think of secularism as external to the church and without influence on it. But there is considerable support for Blamires' claim that secularism can penetrate the church as readily as the church can Christianize society.

It is this intermingling of Christianity and secularism which is in tension today and threatens to lead the Christian into error. Unless he is aware of this problem, the Christian may readily accept the cliches of secular thought offered by our mass culture. In short, Blamires claims the Christian seeks the same set of rules for life as:the secularist but without developing a necessary and uniquely Christian state of mind.

Blamires shares with C. S. Lewis, his mentor, the belief that the "deep Christian" is especially sensitive to divine grace and authority. He develops an intellectual, moral, and spiritual point of view characteristic of his Christian profession. Any lack of commitment to these three viewpoints produces the "unbelieving Christian" whose worldliness is characterized by a rejection of the objective for the subjective and the rational for the emotional. At this point, the Christian seeks to cover this-worldly values with a veneer of spirituality.

Blamires considers idolatry to be a natural result of the worldliness of our age. But he does not limit idolatry to such expressions of materialism as alcohol, autos, and gambling. He includes those modern myths supporting distorted notions of freedom and progress among those other idolatries threatening us in our polytheistic and superstitious age.

If this is where we stand, what are we to do? Blamires; argues for an emphasis on the essential quality of creation as God's way of ordering a rational, objective world. The problem of contemporary irrationality is an expression of our ignorance of this form of the world. But it is not enough to understand creation only on the subjective level. What is needed is a perception of the objective order "built into the doctrine of a meaningful universe purposely made by God". This view of the world is crucial if the Christian is to stand in the world and withstand it.

It is quite likely that many of Blamires' supporters will find him too conservative in this book. Unlike much of the superficial conservatism rampant today, however, his arguments avoid simple conclusions. Instead of offering the reader another set of "how to" recipes, he does a greater service by skillfully describing "what is."

This is a necessary sequel to the abstract treatment of the Christian in Blamires' earlier work. Worldliness in this age must be identified if the Christian Mind is to be exercised in the world. Blamires provides a perceptive and incisive analysis of this world and sharpens the Christian's awareness of his responsibility in it.

Reviewed by Russell Heddendorf, Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pennsylania.

THE MESSIAHSHIP OF JESUS: What Jews and Jewish Christians Say and How Jewish Attitudes are Changing, by Arthur W. Kac (Compilator), Moody Press, Chicago, 1980, 351 pages. $9.95 (paperback).

The former editor of the Saturday Review, Norman Cousins, has suggested that "it might be salutory if the members of the first Christian family were referred to in terms of their origins, i.e., 'The Jewess, Mary', or 'Joseph, the Jew' or 'Jesus, the Jew'." If this were done, it would soon become very obvious that all first Christians were Jews, that in the immediately following decades most Christians were Jews and that even many priests who served in the Holy Temple at Jerusalem became Christians (Acts 6:7b). Alas, too few churches and individual believers today are willing to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ as the power of God unto salvation to the Jew. This reviewer was almost 20 years old before anyone on two continents suggested to him that he, a Jew, can be saved, that he ought to be saved, that he must be saved. Six months later, after being prayed for, preached to and read to from the Bible, he became a newborn child of God.

This most illuminating book deserves to be reviewed in the Journal ASA for at least two reasons. The compiler, a renowned Baltimore radiologist, has been an ASA member for many years. Many readers of this Journal work in Academe and have many close friends and colleagues who are of the Jewish faith and who deserve an intelligent answer when they inquire of us for the reason of the hope and joy in us. This book will provide much background information; it is a compendium of what influence Christ has exerted over Jewish hearts. It explains what the Messialiship of Jesus really means and it quotes many sayings of erudite Jews and Jewish Christians about Him. Indeed not everyone in intellectual Jewish circles is ignorant about this person nor rejects outright all that we hold dear about Him.

To the writer Sholern Asch Jesus "is the outstanding personality of all times, all history, both as Son of God and as Son of Man ... every act and word of Jesus has value for all of us, -wherever we are. He became the light of the world." Martin Buber confesses: "From my youth onwards I have found in Jesus my great brother . . . my own fraternally open relationship to him has grown even stronger and clearer". Albert Einstein, when asked whether he accepts the historical existence of Jesus, replied: "Unquestionably! No one can read the Gospels without feeling the actual presence of Jesus. His personality pulsates in every word. No myth is filled with such life." Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister under Queen Victoria and a Jewish Christian states: "There is one fact which none can contest. Christians may continue to persecute Jews, and Jews may persist in disbelieving Christians, but who can deny that Jesus of Nazareth, the Incarnate Son of the Most High God, is the eternal glory of the Jewish race?"

The 69 brief chapters of this book are, like Gaul, divided into three parts: The changing Jewish Attitude Toward Jesus, An Analysis of Present-Day Jewish Views of Jesus, and Statements by Jewish Christians. It makes interesting reading and contains a goldmine of solid biblical material which will make the reader a better informed Christian. It may also give some of us a burden to witness to both Jew and Gentile about our matchless Saviour. Highly recommended reading!

Reviewed by A. Kurt Weiss, Professor and Vice-Head, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of0kiahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

THE EDGE OF CONTINGENCY: FRENCH CATHOLIC REACTION TO SCIENTIFIC CHANGE FROM DARWIN TO DUHEM by Harry W. Paul. 213 pp., bibl., index. Gainesville, Florida: University Presses of Florida, 1979. $15.00

THE POST-DARWINIAN CONTROVERSIES: A STUDY OF THE PROTESTANT STRUGGLE TO COME TO TERMS WITH DARWIN IN GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA, 1870-1900 by James R. Moore. xi+502 pp., bibl., index. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979. $39.50, cloth; $19.50, paperback.

The recent explosion of Darwiniana, although a bit overdone in some respects, has been generally a very good thing for the historiography of science. The newly available notebooks and letters are certainly valuable, and the new secondary literature conforms to a higher standard of scholarship than that of older works. Just a generation ago, for example, Loren Eiseley (Darwin's Century, Evolution and the Men Who Discovered It) saw Darwin as little more than a synthesizer of other ideas-just the right man in the right place at the right time-and Gertrude Himmelfarb (Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution) made Darwin an anti-hero of the type Arthur Koestler made of Galileo in The Sleepwalkers, blaming him for the worst excesses of Herbert Spencer and implying that Darwinian evolution is really no more correct than geocentric astronomy. Today, however, one can look to such scholars as Michael Ruse (The Darwinian Revolution, Science Red in Tooth and Claw) for a much fairer analysis of Darwinian theory and a more accurate assessment of his achievement, and to Howard E. Gruber (Darwin on Man) for an excellent monograph on the birth of an idea. Unfortunately, however, a lack of discernment is evident in Gruber's treatment of natural theology; he lumps together various points of view to form an inadequately representative whole. Neal C. Gillespie (Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation) offers a much more sensitive handling of the theological problems posed by transmutation and natural selection, although he misinterprets Darwin's own religious views and overestimates the signifigance he attached to them.

The two present volumes, which exhibit the same solid scholarship found in much of the recent literature, are
probably the best case studies of evolution and religion to be written in a long time; considering the authors, this is
not surprising. Professor of History at the University of Florida, Harry W. Paul (Columbia Ph.D., 1962) is well
known as an authority on French science and Catholic in tellectual history. A contributor to Isis, the Journal of the
History of Ideas
, the Catholic Historical Review and other fine journals, Paul has written another fine monograph, The Sorcerer's Apprentice: The French Scientist's Image of German Science, 1840-1919. James R. Moore, a graduate of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (M.Div., 1972) and the University of Manchester (Ph.D. in Ecclesiastical History, 1975), has not yet published much scholarly material, but what he has written consistently displays a meticulous attention to his sources, a trait undoubtedly acquired through the influence of John Warwick Montgomery. An early example of his work appeared in this Journal in September 1970; Christian Scholar's Review published his exhaustive bibliography on evolution and Christianity in 1975. He is currently a Lecturer in the History of Science and Technology at the Open University.

As his title indicates, Paul concentrates on French Catholic scientists and theologians from 1859-1914, with only a few exceptions (such as St. George Jackson Mivart and Canon Dorlodot, both Englishmen). Indeed, every single entry in his bibliography is a French publication; even works by Darwin, Huxley, Wallace, and Draper are listed by their Parisian editions. References to English sources are found only in the notes. Few secondary works dealing with the same area are mentioned, because few exist-Paul's book is a pioneering effort. Moore is interested in much the same period in Britain and America, although his efforts are directed at Protestant thought with only an occasional Catholic (one is Mivart) appearing in the discussion. Unlike Paul's book, Moore's study has had scores of predecessors-but he is acutely aware of this, explicitly defining the scope of his work in terms of four weaknesses he perceives in the existing literature: the lack of a transAtlantic perspective, the use of too few primary sources, too little study of works written after 1880, and too little regard for the history of evolutionary thought after Darwin. These deficiencies are corrected with a vengeance; the fifty-eight page bibliography contains, in Moore's own words, "the fullest available inventory of literature dealing with science and religion in the later nineteenth century and with the post-Darwinian controversies in particular." (p. 401) Taken together, then, these two books constitute the most extensive treatment to date of the Christian response to evolution prior to World War I. For all their similarities, however, they are very different books, and those differences are now explored.

The classical Christian world view after the time of Aquinas asserted that both science and religion were capable of discovering eternal verities; since nature and the bible were both revelations of God's wisdom, power, and majesty, the two pursuits of theology and natural philosophy could be uncritically intermingled. The metaphysics of religion-or, more precisely, the metaphysics of Catholic scholasticism-laid the foundation for the work of science, which in turn yielded truths that "proved" the veracity of Scripture. Underlying this facade of unity, however, was the dangerous, tacit assumption that scientific truth was unchanging, for only a static science could be linked eternally to a static theology. Thus, until "the symbiosis of religion and science characteristic of the West was, for all practical purposes at least, ended in the nineteenth century, any shift in science inevitably involved a crisis in religion. 9' (p. 28) The end of this symbiosis is the theme of Paul's book.

In a rambling opening chapter, Paul introduces the idea of contingency as formulated in the 1870's by Lachelier and Boutroux: since the ultimate essence of things is unknowable, science cannot achieve certainty. Thus scientific theories are not absolute truths or logical necessities, but contingent products of the human mind. From the title, one might expect this idea to have a prominent place in the argument, yet it appears per se only very sparingly. It is not so much Lachelier and Boutroux that Paul wants to follow, but the transformation of Catholic thought in response to changing scientific ideas. Thus he devotes the next two chapters to the debate over evolution, an episode which I' showed more clearly than anything since Copernicus the damage that could be done to religion by mixing theology and science." (p. 24) Because Catholics had adopted the fixity of species as an element of doctrine as well as a scientific fact, it could not be given up without theological upheaval. Therefore it was defended as an incontrovertible fact of science and used to deny the evolution of species by most of the older generation of Catholic intellectuals, who could not see the fundamental problem because they, like most scientists, conceived of science as a set of eternal truths, comparable to Holy Writ in the religious sphere, rather than as a set of paradigms that could be jettisoned or substantially modified once their usefulness had been outlived. (p. 62)

Paul then traces the gradual acceptance of evolution as a scientific hypothesis divorced from a materialistic metaphysics. By 1888, Jean d'Estienne argued for the acceptance of evolution because of its utility, not its certainty or truth, and in good time many Catholics acquiesced (although man was still seen by most as a special creation). After this, Paul explores three specific responses to the growing realization that scientific theories, however well established, can never be taken as absolute truth: Albert de Lapparent, Pierre Duhem, and the neo-Thomists, devoting a chapter to each. An equivocator, Lapparent pushed for a sort of "mitigated contingency" (my term), stressing the history of science as a tale of uncertainty and change, hence undermining the use of science against the faith, while at the same time he saw science as headed toward unity and clarity (proving the existence of a created order) and used scientific knowledge to defend religion. Duhem, a "modern believer," divorced scientific theories from theological doctrines, preserving the autonomy of both, but shattering all attempts to use science as either an attack on or a defense of theology. Nevertheless, he, too, saw apologetic value in the history of science, which he interpreted as an everincreasing realization of the rule of order in nature. His solution was unacceptable to the neo-Thomists, who sought to restore unity by reviving the metaphysics of Aristotle and Aquinas, purged of its medieval excesses. Others, like Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, sought harmony in a new mysticism. But as Paul concludes,

"For those unable to accept the Thomist Tao or unlucky enough to be immune from mystical infection, there remains the more conventional view of the irreducible dualism of science and religion." (p. 194)

James R. Moore agrees with much of Paul's argument. In his chapter on "Christian Anti-Darwinism: the realm of certainty and fixity," he points out that the Origin of Species explicitly challenged the idea that science could yield certain knowledge:

"the book set forth natural selection, not as a theory for which absolute proof had been obtained, or even might be obtained, but merely as the most probable explanation of the greatest number of facts relating to the origin of species." (p. 195)

It was just this sort of reasoning that Darwin's opponents could not accept. Committed Baconians, they endorsed the fixity of species as an eternal truth, verifiable every day from common experience, and in agreement with Genesis. More importantly, the fixity of species was a natural consequence of the essentialistic philosophy of nature which so many Christians automatically assumed.

Although there are certainly other points of agreement between the two books, too many to enumerate here, at a fundamental level they are very different accounts. Where Paul is looking for major changes-one might even say discontinuities-in Catholic attitudes toward the nature of science and its relation to religion, Moore examines the Protestant side of the post-Darwinian controversies in order to offer "an interpretation which shows the deeper continuities. " (p. 13) It is common knowledge that the "warfare" interpretation of the history of science/religion interactions, brought to its height a century ago by John William Draper and Andrew Dickson White, has many serious problems, but no one has ever attacked it as vigorously or as thoroughly before. His first four chapters -about one hundred pages-are, in essence, an historiographical essay on the distortions and misconceptians arising out of the habitual use of the military metaphor over the years. From the lives of Draper and White, Moore concludes that warfare thinking tells us more about those two men than it does about the debates over evolution. Rather than a conflict of scientists vs. theologians, he finds scientists vs. their fellow scientists; instead of two "warring camps," he emphasizes divisions within the ranks of science itself; against the notion of violent antagonism, he stresses the honest disagreements among friends who stayed friendly.

In each of its major implications the military metaphor perverts historical understanding with violence and inhumanity .... Henceforth interpretations of the post-Darwinian controversies must be non-violent and humane. (p. 99f)

The only conflict that Moore does acknowledge took place within the minds of individuals. His aim
is not to furnish psychological evidence of a 'Darwinian revolution' but, on the contrary, to qualify this interpretation by showing how largely the crisis arose and was resolved within the framework of established religious beliefs. (p. 13)

After a brief but very fine (and very useful) four chapter summary of the scientific debate over Darwinism and its various evolutionary alternatives, Moore turns to the works of twenty-eight men who considered the implications of Darwinism for their Christian faith. He divides them into three groups: eight "Christian Anti-Darwinians," mentioned above, who rejected Darwinism primarily for scientific and methodological reasons; sixteen "Christian Darwinists" who baptized Lamarckian evolution (but not evolution by natural selection) with their liberal theological persuasions to produce a romantic philosophy of inevitable progress; and four "Christian Darwinians," orthodox believers who fully accepted orthodox Darwinism without giving up their theological persuasions. In this he finds what may well be the central and regulative paradox of the postDarwinian controversies: namely, that it was only those who maintained a distinctly orthodox theology who could embrace Darwinism; liberals were unable to accept it. Christian Darwinism was a phenomenon of orthodoxy, Christian Darwinisticism, on the whole, an expression of liberalism. The correlation between Darwinism and othodoxy was not inverse but direct. (p. 303)

To follow up this conclusion Moore delves into the reasons why various Christians reacted in the ways in which they did. For this he relies heavily on Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance, which states that dissonance reduction must involve either a change in one of the dissonant elements or a change in their relationship by the addition of new elements which dilute or destroy the dissonance. For many conservative believers, dissonance reduction was easy; since there were sound scientific and philosophical problems with any form of evolutionary theory, they simply rejected them all. Theological liberals, who wanted to adopt the latest ideas, could do so only by watering down natural selection with strong doses of Lamarckism; it might be noted that most nineteenth century scientists, whether Christians or not, did the same thing! A few conservative believers, however, were able "to dilute the dissonance arising from the conflict of teleology and natural selection, and so to reconcile the central doctrine of Darwinism with their faith. I I (p. 336) As Calvinists, the four Christian Darwinians-James Iverach, Aubrey Lackington Moore, Asa Gray, and George Frederick Wright (who was, ironically enough, one of the founding fathers of Fundamentalism)-grounded the process of evolution in the sovereignty of God. Though man in his finite knowledge might not see the full purpose of every turn in nature, nor could he discover the causes of variations, the Calvinist could (like his namesake) "ascribe all things to the 'directly upholding and governing hand of God,' even those events which seemed independent of or irreconcilable with divine purposes." Chance and providence, secondary and primary causes were certainly hard to reconcile, but no more difficult than free will and predestination; in a word, Darwinism posed no new problems to Reformed theology.

In the final analysis, then, those Christians with the theological resources of the Calvinist tradition were able to accept a full-blown, unadulterated Darwinism. Most people will no doubt find that conclusion surprising, if not startling. The present controversy over the teaching of evolution in the public schools has convinced most people, whether Christian or not, that a genuinely biblical faith is utterly incompatible with modern biology. But to those who have read Bernard Ramm's The Christian View of Science and Scripture, Moore's point sounds familiar. In his preface, Ramin speaks of a "noble tradition" of nineteenth century Christians who took "great care to learn the facts of science and Scripture." He then notes sadly that

the noble tradition which was in ascendancy in the closing year' of the nineteenth century has not been the major tradition in evangelicalism in the twentieth century. A narrow bibliolatry, the product not of faith but of few, buried the noble tradition.... it is our wish to call evargelicalism back to the noble tradition of the closing years of the nineteenth century. (p. 8f)

One cannot help but feel that Moore is saying much the same thing. Fundamentalists will probably reject what is said, and others may dismiss it as apologetics; such responses would be equally unfortunate, for Moore has given us nothing other than a fresh perspective, a sound argument, and a thoroughly researched collection of facts. In a word, he has written good history.

Although The Edge of Contingency and The PostDarwinian Controversies are both excellent studies of the relationship between science and religion in the nineteenth century, they will not be equally useful to the general reader. If only one is to be read, Moore's book is a better choice. His argument is much easier to follow, at least partically because Paul's chapters on Darwinism tend to lead the reader away from the'Wider issues he intends to pursue. Moore's book covers ground that is probably more familiar to the average American Christian and it is stylistically clearer and less tiresome-Paul really must avoid such terms as "Procrustean bed ... .. quixotic and Sisyphean task," and, worst of all, "the Coryphaeus of the Thomist revival." Above 0, The Post-Darwinian Controversies is a better choice because it is a better book and a more important book, perhaps the most important yet written on the subject of evolution and Christianity.

Reviewed by Edward B. Davis, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405.

SCIENCE AND RELIGION IN AMERICA: 1800-1860, by Herbert Hovenkamp, Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1978, 273 pages.

For those who tend to think of the relationship between religion and science only in terms of the last one hundred years, Herbert Hovenkamp's Science and Religion in America 1800-1860, is a welcome corrective. This impressive, well written study reveals the intellectual climate of the sixty years prior to Darwin's The Origin of the Species. What Hovenkamp finds is an interesting variation on the story of the sorcerer's apprentice. The thesis of the book is that evangelical Christianity enthusiastically embraced science in 1800 as an ally in establishing orthodoxy only to find by 1860 that science had become a dangerous enemy.

The major reason for the initial embrace was American Protestatism's adoption of Scottish realism as a guiding philosophy. This movement, represented by men such as Thomas Reid was a reaction to the scepticism of Locke, Hume and Berkeley. The Scottish realists sought to preserve the possibility of empirical knowledge of an objective external world. This created a favorable attitude toward the search for empirical evidence of the truth of Christianity. Christian writers saw both Scripture and nature as domains where one could find facts that pointed to God. In a sense, the lab report became just another avenue of God's revelation to man.

Hovenkamp has done a thorough review of the philosophical, theological and scientific literature of the period to develop his ideas. Much of his work involved close study of the various literary and scholarly reviews from the early 1800's which are relatively inaccessible to most people. Hence, his book is invaluable in giving us insight into the intellectual fife of America from 1800 to 1860.

,The book begins with a survey of theological and philosophical thought and moves toward the scientific ideas in the last half of the book. There are chapters devoted to Scottish realism, the debate over miracles, natural theology, the search for an over-arching unitary law of nature, and biblical interpretation. Furthermore, Hovenkamp outlines the scientific developments in geology, Near Eastern studies (especially geography and history), anthropology and biology.

The overwhelming impression one gets upon reading this book is how much of recent writing on science and religion is a re-statement of ideas and themes that can be found in the 1820's and 1830's. For example, Samuel Stanhope Smith in 1815 argued persuasively that ultimately the truth of science does not conflict with the truth of Scripture. Apparent conflicts are the result of faulty science or faulty scriptural interpretation. It would seem that Smith's ideas have been echoed many times by contemporary writers on religion and science. Again, in a chapter on the scientific debate about racial variation Hovenkamp discusses attempts to find biblical support for explanations of racial differences. Apparently for evangelicals in 1850 as well as in recent years racial significance is found in the mark of Cain, the tower of Babel, and the curse on Canaan.

On numerous occasions we see that many of the recurring ideas used in debates about creation and evolution have their roots in this time. The long days of Genesis (1803), the gap theory (1835), and others have been with us a long time.

No doubt the greatest contribution that this book can make is to give us an appreciation for the considerably lengthy debate that has gone on regarding religion and science. Others have discussed the interface of religion and science in other eras (e.g., Richard Westfall, Science and Religion in Seventeenth-century England) but the period 1800-1860 in America is foundational to anyone currently seeking to think through the relationship between religion and science. Hopefully, by reading a book like Hovenkamp's we will be encouraged to go beyond past ideas and to look for new formulations regarding the interface of religion and science.

Reviewed by Ronald J. Burwell, Department of Sociology, The King's College, Briarcliff Manor, N.Y.

THE CHALLENGE OF MARXISM: A CHRISTIAN RESPONSE, by Klaus Bockmuehl. Downers Grove, III: Intervarsity Press, 1980. Index included; 187 pages, not including index. $4.95.

Bockmuehl has quite successfully accomplished the rather difficult task of representing the very complex theoretical structure and world view found in Marxism in a clear straightforward manner, understandable by any moderately intelligent layman. All too typically, expositors of Marx either become hopelessly entangled in minute details and "movements" in Marx's thought, or oversimplify the Master to such an "tent that the reader goes away with a distorted perception of the Marxist world view. Bockmuehl avoids both of these extremes as he presents the challenges of Marxism to contemporary Christianity.

Bockmuehl opens the book with a recognition of the emerging widespread appeal of Marxism, particularly in the West which the author claims is finding itself in a spiritual vacuum. Marxism is challenging the church in four specific ways as it (Marxism) responds to this vacuum: it claims knowledge of the "truth" in an age of relativism; it mobilizes its knowledge of truth to action; it challenges the "unreality" of much theology (which Marx claims is characteristic of the essence of all religion); and it provides a purpose for life in an eschatology calling for remade men through radically altered social structures.

The remaining three sections of the book present the challenges of Marxism in: (1) his critique of religion, which claims that all religion is illusory and ultimately finds its source in human experience; (2) Marxist-Leninist ethics which are ultimately oriented toward the realization of the true nature of man while working within (and at the same time attacking) historically specific conditions which alienate man; and (3) the program for creating the "new man" through altered property relations.

Bockmuehl's insightful analysis does not stop short of a radical critique of the Marxist position in these areas. The author writes, for example, "Christians must not be taken in by the myth that selfish individuals can form a universally unselfish collective." (p. 45) By addressing Marxism with the breadth that he does, however, Bockmuehl is not able to provide the depth of analysis of some of the more germane issues in Marx's writings that might be desirable. Equal attention is given, for example, to Marx's critique of religion as to his conception of the "new man", even though the issue of religion occupies a relatively minor place in Marx's work when compared to the prolific philosophic writings on the nature of man which occupied most of Marx's early works. (The critique of religion was, of course, part of these philosophic works.) Also, one wonders why the book gives so much attention to Leninist ethics and programs, particularly in light of the opening sentences of the book:

Today Marxism is the dominant ideology for many people whether they like it or not. This is true not only for countries under Communist rule, but also for Western and Third-World countries, although admittedly in different ways. (p. 9)

Elsewhere, Bockmuehl implies that in the present age the West may be even more affected by Marxist philosophy, although in a more subtle fashion, than its Eastern counterpart. Given the book's Western audience, the author might better have given more attention to some of the basic philosophical issues affecting the West, and less to their Soviet application. These issues aside, however, the book presents a refreshingly clear and accurate conception-and critique-of Marxism.

More central to the book's thesis, however, is the challenge that Marx presents to contemporary Christian faith. The church has failed to assert its biblical heritage, and while Bockmuehl rejects the thesis that Christian faith is an "opiate", its historical expression is vulnerable. Marx challenges, for example, the ahistorical and highly subjective nature of much of Christian theology. Not only are the great theologians at fault, however; the Lordship of God is continually denied in our daily, private lives. Bockmuehl's clear and honest recognition of the nature of the challenges which Marxism poses to the Christian faith is possibly the book's greatest contribution, and should be a valuable asset to any serious Christian grappling with the issues of our time.

Reviewed by Charles E. Faupel, Division of Criminal Justice, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

FOSSILS: KEY TO THE PRESENT, by Richard B. Bliss, Gary E. Parker, and Duane T, Gish, CLP Publishers, San Diego, California. Paper, 81 -pages. $4.95.

Any attempt to objectively present the emotionally charged subject of Creation vs Evolution is difficult in the best of circumstances. Richard Bliss, Gary Parker, and Duane Gish, however, are attempting the impossible in Fossils: Key to the Present, a colorfully illustrated and interestingly written book intended to introduce this topic to grade school age children.

The authors state early on that the questions in this matter "cannot be answered with certainty." Their goal is to present a two-model study of the issue, allowing children to compare "two points of view on a subject, both to encourage careful thinking and to avoid prejudice."

It is a needed effort, but runs into two problems.

First, a convinced creationist can no more objectively treat evolution than can a Baptist dispassionately analyze the merits of the Papacy. The inevitable creationist slant pervades the work. Still, books supporting evolution are usually strictly one-sided, and the authors here do mention both views.

Second, and more important, this thin volume cannot, no matter how clearly and interestingly written, provide young children with the means to make valid decisions on the issue. One may as successfully present to third graders the complex debate about an Open vs Closed universe in a few score pages of pictures and big print.

It is doubtful whether the intended audience of this book is capable of making a decision based primarily on the evidence. The beliefs of parents, teachers, and peers will probably be dominant in shaping their conclusions. And, in the process of distilling complicated arguments into the simplest possible terms, the authors are forced to so simplify the material that it loses much of its value as the basis for making such a decision. (This is the same problem faced by proponents of evolution.)

Nevertheless, this book is superior to most others on the subject. Pleasant to read and not insulting to the intelligence, it should succeed in its goal of stimulating young children to at least begin thinking about the ideas. In settings where creation is more or less considered an established fact and evolution is the tenuously supported theory, this book should be popular and well received.

Reviewed by Robert Schier, Box 534, U. C.L Medical Center, 101 City Drive South, Orange, California.

THE TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT, by Ernst Wurthwein, 2nd English edition. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980. Pp. 244. $8.95

As the subtitle of this work indicates it presents "An Introduction to the Biblic Hebraica." The work itself has an interesting history. The first edition dealt with Kittel's Biblia Hebraica (BH), but this edition concerns the new Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS), edited by K. Elliger and W. Rudolph. This is now the definitive edition of the Hebrew Old Testament. A fourth German edition of Wurthwein's work appeared in 1973 to discuss the extant parts of BHS. The present English edition is based on this German edition, updated by the author's notes toward a further revision in light of the completion of BHS in 1977.

The first major section of the book under review concerns "The Transmission of the Text in the Original Language." It begins with a discussion of the physical aspects of writing materials and the script, followed by an introduction to the. Masoretic text. Its history is briefly given as are the different scribal techniques employed by the Masoretes, including their addition of vocalisation. The Masora, a collection of Masoretic textual notes, is also explained. Finally there is a survey of the major Masoretic manuscripts and printed texts, ranging from the Qumran material down to the Hebrew University Bible Project based on the Aleppo Codex. The section is concluded by a brief note on the Samaritan Pentateuch.

In his next major section, Wurthwein discusses the versions, or early translations of the Old Testament. The main emphasis is on the important Greek Septuagint, the Aramaic Targums, and the Syriac version, but there is also included a discussion of other important witnesses, i.e, the Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian and Arabic versions.

The final text section discusses the area of text criticism-what scholars are trying to do with all of these different sources concerning the Old Testament text, why there are differences between these sources leading to the need for textual criticism, and finally, how one practices textual criticism.

The layout of the body of the book aids in the use of BHS (and BH). Wherever there is a discussion in the text of some point referred to in the marginal apparatus of the Bible editions, Wiirthwein places the symbol used in his margin so that the reader can readily see what is being discussed. To facilitate the use of this English edition with the earlier BH, variants in notation in that text edition are given in brackets. It is in this area of marginal notations where I noted several editorial anomalies. BHS does not note scribal corrections in 2 Sam 20: 1; 1 Ki 12:16 or 2 Chr 10: 16, contrary to Wiirthwein (p. 19), nor are scribal omissions said to be noted in the BHS of Ruth 2:11 or Jer 32: 11. Other minor corrections are needed.

Wurthwein's contributions are very useful for the student of the Hebrew Old Testament in two areas. Not only does he introduce one to the use of the authoritative text edition, but also shows one the background of the text and how it fits in with the rest of the textual tradition. The book is especially useful since it is so up-to-date, even including a plate of a text from Izbet Sartah published only in 1977. The book will be a standard reference and learning tool, having been updated to ably serve the next generation of students of the Hebrew Old Testament.

Reviewed by David A. Baker, Lecturer in Hebrew, Regent College, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

SOURCE BOOK ON THE ENVIRONMENT: A GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE, by Kenneth A. Hammond et al, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1978, 611 pp.

As the editors state in the first line of their introduction, "The goal of this source book is to provide a broad guide to selected aspects of environmental literature." In this reviewer's opinion, they have achieved this goal admirably.

The book itself is divided into four main sections titled, "Environmental Perspectives and Prospects," "Environmental Modification: Case Studies," "Major Elements of the Environment," and "Research Aides." In the first three sections, we are given twenty-four chapters in which various authors present general, excellently referenced overviews on the literature of a particular topic or item of environmental concern. The authors of these chapters are generally objective, although occasionally a bias or two appears. Yet, this does not detract from the overall usefulness and informativeness of these chapters. The fourth section is very helpful for those with an active interest in environmental issues. It contains a list of related periodicals and organizations and a review of federal environmental legislation.

The twenty-four chapters average only twenty pages, including each paper's list of references, so we are naturally
given only a limited discussion of the issues involved. However, the copious references insure that the reader will
be able to follow up on the discussion and questions presented in each chapter. This, indeed, is the purpose of
the book. Occasionally it seems that some issues should be given more space. For instance, there were only a few
paragraphs that dealt with the important and controversial issue of the effects of nuclear energy wastes on the environment. The sheer number of topics covered, however, more than makes up for this shortcoming.

Over all, this is an excellent book that can be interesting and informative to a casual reader and a valuable resource to someone involved in these areas of study. This book is also a good basic or supplementary text for introductory courses on the environment or ecology. If someone is at all interested in a serious study of the environment and man's impact on it, this book is well worth its price.

Reviewed by Joseph P. Bassi, Captain, USAF, Det. 9, 1 Weather Wing (MAC), Air Weather Service.

THE SPIRITUAL NATURE OF MAN, by Alister Hardy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979, 162 pp., $19.95. 

This volume is in the same genre as William James' The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) and Edwin Starbucks' Psychology of Religion (1899). These early writings about the scientific treatment of religious experiences serve as a harbinger and model for the present volume.

This book is based on eight years' work of the Religious Experience Research Unit which was established at Manchester College, Oxford, in 1969. It is divided into nine chapters, two appendixes, a bibliography (very helpful for further study), and an index. Purpose, method, result, and meaning of the research are discussed.

The purpose was to collect a body of knowledge based on personal experience, examine these in detail, and based on quantitative studies, draw tentative conclusions. The method was to collect over 4,000 first-hand accounts concerning people's experience "of a benevolent nonphysical power which appears to be partly or wholly beyond, and far greater than, the individual self."

The results are displayed through categories based on the distinguishing features of metaphysical experiences reported by the volunteers. The varieties of spiritual awareness fall into two main areas: sensory and behavioral elements, and cognitive and affective elements.

Hardy disclaims any support for specific religions or proof for the existence of God. He writes: "I am not in any way endeavoring to find support for this or that form of institutional religion or indeed for the doctrines of any particular faith." True to his aim, he does not bolster any religious perspective, although quoting from those who hold doctrinaire positions. Perhaps this avowed strength is also a perceived weakness. The Christian is not likely to come away feeling that faith has been strengthened or an apologetic developed for revealed religion.

Hardy contends that people are religious by nature. Religion is defined as personal experience related to
transcendental reality, divine presence, and religious ex perience in all its forms.

Hardy has described an empirical effort to collect and analyze reports of awareness of a benevolent nonphysical power. The main traits of religion experience are transcendental reality, childhood manifestations, a sense of presence, personalization, and the phenomenon of prayer. Paul's observation to the Athenians could be typical of all people: "I perceive that in every way you are very religious." (Acts 17:22)

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.

Ralph P. Martin, Eerdmans, 1980, $4.95, 142 pages.

Ralph P. Martin, Professor of New Testament at Fuller  Theological Seminary, is the author of several other books including New Testament Foundation. To those already familiar with his work, The Family and the Fellowship is a happy addition; to those unfamiliar, this little book is an excellent place to start.

The author begins by arguing that full human experience is possible only in community, and that, in particular, new fife in Christ requires community for sustenance and growth. It was the intention of Jesus to establish a community, namely his church. This occurred at Pentecost, and now the "living Lord is present with his people by the Holy Spirit whose work is to contemporize that personal presence ...," ...

One of the most important concepts in the book is fellowship: "Taking part in something with someone." Professor Martin urges us away from a modern overemphasis on "with someone" to a New Testament emphasis on "in something"-the realities of the Christian faith. We are reminded of the Spirit's sovereign disposing of charismata to individual believers, equipping each one for a particular contribution to the corporate experience but making no one indispensable.

The church has always had leaders, but no single "pattern of ministry" is discerned as being applicable to all times and places. Rather, diversity is evident in the New Testament, and is to be expected in the church today. The criterion of evaluation is "what is good for the church." But the experience of God is not mediated through a leadership structure-God makes himself known in various ways, including baptism and the Lord's Supper.

It is sad that the church suffers from disunity, but in order to get on with its mission, agreement about Jesus Christ is necessary. "This would be the irreducible minimum of agreed truth: is he confessed and believed as 'true God, true man' and is he the sole Savior of the world and its exalted Lord?" With respect to relationship with the world, the church must be concerned with discipline internally to keep the differences between the two spheres clear, and it must speak against evil in the surrounding society.

The book concludes with an analysis of various models for the contemporary church: the lecture hall, the theatre, the corporation and the social club. Each of these has some attractive emphases but each is ultimately inadequate. More meaningful are the scriptural categories of the temple of the Lord, the body of Christ, and the family of God.

This is a well-written book about an important subject. Professor Martin's stated intention (Preface) is to help us "to see the necessary place of the church in God's design and to take a positive attitude to it." He certainly succeeds in the former, and it is up to us as readers to respond with the latter.

Reviewed by David T Barnard, Assistant Professor, Department of Computing and Information Science, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada KX 3N6.

by Eugene H. Peterson, Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1980, 197 pp., $4.95.

Psalms 120 through 134 (known collectively as the Songs of Ascents) provide the framework for Eugene Peterson's book. He points out that these Psalms were probably sung by Hebrew pilgrims as they traveled to Jerusalem for worship; thus the descriptive "ascents" is both literal and figurative, since the journey to Jerusalem was both an upward movement to the highest geographical point in Palestine and a metaphor of a life moving upward toward God. It is through this metaphor that Peterson evokes our sense of kinship with those early Hebrews, our forerunners in faith, and he helps us to sing these Psalms as our own songs, images of our own pilgrimage.

As you read this book, expect neither an explication of the Psalms nor a "how to" approach to discipleship. The book speaks quietly, reminding us of truth and focusing our attention on reality. The Psalms and Peterson's reflections upon them help us to clear away the clutter of external demands on our attention and direct our energies toward understanding and obeying the Lord. As the author states in the first chapter, he has not "sought to produce scholarly expositions ... but to offer practical meditations which use these tunes for stimulus, encouragement and guidance." In so far as this is a statement of his purpose, I think he has accomplished it admirably.

The title [taken, ironically, from a quote by Friedrich Nietzsche] had a powerful effect on me before I even read the book. While our commitment to the Lord is often an inconsistent series of good intentions, Peterson reminds us that it is meant to be a "long obedience in the same direction," a slow and deliberate pilgrimage. He helps to clarify our struggle by juxtiposing "our attention spans ... conditioned by thirty-second commercials" with the sustained interest required of a disciple. Such sustained interest is not particularly popular in "an instant society" where fastpaces schedules with no time for the quieter disciplines have become the social norm.

Through effective illustrations and an abundance of appropriate quotations from other authors, Peterson develops the theme of discipleship as a pilgrimage. He moves from the initial stage of "repentance" (Psalm 120) through such steps as "worship" (Psalm 122), "perserverance" (Psalm 129) and "obedience" (Psalm 132). The end of this pilgrimage is "blessing" (Psalm 134). There is a strong sense of community in the realization that the path is a well-established one. Though our external world has little in common with that of the Psalmists, the requirements for becoming what we were created to be have not changed.

The author's style is calm and sure. Peterson is clearly an experienced traveler who is qualified and willing to give direction to his fellow pilgrims. He does not offer any new or startling ideas in his book. Rather, he shares with us some fresh insights into ancient truths.

Reviewed by Bonnie J. Mansell, 807 S. Catalina Ave., #3, Redondo Beach, California 90277.