Science in Christian Perspective

Book Reviews


PSCF Reviews for March 1981

Table of Contents

THE GOLDEN COW: MATERIALISM IN THE TWENTIETH-CENTURY CHURCH by John White, Inter-Varsity Press, 233 Langdon St., Madison, WI 53703, 1979, 175 pages ($3.50, paperback).
CONTEMPORARY MISSIOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION by Johannes Verkuyl (translated and edited by Dale Cooper), William B. Eerdmans Publishing
Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Clothbound, 414 pages, plus xiv pages, (1978) $14.95.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN RELIGIONS by J. Gordon Milton, Consortium Books, Box 9001, Wilmington, North Carolina 28402, 1100 pp, $135.
CLAIMS IN CONFLICT: RETRIEVING AND RENEWING THE CATHOLIC HUMAN RIGHTS TRADITION by David Hollenbach, S.J., Paulist Press, New York, Ramsey, Toronto, 1979, 219 pages, paper, $5.95.
PROGRESS AND ITS PROBLEMS by Larry Laudan, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1977. $4.95 (Paper), 257 pp.
ADVICE TO A YOUNG SCIENTIST, by P.W. Medawar, New York, Harper and Row (1979) 106 pp., $8.95.
SCIENCE, CURRICULUM, AND LIBERAL EDUCATION by Joseph Schwab, (edited by J. Westbury, Education, University of Illinois, and N.J. Wilkof, law student, University of Chicago), University of Chicago Press (1978), 394 pages, $24.00.
TOTAL MIND POWER by Donald L. Wilson, M. D., (New York: A Berkley Book, 1978), 246 + ix pp., $2.25, paper.
MEN IN MID-LIFE CRISIS by Jim Conway. Elgin, 11finois: David C. Cook Publishing Co., 1978, 316 pp., $3.95.
THE FORCE OF KNOWLEDGE: THE SCIENTIFIC DIMENSION OF SOCIETY by John Ziman, F.R.S., Cambridge University Press (1976), 374 pp., $6.25.

THE GOLDEN COW: MATERIALISM IN THE TWENTIETH-CENTURY CHURCH by John White, Inter-Varsity Press, 233 Langdon St., Madison, WI 53703, 1979, 175 pages ($3.50, paperback).

Consider the following scenarios: Scenario 1. An obscure cleric in studying the Bible concludes that the church has been wrong for over one thousand years about the major issue of the faith-how a person is to be saved. As he proclaims his discovery, great controversy erupts, many people of high and low station are persuaded, vast social and political changes ensue, wars are fought, and eventually as equilibrium is established the course of Christendom and the world is altered for all time.

Scenario 2. An obscure cleric in studying the Bible concludes that the church has been wrong for ages in its proclamation of the gospel. The church has been preaching and teaching the faith in English, German, Chinese, Russian, etc., whereas (our cleric becomes convinced) the true understanding of God's message can be attained only through Greek and Hebrew. As he proclaims his discovery, great controversy erupts, many are convinced, and a large segment of the church doggedly sets about the task of translating all their materials, from Pilgrims Progress to the latest Sunday School Quarterly into Greek and Hebrew, teaching these languages to all their members, and then getting on with the work of the church. From now on, becoming a Christian means spending years in language study so that the truth can be fully understood.

The first of these scenarios roughly describes something which has happened-the Reformation. The second describes events which to my knowledge have not occurred and, hopefully, never will. But I have described these to emphasize that the historical church can be amiss on the large issues as well as the small and that sometimes cleaning house can be no small task. Certainly the church must consider any challenge that she has strayed from the standards of the biblical faith.

John White's The Golden Cow contains such a challenge. The thesis of the book is that the entire church, including yours and my favorite evangelical parachurch organization, has so completely absorbed (if not embraced) Western pragmatic materialism that every aspect of church life is tainted. This is an impassioned plea to all of us to draw our inspiration and shape our practices from the biblical message and not from Madison Avenue and the boardrooms of the giant corporations. Should White's message strike its intended target and produce the changes he calls for, vast indeed would be the implications-surely the world would be changed.

The early chapters of the book deal with the biblical prophets' response to unbelief and idolatry. Although White's major image is that of Jesus driving the merchants from the temple with a homemade whip, he devotes more space to the Old Testament prophets' use of the "adultery" theme to describe Israel's unfaithfulness to Yahweh. The point is that only such shocking language can begin to describe the folly, immorality, and disgrace of God's people forgetting "who they are and to whom they belong." This section is not a series of proof texts but rather in it the author paints a picture, using appropiate biblical images, to show us, the modern North American church, how tragically absurd is our turning from a simple trust in our God to the schemes, the mindset of our age.

White uses the word "materialism" to characterise this mindset. He contrasts philosophical, doctrinaire materialism, which asserts that matter is all there is, with the pragmatic materialism of our culture. This latter materialism consists of acting as if this world is all that matters, regardless of what philosophy, or set of beliefs, one claims to hold.

His point is that the North American church, no matter how pure her doctrine or lofty and spiritual her values in theory, actually practices materialism in her activities-how money is raised and where spent, the striving for things and financial security among Christians, the investment in pew cushions and stained glass. Observing these values one cannot but admit that practical materialism permeates our thinking and actions.

The author next addresses individual Christians. As one he would anticipate, he expounds the familiar passages of the New Testament on riches, centering mainly on the passages in the Sermon on the Mount. He carefully avoids legalisms, driving again and again to the question of motives and attitudes. Of course, these passages are strong and radical, and White does not have to labor very hard to prove that the Scriptures warn of the peril of spiritual dilapidation under the pressure of wealth.

In this section White makes a significant distinction between the Pauline teaching about justification by faith and the focus of Jesus' teaching and concern, which is "How can we know when justifying faith is present?" White asserts that:

"One answer Jesus gives is that faith in the invisible God can be demonstrated by [a Christian's] power over material things, either power to manipulate them or power to escape enslavement to them ... We must be suspicious of any faith about personal justification that is not substantiated by faith in God's power over material tings in our everyday life ... Enslavement to the visible makes faith in the invisible suspect." (p. 53f, his emphasis).

Thus does White elevate the question of our captivity to material things to one of fundamental importance.

The author's strongest words are directed to Christian institutions-churches, denominations, mission boards, religious publishers and bookstores, etc. White is concerned about the role materialism plays in the decision, money raising methods, and values of such groups. Of course he decries the "Money Talks" mentality, but he is also concerned about broader issues, such as lack of reverence for the name of our Lord (Jesus T-shirts) and manipulation of people with modern marketing techniques on behalf of the Almighty. One of the most fascinating parts of the book is where White, a practicing psychiatrist, gives a step-by-step procedure for brainwashing people into the Kingdom at evangelistic meetings. He calls upon evangelists to renounce such techniques and rather to inform and reason with the unsaved.

In this section about Christian institutions, White occasionally betrays anger and bitterness, as when he describes Christian organizations as "dignified vultures" because they try to get included in donor's wills. But on the whole, the author reasons, warns, and pleads with the church, his "adulterous mother," to turn again to simple trust in God and biblical ways,

White is a skilled writer and he writes here with great passion and conviction. This book will challenge any serious Christian and this book will, I suspect, depress many, as it did me. In one of my opening scenarios, I referred to Luther's touching off the Reformation. Of course, it took more than one man's activity to reform the church-the times has to be right. Are the times right for the church to hear White? Are many Christians or Christian institutions apt to heed his warnings? My experience as an individual Christian struggling with these issues is that the social currents are strong and it takes considerable effort to swim against them. I for one need much support from fellow strugglers-ideally a Christian sub-culture committed to radical, biblical values. This is, of course, the goal of the Christian community movement. That this movement is still laboring to get off the ground tells me that probably the times are not yet right. Meanwhile, let us hope that White's warnings find their target and aid us in our struggles to become increasingly free of our cultural captivity.

Reviewed by J. R. Cogdell, Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Tex= 78712

CONTEMPORARY MISSIOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION by Johannes Verkuyl (translated and edited by Dale Cooper), William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Clothbound, 414 pages, plus xiv pages, (1978) $14.95.

To missiologists this opus of Verkuyl bespeaks of erudicity and comprehension that makes its author a most capable leader and spokesman among his peers in the Reformed Church tradition. Although the subtitle is "An Introduction," the volume is not really that in the sense that most instructors in missiology or courses in missions will want to confront the beginning student with it. Nor is the book merely a compendium or survey; it is both, but its wealth of information with accompanying analysis-all within about 400 pages-actually prompts this reviewer to conclude that the book should be considered a modified encyclopedia of missiological thought and personnel. If this conclusion has any validity, the volume is something that lends itself less to introductory study than to a reference source for students engaged in advanced study as in some seminar on missions.

This is not to say that a novice in missiology will be unable to profit from reading or consulting Verkuyl's effort; the beginner will be able to glean many rewards for any serious reading, but such novices will be aided much when an instructor stands by to guide the student through the labyrinth of historical and ideological pathways and persons brought within the book's horizon. The instructor using the book as a text with routine and sequential assignments, chapter by chapter, will likely overwhelm, if not confound, those without introductory background in the study of Christian missions.

These strictures are not intended to reflect negativism toward a well-written and comprehensive statement of missiology, but rather to note that the author has undertaken a difficult self-assignment. In the past generation or two, especially the period following World War II, many dramatic and profound alterations have characterized the science of missions. As the book's jacket correctly notes, the missionary enterprise is no longer unilateral; that is, it is no longer (if ever it seemed to be to ethnocentric Western mission personnel) a program emanating from Western sources and carried only by Western missionaries elsewhere in the World. Increasingly, despite considerable and grudging reluctance among Western mission scholars, the missionary task is being accomplished with and not merelyfor individuals and groups outside the West. Verkuyl is to be commended highly in recognizing that missiology in today's post-colonial world is a universal endeavor with the emergence of missiologists from the so-called developing countries.

Of course this reviewer cannot entirely suppress his ethnocentric ambivalence when Verkuyl allocates greater emphasis to European missiologists over American in Western Christianity. As a Christian ethnologist with decades of interaction with mission programs and personnel, this reviewer is led to commend Verkuyl for indirectly chiding American missions personnel who regrettably concluded for much too long that Christian missions have been, and can be, successful only if American schemes and methodology are adopted and dominant worldwide. On the other hand, this tendency to slight the American role will perhaps offend some missiologists west of the Atlantic Ocean.

With this in mind, we may note the struggle among American missiologists as a spinoff aspect of theological conflict between conservatives and liberals. The conservative Christians in America, whether identifying as 6 $ evangelical" or " fundamental, " will be far less favorable to Verkuyl's advocacy of ecumenicity in world-wide missions. This reviewer must confess to a rather pronounced conservative tradition; hence, some of Verkuyl's views on ecumenical theory and methodology do not meet with the warm reception that perhaps they might in some theological and missiological circles. We must admit, nonetheless, that he presents a plausible case for every missiologist considering the most effective means for the Christian evangel in today's complex world.

And, we must hasten to add, Verkuyl has skillfully but not obscurely woven into the fabric of his presentation the imperative threads of biblical doctrine centered in the pivotal issue of Jesus Christ, God's unique Son, as the only "Way ... .. Truth," and "Life." He does not equivocate in this critical focality for missiology, especially in his treatment of "The Biblical Foundation" in Chapter 4. But he seems to wander a bit from this "Foundation" as he seeks to relate it to what he envisions as necessary in ecumenicity. It may be that those more familiar with the Reformed Church tradition will not experience the theological discomfort experienced by this reviewer; certainly the extremely conservative, or "fundamentalist," missiologists will sharply disagree with his ecumenical conclusions!

In a more positive vein, and in the author's awareness of contemporary conditions as in the Middle East, Verkuyl appropriately devotes a chapter on missiology in relation to Jewish people and the state of Israel. It is common knowledge that this has been a nagging problem from the inception of Christianity as historically outlined by Luke in the Book of Acts; and, of course, the problem has its inspired treatment by Paul in Romans 9-11. Verkuyl seems to be both cautious and correct, after admitting to the thorny nature of the Christian witness to Jews, when he suggests: "There is no better means of communication to be found anywhere than the means of personal friendship; that is, one becomes so interested and involved in the life of the other person that he actually suffers along with him in times of crises and tension and comes to the alert when a dread anti-Semitism once again bares its ugly head. ." (p. 141). And this reviewer agrees when he adds; ". Genuine love always finds a way (to communicate the Christian message), and if we really love the people of Israel as we ought, we shall never be without means of reaching them" (p. 142). While the Jews are the immediate context for this suggestion, Verkuyl lays bare an imperative theoretical dimension that has application universally.

Furthermore in positive assessment is Verkuyl's attention to "Black Theology," and "Theological Developments in Asia, Africa, and Latin America" (Chapter 11). As a Christian ethnologist, I fully concur with his conclusion that many misconceptions and delusions tenaciously cling to the theological work being done outside the West. Undoubtedly this is in part the result of a myopic fusion of ethnocentrism and ignorance on the part of some Western theologians. One hears that non-Western theology is merely a Western import, a reproduction, and a potted-plant variety. But, says Verkuyl, serious missiological study reveals clearly that non-Western Christians have, and increasingly, offered theological traditions worthy of Western consideration.

To continue, as Verkuyl observes what he labels "the impact of young churches," he detects approvingly that the established churches in the West are losing their dominance because the "young churches" elsewhere object to the demeaning phrase, "daughter churches," which gives the impression that they are mere satellites of established churches in the West. Increasingly, these non-Western churches have their own destiny, are proud of it, and want to divest themselves of the vassal status which Western ecclessiastical imperialism imposed upon them. This reviewer heartily concurs!

On the other hand as an ethnologist, one is somewhat disappointed to find Verkuyl surveying "Trends in the Theology of Religions," seemingly unaware of the Christian anthropologist, Charles Kraft, who, though controversial among evangelical missiologists, merits inclusion in Verkuyl's analysis. Especially since it is obvious that Verkuyl recognizes the critical implications that bear upon cross-cultural communication of our Christian evangel, for no analysis of contextualization and the culture conceptwhich this reviewer views as demanding high priority in evangelical missiology today-in respect of emerging theological trends should neglect Kraft's probes.

This, rather regretably, leads one to further negativism in that Verkuyl, while following conventional Reformed Church missiology, seems inadequately alert to ethnological theory in social forms and dynamics. It would have added to his analysis if, for example, he had distinguished between "institution" and "association" somewhat as has the sociologist, Robert M. MacIver; for this scholar envisioned associations as groupings in society while the established forms of procedure linked with group action as the institution. Verkuyl fails to discern sharply, as is necessary in missiological study, between the church structure and the church dynamics. Hence, as Jacques Eflul would put it, the "means" threaten to become the "end"; that is, there tends to be the glorifying of the "body of Christ" rather than the "end" which is the "Head" or the Person of Christ.

We cannot in this review engage in the "chicken and egg" argument, but a sharp distinction must be made between the Church as the "body" and "means" to accomplish the "Head's" purpose and glorification. Roman Catholics in recent decades have begun to v6Testle with their traditional and excessive emphasis upon the "body" which in their hierarchical structure had in essence become the "end" for the perpetuation of itself; the avowed glorification of God had tended to be merely rationalizational cliche's to maintain the institution.

One final comment: It is a bit unfortunate that Verkuyl's opus is mostly encyclopedic with no index of subjects to aid its reader in sifting through it rich contents (although it does have an index of persons considered in the text). As a wealthy repository with much useful material, an index would enhance the book's use. Despite all these negative comments, this book should be in every missiologist's library and available for consulting by all serious students confronted by today's missions' challenge.

Reviewed by George J. Jennings, Associate Professor in Anthropology, Executive Secretary, Middir East Christian Outreach- USA, Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pennsylwnia 15010.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN RELIGIONS by J. Gordon Milton, Consortium Books, Box 9001, Wilmington, North Carolina 28402, 1100 pp, $135.

The Encyclopedia of American Religions by J. Gordon Milton, a Methodist minister, is the most extensive work ever written in the area of minority American religions. Milton describes the history, practices, and beliefs of 1,200 distinct religions and classifies them in a system which helps the reader understand the place of each religion in the American religious scene. The volume is an indispensible reference work for religious schools and libraries in general. In many cases it is the only source of information about the countless small American religious groups.

Milton, in compiling the materials for this massive twovolume set, spent 16 years and collected literally tons of literature about the American religions he studied. He has spent hundreds of hours researching and traveling, extensively interviewing leaders and members alike. He is probably the foremost authority on minority American religions today. The only previous works in this area were Elmer Clark's The Small Sects in America which is now very outdated, and Arthur C. Piepkorn's Profiles in Belief.

Because of the increased prominence of groups such as the Moonites, the Children of God, Scientology, and the People's Temple, scholars are increasingly looking at the phenomenon in America known as "made in America small religious sects." This reference work will likely be the starting place for the serious researcher. In addition, those confronted with various religions who need a brief background about the religion will find Milton's work ihdispensible.

The book would be an excellent beginning source for students wanting to complete a doctorate dissertation in one of the small American religious sects. It would introduce them to the myriad of extant religious sects which merit further study. With the exception of the Jehovah's Witnesses, the Seventh Day Adventists, the Mormons, Christian Scientists and the main line denominations, the majority of the American religious sects Milton catalogues have almost no published research about them.

Usually not until a religion achieves a degree of notoriety does there tend to be much written about it. Virtually nothing except occasional newspaper and magazine articles was available about the People's Temple in California until the recent tragic mass suicide in Guyana. Now, several serious scholarly studies are appearing and several books are already available.

Even information about groups such as the Christadelphians, a religion that has been a solid and important part of American religious life for the past one hundred years, is scarce. Except for short chapters in Bryan Wilson's work, and several incidental references in a few journals and - books, outside information about the Christadelphians is unavailable. And this, in spite of the fact that the Christadelphians number in the thousands and produce a large amount of high quality, well-written, and well-researched literature.

A pioneering aspect of Milton's work is that he attempted to group the religions according to families such as the Liturgical family, the Liberal family, the Adventist family, etc. This is the first serious attempt to understand and classify the vast panorama of American religion.

In biology, in order to understand the myriads of life, life is divided up into various categories including, for example, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds. Classification is indispensible in understanding life. Likewise, in understanding the complex world of American religion, classification systems are necessary. Milton's classification into 17 families helps the reader quickly grasp the basic religious beliefs and orientations of the hundreds of religions Milton researched.

The myriad of American religions Milton includes are the mystical Hassidic Jews, psychics, groups that take psychedelic drugs, own communal property, practice yoga, worship UFO's, handle snakes, believe everyone is God, in no god, or the earth is square, oval, hollow, cubical, flat or does not exist.

One aspect which is often discussed is the numerous schisms which typically occur in American religion. For example, the Adventist family includes mainly the Seven Day Adventist Church, the Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Worldwide Church of God (Armstrongism), but from the Witnesses alone have sprung scores of religious sects including the Christian Believers Conference, Layman's Home Missionary Movement, Epiphany Bible Students, Pastoral Bible Institute, Dawn Bible students, etc. The reason for the splits are discussed, as well as differences between the schism group and the main group. These schisms have had almost no attention from the academic press.

The encyclopedia not only looks at the smaller, more fascinating religious sects, but also the larger religious denominations. For example, the Lutheran, Methodist, Congregational, Pentecostal, Catholic, and other main line denominations are all surveyed. In addition, the many divisions of these main line denominations are discussed. For example, the Pietist Methodist family is divided up into the Moravians, Scandinavian Pietists, and Methodism. Methodiism, on the other hand, is divided up into numerous groups, including the Apostolic Methodist Church, Church of Daniel's Band, Asbury Bible Churches, the Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church, etc. In addition, Milton compares the theology, liturgy, and ecclesiology of the main line denominations with other main line denominations.

The main drawback of the book is its brevity. In spite of being two volumes of 600 pages each, only a few paragraphs are devoted to most denominations. For example, the Adventist family has no more than a paragraph or two written about each group. Probably to do justice to each of the groups, at least a volume or more could be written on each one. The purpose, though, of the encyclopedia is to introduce the researcher to the basic beliefs and practices, and to classify most American religious sects and denominations. This it adequately does, although very briefly. The many references given will enable the researcher to explore further the groups he or she is interested in Milton's other book, A Directory of Religious Denominations, includes the relevant addresses so the researcher can write to the organizations themselves for their own literature.

The book is printed on high quality, thick paper and bound in a durable cloth binding. It should hold up for library use, as well as make an attractive addition to the home library shelf.

In summary, Milton's book is a major attempt to understand and classify American religion, and especially minority American religions. The encyclopedia should become the standard reference work in this area, and at the same time serve as a stimulus for further research.

Reviewed by Jerry Bergman, Dept. of Educational Foundations and Inquiry, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403.

CLAIMS IN CONFLICT: RETRIEVING AND RENEWING THE CATHOLIC HUMAN RIGHTS TRADITION by David Hollenbach, S.J., Paulist Press, New York, Ramsey, Toronto, 1979, 219 pages, paper, $5.95.

For a proper evaluation of an approach to human rights we must ask: What is man? If after that we want to communicate with others we have to find a common basis, and if possible a common vocabulary. The book under review makes it clear how difficult both conditions are. It is easy to divide mankind in two groups: Christians and non-Christians, then to proceed to say that we have faith in common with one group and reason with the other. Do we have the common basis of reason with everybody? Are we always talking about the same things if we use the same words?

Dividing mankind into two groups in that way denies the basic unity of man. Fr. Hollenbach says (pg. 115): ". . The theological influence operative throughout the discussion of rights is as a perspective which informs, limits and guides. . . .". (See also p. 126). My teacher, Prof. Vollenhoven (Amsterdam) used to quote Prov. 4:23, stating that all our activity has a goal, a direction, which is either towards God or away from Him. Neutrality, even in science, is impossible.

It is striking that on several pages of this book it becomes clear how close the Roman Catholic and Calvinistic traditions are, not only in the conclusions drawn, but also in the foundations for these conclusions: Striking since I find few references from one tradition to the other. Usually the references are limited to the places where a definite dogmatic disagreement exists, partly (maybe mainly) because the terminology is so different. Reading and comparing with what one reads in one's own tradition becomes a (rewarding) exercise in translation. We might then translate incorrectly. Further study is needed.

For that reason I am hesitant (for now) to criticise some (few) statements. Maybe I misunderstand. Example: p. 117: "Every human person is redeemed by Christ, called to the Kingdom of God. . ." I don't believe that every human person is redeemed by Christ. Still I am hesitant, since I found that the different terminology used might mean that I read in my tradition what Hollenbach wrote in his. That means that it is possible we agree when we have eliminated terminological difficulties.

As an example, that this is possible, consider page 126. In a discussion on reason-faith, in the context of nature-grace, I discovered that I could agree with most of what was said, by referring to (and translating in the language of) the Calvinist Belgic confession Art. 2, which talks about the way we know God: ". . by the creation, preservation and government of the universe. . . " and by His holy and divine Word ... "

Also, as another example, the schematic drawing on page 98 makes one think of some schemes used by some adherents of the Philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea (the Amsterdam school). Further contact and cross-fertilization might help both traditions. Above all it would help further unity among Christians. Discussion and study is needed.

To show how close the subject (and its treatment by Fr. Hollenbach) is to all of us I quote from Pope Paul II, p. 121:

Methodological necessity and ideological presuppositions too often lead the human sciences to isolate, in various situations certain aspects of man, and yet to give these an explanation which claims to be complete or at least an interpretation which is nw2ni to be all embracing from a purely quantitative or phenomenological point of view. This scientific reduction betrays a dangerous presumption. To give a privileged position in this way to such an aspect of analysis is to mutilate man and, under the pretext of a scientific procedure, to make it impossible to understand iman in his totality.

The direction of our lives becomes therefore important here and now, and not only for our future. Our daily studying, our research are affected by it. When we abstract, we abstract a part of creation. As Christians we can never talk about, "Mathematics, the man-made universe" as Stein did. All we are studying is always a very small part of a very great creation.

Claims in Conflict is a stimulating book. It gives not only direction to our thinking about human rights, but also (and it does so in a very interesting way) it gives an overview of the history of Roman Catholic thinking on this subject over the past 100 years. It tries to show the development in the answering of philosophical questions about man and the cosmos in a basically Christian context. Since all scientists are involved with many of the questions asked, I found this book a very worthwhile study and I hope it will further discussion and more unity among Christians.

Reviewed by Jan de Koning, Department of Mathematics, St. Michael's College, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PROGRESS AND ITS PROBLEMS by Larry Laudan, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1977. $4.95 (Paper), 257 pp.

The author of this book, the former chairman of the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, aims to set forth a justification for scientific knowledge in terms of its effectiveness in solving empirical and conceptual problems. The traditional viewpoint (p. 125) has been that rationality amounts to accepting those statements about the world which we have reason to believe are true, progress consists in successive attainment of truth by a process of approximation and self correction, and science (especially natural science) is one of the principal embodiments of rational thought and progress. This traditional approach has, in Laudan's opinion, suffered badly from recent (and not so recent) skeptical arguments, and so he feels that the time has come to offer an alternative. An approach to the world is rational, in Laudan's view, if it is progressive in the sense that it makes progress in solving problems. Whether it has any direct connection with truth or falsity is entirely beside the point.

What is it that has driven Laudan to this particular point of view? The prologue (pp. 2, 3) fists several reasons: (i) the definitions of rationality hitherto provided by philosophers of science do not agree with scientific practice; (ii) attempts to show that the methods of science guarantee that science will produce true or even probable or highly confirmed knowledge have ' failed; (iii) sociologists, historians and philosophers of science have been able to point to nonrational or irrational factors in scientific decisions, and have suggested that some of these factors may be essential. Laudan evidently wishes to maintain the notion that, despite these difficulties, scientific knowledge is rational, and he associates this rationality with the ability to solve problems.

Laudan recognizes some of the complex elements which enter the decisions which scientists make when evaluating the merits of different theories. He emphasizes-correctly, in my opinion-that the choice is usually between different theories, and that it is not a matter of evaluating some theory on an absolute scale. He points out that not all problems are equally important, and that it is possible for problems to have approximate solutions. The importance for a particular theory of a problem which it does not solve depends both upon the ability of competing theories to solve this problem and upon the scientist's (or research tradition's) view as to whether this problem lies within the domain which should be addressed by the theory. All of these assertions I found to be helpful insights and true to my own experience as a practicing research physicist. Occasionally Laudan takes a somewhat extreme position, such as his assertion that unsolved problems generally count as genuine problems only when they are no longer unsolved (p. 18), but even here one finds valuable insights behind the hyperbole.

I do not, however, think that Laudan has made much progress in solving the central philosophical problem he is addressing, that of understanding scientific rationality. I have two objections to his central thesis, one technical and the other more fundamental.

First the technical objection. Laudan's approach depends in a critical way on the notion of a "solved problem," but he does not give a good explanation of what constitutes an acceptable solution. The proposal on p. 25, that a theory solves a problem if it features significantly in a scheme of reasoning leading to a statement of the solution, will be unacceptable to most scientists because it omits any mention of the "quality controls" which we use all the time in our research. For example, the assertion that hydrated copper sulfate crystals are blue "because they contain blue atoms" is in some sense a "solution" of the problem of the color of these crystals, but not one which would be acceptable in a modern scientific journal.

Laudan seems to be aware of the problem of quality control, for he tells us at the beginning of Ch. 3 that ". . we must lay down adequacy conditions for determining when a theory provides an acceptable solution to the problems which confront it." Alas, neither in the remainder of that chapter nor in the remainder of the book could I find adequacy conditions applicable to colored-atom or other similar theories. It may be asking too much of a book devoted to the philosophy of science to spell out such conditions, since determining the acceptability of proffered solutions to empirical problems involves a complicated exercise of scientific judgment-as people who referee papers for research journals are well aware. However, this is precisely the difficulty with Laudan's approach: in order to understand why scientists think they have solved a problem, we need some notion of scientific rationality, and to define this rationality in terms of problem solving yields very little insight.

My second, and deeper, objection to Laudan's approach is that it has no place for a typical, if not universal, attitude among practicing scientists: that it is precisely because their theories have (something) to do with the real world, because they are true (in some approximation), that they are useful for solving problems. No doubt this attitude is naive to some extent. We are indebted to the historians of science for rendnding us that scientists in the past had similar confidence about theories which modern scientists have discarded. And philosophers (including scientists-asphilosophers) have certainly encountered difficulty in establishing the claim that scientific procedures do lead to true and certain, or even approximately true and probably correct knowledge.

Despite these difficulties it seems to me unwise to follow Laudan and completely discard the typical attitude of the typical scientist towards his theories. Indeed, Lauda appears to be inconsistent at this point: he has let the failures of the rather unprogressive (by his own evaluation) discipline of the philosophy of science outweigh the insights of the progressive (in his sense) natural sciences.

In summary, Laudan's book is more effective at exposing and illustrating certain dilemmas of the modern philosophy of science than it is at proposing a cure. An improved account of scientific rationality would be a very worthwhile contribution to philosophy and perhaps to Christian theology as well, especially if one accepts the thesis that there are a number of parallels between scientific and theological thought. Perhaps some readers of this journal can do a better job than Laudan; I encourage them to try.

Reviewed by Robert B. Griffiths, Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213.

ADVICE TO A YOUNG SCIENTIST, by P.W. Medawar, New York, Harper and Row (1979) 106 pp., $8.95.

The author, Sir Peter Medawar, begins his preface, "I have tried to write the kind of book which I myself should have liked to read when I began research." He concludes with his "belief that the pursuit of universal learning to be acquired and applied to the benefit of all men for the common good (G. A. Comenius) is truly the via lucis, the way of light." This book is the second in the Sloan Foundation's series to encourage the public understanding of science by having "accomplished and articulate scientists set down their own accounts of their lives in science." It is highly recommended for all science teachers and aspiring young scientists.

The author has had experience as a teacher (departmental chairman at the universities of Birmingham and London), as a researcher (Nobel Laureat in medical science), and as an administrator (head of the British National Institute for Medical Research). A frequent collaborator himself he warns that such individuals must like and respect one another. Having had his wife as a coworker he notes that a husband and wife team can be effective only if they "love each other in the fully adult sense." He is particularly sensitive of one's moral and contractual obligations to one's employer, and above all, an unconditional obligation to the truth. The author's primary concern in this book is research.

He addresses himself to questions of youth. "How can I tell if I am cut out to be a scientist? How can I equip myself to be a scientist or a better one? What shall I do research on? Where does luck come into all this? If need be, can I opt out without a sense of self-reproach or misdirection? His answers form a guideline.

With respect to research. Read intently and choosily, but don't overdo it. The best way to do research is to get on with it. Get commercial equipment when available; don't try to make everything yourself. Admit mistakes promptly. Beware of following fashion. To make important discoveries one must study important problems. One cannot do without common sense. Don't be secretive; tell all you know (and what you don't know.) Don't mistake the necessity of reason for the sufficiency of reason. On no account continue with your Ph.D. research; the post-doctoral trend is unqualifiedly a good thing.

With respect to presentation of material. ("Most scientists do not know how to write. ") Research is incomplete without publication. Don't parade your culture ("very many scientists are not intellectuals"). Don't exhibit scientmanship, i.e., raising yourself by debasing others; citing all your own work while giving only the most recent ones of others. (Medawar prefers the Royal Society custom of listing authors of joint papers alphabetically.) Never read a paper from a script or show off by speaking without notes, which helps one to use natural words. Shun the Germanic practice of using nouns as distributive adjectives. Use a blackboard rather than slides (in either case insure visibility and legibility). Don't exhibit obvious curves, e.g., linear relations. Don't be too critical; don't boast of your having had the idea earlier. Don't poach on another speaker's time. Have a friendly respect for your mentor; but don't ingratiate yourself with your seniors (don't assume they will remember you when or where.). Don't have no time for anything or anybody not related to you and your work. On occasions defend science; don't ever appear to condone folly or superstition, or to demonstrate unsound belief. Better appear to be querulous than gullible. Use recognized channels of communication. Respect the administrator, who has to give up his research to get funds for yours. Value the technician. Avoid scientific messianism!

With respect to sexism and racism. Women's intuition is geared to human relations, not to science; there is no distinct style in their scientific work. No one nation has a corner on good scientists; there is no Jewish or Hungarian elitism. A spouse must recognize that a genuine scientist is in the grip of a powerful obsession.

With respect to prizes and rewards. Electoral procedures are all fallible, but a high opinion of one's peers is always a great moral boost. The exaggerated respect, however, for prize winners may sometimes serve useful ends.

The chapter on "The Scientific Process" is noteworthy. The author broadly defines science to include "all exploratory activities for understanding the natural wprId." "Scientific inquiry is an enormous potentiation of common sense." "A scientist is not engaged in the collection of facts and in calculations based upon them." "The generative art in science is imaginary guesswork." He classifies experiments as Aristotelian (demonstrative), Baconian (observational), Galileian (critical), and Kantian (thoughtful). He rejects Thoma S. Kuhn's point of view as not adding up to a methodology; he prefers Karl R. Popper's "The Logic of Scientific Discovery," i.e. the hypothetico-deductive method. Observation and experimentation must both be purposive, critical processes. "The art of devising hypotheses is a large part of the art of solution." Discovery is more the result of a prepared mind (Pasteur) than of uncovering (serendipity).

With respect to "the many simple and childlike questions that people like to ask. " In the last chapter particularly the author stresses reasonable expectations of science: neither undervalue nor overvalue science! "The judgments of scientists per se on any topic whatever are not specially valuable or virtually worthless." "A scientific attack on religious belief is usually no less faulty than a defense of it. Scientists do not speak on religion from a privileged position except in so far as those with a predilection for the Argument from Design have better opportunities than laymen to see the grandeur of the natural order of things." The author groups "mystical theology" with the wisdom of Eastern cults as being antiscientific; he has, I believe, a somewhat distorted view of mysticism in its broadest meaning.

"No known or conceivable limit to the power to answer questions of the kind that science can answer" exists plus ultra! A better world, therefore, is possible through the transformation of society with science as an agent provided there is a sufficient, sustained effort: What the author calls "scientific ameliorism"! Science can point the way, but success will be achieved only by political actions and events (religious?) outside the realm of science. "These problems not being scientific afford no scientific solution." There is unfortunately a current "doctrine of original virtue," the modern version of the doctrine of original sin. "Material progress does not hold out the promise of remedying any of the major ailments that affect mankind today," e.g., overpopulation and harmonious coexistence of a multiracial society. There is no human ommiscience which can guarantee "the improvement of all human affairs in all persons."

Reviewed by Raymond Seeger, NSF (Retired), 4507 Wetherill Road, N. W., Washington, D. C 20016.

SCIENCE, CURRICULUM, AND LIBERAL EDUCATION by Joseph Schwab, (edited by J. Westbury, Education, University of Illinois, and N.J. Wilkof, law student, University of Chicago), University of Chicago Press (1978), 394 pages, $24.00.

Joseph Schwab spent nearly fifty years at the University of Chicago; he received his baccalaureate in biology and literature in 1930, his Ph.D. in genetics in 1939, and retired in 1978 as Professor of Education and Professor of Natural Sciences (in 1937 he was a fellow in science education at Teachers College, Columbia University). He was chairman of the BSCS committee on teacher preparation (the subsequent NSF summer institutes were not at all in keeping with his philosophy). Although in 1959 he was chairman of the academic board of the Meltion Research Center of the Jewish Theological Seminary, he never mentions religion in these essays-one curriculum without religion?

This book (394 pages) consists of twelve essays (11 previous published, 6 in modified form) based upon 55 listed publications (1935-1976). They are particularly valuable in showing the development of a scientist primarily interested in education at the University of Chicago where a unique experiment in it took place from the early 1930's to the early 1950's. Schwab's own views were greatly influenced by Dewey and Freud; he emphasized the role of experience in the growth of a person and encouraged open debate of specific topics (more adaptable to "soft" sciences). Every teacher will be stimulated by his own formulation of questions, but disappointed with the paucity of answers. The Introduction by the editors sets the stage by tracing the changing educational pattern at the University leading to Schwab's own role in the curriculum reform movement of the 60's. The essays are grouped under three headings.

The first part "On Liberal Education and Science" consists of five articles. "The Three-Year Program in the Natural Sciences." (1950), "The Nature of Scientific Knowledge as Related to Liberal Education" (1949), "Eras and Education: A Discussion of One Aspect of Discussion" (1954), "Science and Civil Discourse, The Uses of Diversity" (1956), "Enquiry and the Reading Process" (1958). If one can get over the author's verbiage-particularly his pedantic mannerisms and use of uncommon words-the first paper will prove quite informative about Chicago's own reaction to its celebrated "survey" courses; the second is thoughtful. They all contain niany provocative statements: Mark Hopkins' purpose is to liberate, not to captivate. . . The identity of teacher and examiner should be removed. . . Eros is the energy of wanting... An oval table for 25 is optimal equipment... We do not know until we know what was measured (with respect to Lord Kelvin). . . . The program should lean heavily upon the reading and discussion of original work. . . Laboratory instructions should be reduced to the minimum . . . Science can be both sensitive and philosophical without ceasing to be scientific. . . Discussion material should be taken from research papers... Science comprises all natural phenomena which can be made to yield general truths when subjected to the method of science. . . The scientific method is the inductive method ... No one doctrine concerning the nature of science should be exclusively employed... Doctrine about science should be established later by historians and philosophers. Discussion is indispensable to a good liberal education. '. . Education cannot separate off the intellectual from feeling and action-To be there does not necessarily mean to be first and eternal.

Part II, "On the Foundations of the Curriculum" includes three papers: "The Impossible Role of the Teacher in Progressive Education" (1950), "What Do Scientists Do" (1960), "Education and the Structure of the Disciplines" (1961). The editors recommend reading the first one both first and last in reading the book because of Schwab's growing indebtedness to the oft misunderstood Dewey. Although it is interesting, as a mathematical physicist I cannot subscribe to the elevation of mathematics alone as "a process dedicated to the invention of new concepts." The second article proved disappointing in its emphasis upon critical analysis of formal methodology as contrasted with a genuine scientist's humble desire to understand phenomena per se. I myself would prefer to have students investigate nature first-hand rather than to criticize research papers. The third paper has an interesting ending where the author indicates how he himself would develop the teaching of a discipline from the early grades through high school. His dicussion of the selection of facts through the design of experiment is good; he fails, however, to give due recognition to the more general value of experience itself-even though it may be only accidental. I cannot agree with his assertion that theory is primarily man's invention-without regard for man's discovery of nature's architecture. There are some provocative remarks. The teacher must be a learner of education... Engineering is a semi-discipline... History and language are sciences in the most inclusive sense.

Part 111, "On Curriculum - Building," contains four articles: "Testing and the Curriculum", "The Practical: a Language for the Curriculum", "The Practical: Acts of Eclectic", "The Practical: Translation into Curriculum." The first one has an interesting suggestion that test results need to be tested by "depth" interviews, where the student is taught to think aloud as he answers test items. Another time-consuming procedure is his recommendation that a student be continually assessed for his cumulative learning grade by grade. He was apparently disturbed by the failure of the federally sponsored PSSC, BSCS, CHEMS, and CBA to include persons other than subject-matter specialists as if these are not also teachers. In the second paper he presents the usual procedure for a Master's thesis in science as a "sophicated enquiry into enquiries;" as a typical educationalist, he gives it a name of his own. The last article deals with the practical problem of curriculum making; he urges that the cognizant committee be representative of all expertise; he reserves the chairmanship, however, for a curriculum specialist, who must be neutralized (because of admittedly possible bias) by a cochairman or a monitor. The experts should be in subject matter, learning the milieus, and teaching per se. Here, too, he has some provocative comments. The field of curriculum is moribund... Effective teaching of reading and writing cannot be left only to teachers of reading and writing. . . The way in which scientific knowledge is presented to students affects the credibility of the content of the humanities and social studies. Deliberation about the physics course requires the comment of the English teacher, as well as of the biologist, the learning theoretician as well as the science educator. Different theories on the same subject matter are mutually exclusive. . . We have not the faintest reliable knowledge.of how literature is taught in the high school or what actually goes on in science classrooms. The procedure of polyfocal conspectus is not adaptable at present to the sciences as curricular resources. Scholars, as such, are incompetent to translate scholarly material into curriculum. The curriculum is not to conform to the material; the material is to be used in the service of the student. The attempt to formulate a scientific problem, however simple, and to carry out the investigation required by the problem, is to learn about questions to be addressed to scientific material which no mere lectorial presentation can convey.

Reviewed by Raymond Seeger NSF (Retired), 4507 Wetherill Road, N. W, Washington, D.C 20016.

TOTAL MIND POWER by Donald L. Wilson, M. D., (New York: A Berkley Book, 1978), 246 + ix pp., $2.25, paper.

The author's purpose in this volume is to enhance the reader's ability to solve his problems and give better overall direction to his life through more effective use of mind power. Citing the familiar claim that only 10% of one's intellectual facilities are ever used at one time, Dr. Wilson claims to have developed a method for increasing that percentage by tapping into one's latent mental abilities. The first part of the book introduces the concept and potential of "total mind power." The second part of the book discusses the use of the techniques involved. The third-and largest-part discusses the application of "total mind power" techniques to specific problems-including changes in weight, improved sports performance, controlling disease, and a host of others.

The technique of "total mind power" consists of three steps. In the first the reader is instructed to focus his awareness on the matter to be considered. Through placing oneself in the proper environment, blocking out all extraneous stimuli (audio, visual, sensual, olfactory), and relaxing the mind and body one can "set up an ideal situation in which the mind can drift on its own, without effort, concentration or fatigue, into a focused awareness in the direction you set" (p. 41).

The second step consists of the construction of a transcript incorporating all the mental perceptions into which the mind has begun to drift, ever focusing in on the "best possible solution" to whatever may be the particular problem under consideration. Wilson strongly urges the full writing out or dictation into a tape recorder of these transcripts, so that they can be referred to on later occasions. Numerous examples of transcripts-which remind one of free-verse poetry-are supplied.

The third step constitutes a structured repetition of the first two in which the written transcript is used to reconfirm the conclusion and prescription for action reached in the first two stages. In Step Three the reader will "determine the frequency or repetition" of Steps One and Two (p. 53) in the resolution of the particular problem.

This technique is designed to unlock hidden mental capacities, freeing them from the restraints of the subconscious to allow their application to everyday problems. An impressive bibliography following each chapter suggests a rather broad body of scientific literature to support the author's thesis. Personal and patient experiences and numerous examples of transcripts encourage the reader to begin the use of total mind power at once, and to expect impressive results.

This reviewer's efforts to apply this technique to a number of situations have been frustrated at both Steps One and Two. Total sensual isolation seems always just beyond by reach; and written transcripts are often timeconsuming, when it seems that a quick mental sortie will produce the same result. Total mind power may indeed hold some benefits for those who Persevere in the technique; yet for those who, like this reviewer, have neither the patience nor discipline for a: highly structured technique, alternate methods of solving problems seem equally viable.

Reviewed by T. M. Moore, Minister of Education, Executive Administrator, Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church.

MEN IN MID-LIFE CRISIS by Jim Conway. Elgin, IL: David C. Cook Publishing Co., 1978, 316 pp., $3.95.

This paperback deals with a subject that has received increasing attention lately, namely the traumatic upheaval and re-evaluation that occurs in the fives of many men in their middle years, usually around the age of forty. Jim Conway, the pastor of a large church in Urbana, Illinois, writes not only as one who has researched the subject well, and as one who has counseled men in mid-life, but also out of his own personal experience with the mid-life crisis.

Conway discusses the pressures and difficulties that face men in mid-life: their bodies are wearing down, family responsibilities, pressures of work, community service, church commitments, the realization that they are getting older and that they will die. He sees the mid-life crisis as a time of re-evaluation of the direction of one's life, "Who am I? What are my values? What do I want to do with my life?" Unfortunately, the pressures and re-evaluation often lead to depression, self-doubt, and self-pity, which lead men to want to unload their responsibilities and commitments and start life again differently. He points out that because men do not usually share their feelings, they are unaware that other men at this age are having a similar struggle. There are a variety of ways in which men may deal with the situation, some constructive, but some quite destructive. A new life style, an affair with a younger woman, alcohol, concern with one's body and health, self-indulgence, are but a few of the possible responses. Conway however, does not stop at an analysis of the problems, but goes on to suggest how one can navigate the crisis. He has positive suggestions for a Christian perspective on marriage renewal, restoring love and sex to a worn marriage, working out job related problems, aging with grace, dealing with adolescent children and aging parents. Although mainly about men, part of the book also deals with mid-fife problems of women and particularly how they can best cope with the mid-life crisis of their husbands.

Overall, I regard this as a very useful book for those in or approaching their middle years. As someone who is just entering his middle years, I found it particularly helpful to be forewarned of problems that are likely to arise. This book is understandable and easy to read, and aims to deal with the practical problems of mid-life and their solutions. Conway offers a good counsel from Scripture, psychology, his ministry, and his own personal experience.

Reviewed by Steven R. Scadding, Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

THE FORCE OF KNOWLEDGE: THE SCIENTIFIC DIMENSION OF SOCIETY by John Ziman, F.R.S., Cambridge University Press (1976), 374 pp., $6.25.

Professor Ziman's book is a composite volume, originally given to Science students in the University of Bristol, England, where he is Professor of Physics. The book sets forth his opposition to claims that university lecturers are not aware of the relationship between science and society and that they fail to generate thought in their students about this vital aspect of the scientist's work. By writing this book, Professor Ziman has filled a gaping void in society's awareness of its scientific dimension. He must be praised for communicating in such a coherent yet simple style which is understandable to scientist and non-scientist alike but with sufficient factual content to prevent it being dismissed as simplistic.

Initially the author states that natural science is transforming human society and is therefore worthy of our attention. In past decades, the public may have been content to leave science in the hands of scientists, assured that they were objective, responsible persons striving for the good of mankind and producing results which were always beneficial to society. In this present era however, a radical view has emerged suggesting that scientific knowledge is often misused, that the product of scientific thought and endeavor can have deleterious consequences and that the public can be adversely affected. This has resulted in the rejection by many of the idea that all science is good science. In order to appreciate just how this situation has arisen and to understand the social responsibilities of the scientist today, the past must be examined; the author undertakes this task carefully.

To correlate the "Art of Knowing," i.e. science, with the "Art of Knowing How," i.e. technology, Professor Ziman reveals their symbiotic relationship. He exemplifies his thesis that either science and technology overlap or that one precedes the other only to reach fruition upon combination. For instance, the pyramids were built in Egypt long before Greek mathematicians had developed a logical system of geometry; however it was the examination of these edifices that assisted in the construction of such a system. On the other hand, Oersted discoverd the magnetic field produced by a steady current in 1820, seventeen years before the discovery was turned to social benefit in the form of electric telegraphy. Ziman traces science through the ages to determine if the role of the scientist in the community has changed. In 1670 science was confined to aristocrats who had time to indulge in hobbies. Such men lived in isolation and communication of their results to the public depended largely on their motives in carrying out research. The inauguration of scientific societies set standards for scientists, together with opportunity to stimulate each other with exchange and discussion of ideas. By the mid 1800's such societies were no longer open only to those of wealth or breeding but to any who were positively contributing to science. Scientists were still esoteric but now they had official influence in education and industry. Recognized as valuable servants to their country, scientists began to wield their power.

From these glimpes into the historical development of scientific research, the author lays the foundations for his views on the scientist in society. Scientists themselves are joined in an invisible college, bound by ideas rather than material possessions. Their community is supposedly a democratic republic; however this community, like any other, influences its members who in turn influence society at large. Ziman devotes a chapter to such influences describing intellectual authority as illustrated by Newton and Einstein. Newton's discoveries still dominate classical mechanics and Einstein has become a household name to whom relativism in everything from physics to aesthetics is commonly attributed. Authority as a teacher, administrator, pundit, technical innovator and government official is also examined. Through concrete examples, conclusions are drawn demonstrating the impact of scientific authority and how, its acquisition of secular power can lead to corruption.

With increasing authority has come decreasing individual responsibility due to the advent of Big Science. Science has emerged from the atomic revolution in giant sized packages. No longer does a scientist do research; instead he takes part in a research project, merely as a team member. The author gives a lucid precise of Big Science using the field of high energy physics to illustrate the role of a scientist in a research establishment comparable in size to a city. Inseparable from this concept of Big Science is its price. The costs involved in planning, financing and administering such are too enormous to be comprehensible to the uninvolved individual. The figure of $20,000 - $25,000 is quoted for a full time research worker at PhD level in industrial research-Big Science costs 200 times as much.

The author's final chapter entitled, "Science and Social Need" discloses the crux of the matter. A justification for the central position of pure research is given and reasons for the fears and doubts of many about science are discussed. In past decades, science may have been treated with unwarranted awe and respect but society still cannot justly lay the total blame for "backward progress" at the door of the invisible college. Ziman maintains that knowledge is a tool for action but not its agent and hence every member of society has his role to play in social responsibility.

What does social responsibility in science mean anyway? Is it the end of science and its replacement by political action and revolution? Is it an appeal to private conscience in judging what research to undertake? Is it a plea for greater caution and experimentation before accidents Eke Thalidomide occur? These thought provoking questions are raised before the reader. This volume reminds scientists of such facts and questions and, just as importantly, enlightens non-scientists too. It encourages both to a greater sense of personal involvement and assists them to appreciate their own moral obligation to the aims and outworkings of the scientific dimension of society.

Reviewed by Sheena Lewis, Physiology Department, The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.