Science in Christian Perspective



Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
Book Reviews for December 1984


EDUCATION FOR CONTINUITY AND CHANGE by Mary Elizabeth Moore, 1983, Abingdon, PB, 222 pp. no price given.
DESTINED FOR GLORY: THE MEANING OF SUFFERING by Margaret Clarkson. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1983, 132 pages, $4.95, paperback
by Norman Anderson, IVP Downers Grove, Illinois (1983). Paperback. 219 pp, $6.95.
THE HARD SAYINGS OF JESUS by F. F. Bruce Inter-Varsity 1983, PB, 266 pp., $6.95
THE AUTHORITATIVE WORD-ESSAYS ON THE NATURE OF SCRIPTURE- Edited by Donald McKim, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids; 1983 pp. 270,$10.95
UNTIL JUSTICE AND PEACE EMBRACE by Nicholas Wolterstorff, Wm. B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1983.197 pp. $13.95.
WHO IS FOR PEACE? by Francis Schaeffer, Vladimir Bukovsky, and James Hitchcock, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN, 112 pages, paperback, $3.95
RITES OF LIFE: THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR LIFE BEFORE BIRTH by Landrum Shettles, M.D. and David Rorvik, Zondervan Publishing House, 1983. 162 pages, hardcover: $12.95.
SENTENCED TO LIFE, by Malcom Muggeridge and Alan Thornhill, Thomas Nelson, 1983, PB, 129 pp, $3.95.
by Lewis B. Smedes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1983, 282 pages, $14.95.
by Helmut Thielicke, Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1983. 208 pgs., $11.95
GOD'S TRUTH: A Scientist Shows Why It Makes Sense to Believe the Bible by Alan Hayward, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee (1983). 331 pp. Paperback. $6.95
THE SOURCES OF MODERN ATHEISM by Marcel Neusch, Paulist Press, paperback, 264p, $9.95
UNDERSTANDING THE CHRISTIAN FAITH by Charles D. Barrett; Prentice Hall, Inc.; 1980; 425pp. Hard Bound, no price stated.
ANATOMY OF REALITY, MERGING OF INTUITION AND REASON by Jonas Salk. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983. $16.95, 124 pages.
THE BONE PEDDLERS: SELLING EVOLUTION by William R. Fix, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York (1984), 337 pp + xxxvii, $18.95 cloth.
GOD AND THE NEW PHYSICS by Paul Davies, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1983, 255 pp, $16.95.

EDUCATION FOR CONTINUITY AND CHANGE by Mary Elizabeth Moore, 1983, Abingdon, PB, 222 pp. no price given.

The author's primary concern in this book is the apparent emphasis of Christian education nowadays on Bible-centered studies (the past) or life-centered ones (the present)-with little regard for the future (unknown). Disturbed by the split of the present from the past and the future, she proposes as her thesis a maximizing of continuity and change by her so-called traditioning model, which allows the present to develop out of the unknown past towards the uncertain future. (How does a person interact with his/her future?) To do so, she reformulates educational practice: its ideals, goals, and objectives (all life is included in the educational process). No distinction is made between general education and religious education, although the subtitle "A New Model for Christian Religious Education" implies that Christian education may not be religious. Her use of the context of education to mean "the Christian faith communitv" is nebulous. Nor am I impressed by her example of a specihe objective being a comparison of elections in Biblical times, the Middle Ages, the Reformation, and now. Her discussion of the disconnectedness of most curricula is good, but her claims that her own model, "the accumulating wisdom of the Christian community," will meet the needs of the participants, facilitate their interactions, promote knowledge with understanding and transformation does not belong in her conclusion; it is wishful thinking.

Unfortunately no evidence is presented to justify such claims. This essay is couched in typical educational jargon. Two thirds of it is introductory material leading up to the thesis. The author insists upon defining everything, even the obvious. For example, "Action is what we do." "The infinite is what goes beyond the limits." "The aims of education are what education points towards," et al. She likes to high-light assumptions, often unnecessary and at times trivial, for use in ad hominern arguments (her favorite word is "suggests").

It is probably natural that a faculty member of a School of Theology (Claremont) should discuss at length theological aspects of education (applied, empirical, feminist, hope, liberation, situation). It is not surprising that an Assistant Professor of Education should be unduly concerned about titles such as Minister of Education and Minister of Program. What is truly disturbing is to find Christ mentioned only twice-and then casually. 

I do not understand her lack of appreciation of the Bible-if only as literature. Somehow she has the notion that the telling of a Bible story must be dry as dust-like the unwrapping of a mummy-witbout relevance to the present or the future. Who would ever recommend replacing Abraham's settling in Canaan with a science-fiction tale about colonizing a planet? or, who would wish to substitute for God's revelation either Orwell's pessimistic predictions of 1984 or Huxley's "Brave New World?" The author sets up straw teachers, whom she then criticizes. Apparently she has never met a good teacher, who communicates, or a good story teller. She turns, therefore, to substitutes such as role playing, simulation games, et al. Spiritual values however, are caught rather than taught. Her section on "Teaching: How Do We Do It?" will be of little help to teachers. I doubt if many could successfully follow her suggestion that they "seek to interpret their life experience by creating a meaningful saga that explains the events in their life. The author likens the problem of education to the perplexity of a person at a modern traffic intersection. A good illustration-too bad she tries to cross without regard for the Biblical traffic signals!

As a physicist, I cannot close without comments about the author's few mentionings of science. I was shocked to find Francis Bacon still regarded by anyone as the founder of experimentation. Does anyone really believe that "persons apply the scientific method in their life"? Who would define 11 the scientific method as the evolutionary process grown self-conscious"? What is meant by "the world implied by scientific method"? She speaks of "human science"; does this include human biology? It is strange to find science so completely disregarded in "our Father's world."

Raymond J. Seeger, NSF (Retired), 4507 Wetherill Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20816.

DESTINED FOR GLORY: THE MEANING OF SUFFERING by Margaret Clarkson. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1983, 132 pages, $4.95, paperback.

The question "why do bad things happen to good people" has elicited a spate of words on the topic of suffering. Between Faith and Tears, Where Is God When It Hurts, and A Loving God and a Suffering World are three recent books on the subject.

Destined for Glory can now be added to the number. While this book adds few ideas to the discussion, it is unique because it deals with the problem of suf f ering from a Biblical perspective by an author who has experienced headaches, vomiting, juvenile arthritis, and a congenital back problem. Margaret Clarkson has suffered the psychological pain of tension, fear, insecurity, isolation, guilt, anxiety, alienation, and despair.

This book is unique in another way. Its 132 pages are divided into 43 chapters and this makes it suitable for use as a devotional book of short readings. Biblical, organized, and logical, Destined for Glory is persuasive and easy reading,

Margaret Clarkson came from a home broken by divorce. She became a Christian at age ten after reading Pilgrirns Progress. After struggling with the pain of physical and psychological suffering, Clarkson finally found answers to her questions when she was well into her forties. She came to the conclusion that "the possibility of evil's entering the universe may be God's responsibility, but its actual presence in our midst is our own." Why is there so much suffering in the world? "Suffering is the inevitable result of the evil man brought into the world. We cannot blame it on God."

The reader of this book will learn a lot not only about suffering but also about related topics such as prayer, Satan, scripture, judgment, and sin. Recommended for everyone who seeks careful counsel about pain, this book will provide information and inspiration.

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761

THE TEACHING OF JESUS by Norman Anderson, IVP Downers Grove, Illinois (1983). Paperback. 219 pp, $6.95.

This book attempts a concise, balanced discussion of the teaching of Jesus. Any such attempt is difficult, due to the enormous scope of the subject; it is dangerous too, because the author must guard continually against imposing his own thought patterns on the records of Jesus' teaching. Perhaps it is for these reasons that scholarly books devoted to the study of the teaching of Jesus are not more numerous; anyone who might be able to write such a book would consider himself inadequate for the task. Nonetheless there are few needs as urgent in the church today as the need to study and understand Jesus' teaching. Sir Norman Anderson's book is a welcome introduction to such study.

The author is an expert in Islamic law, not a theologian; but he shows a thorough acquaintance with the current theological debates. More important, however, is his deliberate choice to emphasize the gospel records primarily, and the theological details only where necessary. On any given page there may be one or two apposite quotations from scholars, but there are typically several quotations from the gospels themselves, along with references to other Scripture passages.

In keeping with this emphasis on the gospel records, Anderson makes an effort to build the structure of his own analysis around the structures Jesus used. Thus, in his discussion of the nature of the Kingdom, he adopts the set of I parables of the Kingdom' used by Jesus as his own outline, and finds the mysterious parables admirably suited to describe the mysteries of the Kingdom of God. Or again, in considering the relationship between the ethical teaching of Jesus and the ethical standards of the Old Testament, he singles out Matthew 5:17-48 as the essential passage, and uses the organization of Jesus' thoughts in this teaching as a guide to organizing the discussion. In this he is faithful to his pledged attempt

to allow his [Jesus'] teaching to speak for itself, rather than force it into any preconceived mould. (p. 7)

The overall structure of the book is likewise derived from Jesus' teaching. As the author puts it,

the plan I have adopted is to take what is almost certainly the basic theme which he proclaimed-the Kingdom of God-as the core or essence of his teaching, the thread that runs through all its varied facets, and the pattern that gives coherence to the whole. (p. 7)

This unified approach is a major strength of the book. It provides an organizing principle around which a topical study naturally develops. Anderson divides this into three sections. In Part 1, 'The Summons to the Kingdom', he begins by discussing the proclamation of the good news of the Kingdom, and considers the nature of this Kingdom as described in the parables of Jesus. Then he proceeds to compare the concepts of 'eternal life' and 'salvation' with the Kingdom:

These two concepts seem indeed to have been regarded as almost synonymous with the Kingdom. An outstanding illustration of this is provided by the story of 'The Rich Young Man' recorded in Mark 10:17-26, with its parallels in Matthew 19:16-26 and Luke 18:18-29. In each case the question he asked was what he must do 'to inherit eternal life'; but this incident provoked a discussion between Jesus and his disciples about who can 'enter the kingdom of God', and the disciples asking him
I who then can be saved?" (pp, 61, 62)

Part 11, 'The Ethics of the Kingdom', considers the rule of God in the lives of those who have entered the Kingdom. This is divided into three chapters: the first surveys the relationship Jesus perceived between his teaching and the Old Testament law, and the others deal with personal ethics and social ethics as taught by Jesus. The chapter on personal ethics adopts a more personal tone, quoting such authors as Martyn Lloyd-Jones and A. W. Tozer. The chapter on social ethics benefits from the author's practical experience as a lawyer. His discussion is noteworthy for the balance it strikes, making every effort to apply the maxims of Jesus to ethical dilemmas while taking care not to wander beyond what Jesus actually said.

Finally, Part III, "The Consummation of the Kingdom', looks at the various stages by which the Kingdom is established. The first stage is Jesus himself; and there is much in his teaching to explain who he was, and what he had come to do. The claims of Jesus about his person, and about his death and resurrection, are inextricable f rom his other teaching, and indeed form an inseparable part of it. This section includes a discussion of the self-consciousness of Jesus, with an emphasis on his relationship with God the Father. The next stage is the coming of the Holy Spirit, and the mission of the church. Here the author rightly takes exception to the scholarly opinion that Jesus never advocated evangelizing the Gentile world. The final consummation of the Kingdom is the Parousia, and the eschatological discourses of Jesus enter the outline quite naturally at this point.

There is very little in the book that is novel, and that is as it should be. Instead, the author presents a variety of perspectives from different authors, tying them together with his own comments, and typically advocating a particular view. Thus the book forms a survey of the teaching of Jesus which is thick in its style, but also in its content. Its systematic, synthetic character lends itself more to individual or group study than to quick reading; however those who read it quickly will appreciate the many Scripture quotations which are printed out in the body of the text. One feature of the book will daunt some readers: there is a substantial digression in the introductory chapter devoted to a comparison between the Christian Scriptures and the oral and written traditions of Islam. The digression is not without a purpose, as the author explains, and it will be doubly interesting to anyone familiar with Muslims. However, if it slows you down, skip ahead to the rest of the book. It is well-conceived and well-written, and will repay careful study.

Reviewed by Keith Clemenger, Berkeley, California.

THE HARD SAYINGS OF JESUS by F. F. Bruce Inter-Varsity 1983, PB, 266 pp., $6.95

The author, former Rylands professor of biblical criticism and exegesis of the University of Manchester (England), discusses 70 provocative, "hard sayings" of Jesus (cf. John 6:60 AV, RSV, NIV)-difficult for Christians then and now to understand or to practise. I found the following topics particularly thoughtful and interesting: #1 "Eating the Flesh and Drinking the Blood of the Son of Man," 8 "One jot or One Tittle Shall in No Wise Pass," 12 "Divorce and Remarriage, 11 16 "Love Your Enemies," 19 "Lead Us Not into Temptation," 23 "Seeing and Not Perceiving," 29 "Hating One's Parents," 37 "Taking Up the Cross," 46 "Sell What You Have," 48 "The Camel and the Eye of a Needle," 53 "The Rate for a job?" 57 "The Cursing of the Fig Tree," 63 "This Generation Will Not Pass Away," 66 "This Is My Body... This Is My Blood," 67 "Let Him Who Has No Sword Buy One," 70 "Why Hast Thou Forsaken Me?"

The author refers frequently to "The Teaching of Jesus" and "The Sayings of Jesus" by T. W. Manson. I must confess I am always bothered by interpreters who introduce their own opinions by the casual use of words such as appears could may, might, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably: seems: sometimes, suggests, supposed, et al.

Reviewed by Raymond J. Seeger, NSF (Retired), 4507 Wetheill Rd., Bethesda, Maryland, 20816.

THE AUTHORITATIVE WORD-ESSAYS ON THE NATURE OF SCRIPTURE- Edited by Donald McKim, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Grand Rapids; 1983 pp. 270,$10.95

The Authoritative Word is a collection of previously published essays by authors of many persuasions on both the nature of Scripture and its collection into the present canon we call our Bible. Non-conservatives such as Paul Achtemeier and Robert Grant appear alongside such familiar names as Bruce, Beegle, Bloesch, and Riddexbos. Yet each essay has been carefully chosen so that a theme-the living God of Israel and the Father of Jesus as one who worked in history and is revealed in His word by His spirit, and still works today-emerges.

The topic is a most important one to members of the ASA. In a sense these essays attempt to say where an open, spirit-lead, yet scientific attitude toward the Bible leads.

The first division of the book deals with the authority of Scripture in terms of how the Scriptures were written, their sources and how they became canonical.

The lead and crucial essay is by Paul J. Achterneier who asserts that both the conservative and critical scholar come to Scripture with presuppositions. Achterneier says that the conservative (for him this means belief in rigid inerrancy) seeks ways of understanding the text that preserves their inerrancy. For example, in harmonizing the gospel accounts of Peter's betrayal of Jesus the inerrantist comes up with six denials of Jesus. The critical scholar, on the other hand takes the text more literally, asking what the author was trying to achieve with that statement, rather than harmonizing them with other Scriptures.

The tools of a critical approach to the Scriptures are the same tools that all scholars use in studying manuscripts of that same time period. It asks questions about their sources and how the author used these sources in presenting his vision of reality to the reader. Achtemeier proceeds in the first article to argue that (page 5) "The critical assumptions are truer both to the nature and intention of Scripture" than the inerrantists approach. To make his point, he produces numerous passages in the Old Testament which far more naturally support his view than that of the inerrantist. How does God fit into this approach? "He says" (page 9) "the clash of divine mercy with conventional social values points not to a static Scripture of eternal immutable laws, but rather to a process whereby God's revelation of Himself and His will is taking command of Hebraic national life, the same process which we can observe in the prophets."

The second section of the book deals with the doctrine of the authority of the Scripture. Articles on the concept, the authority and the writteness of revelation are followed by the role of the Holy Spirit in understanding Scripture. Terms applied to Scripture are clarified and a historical survey of the concepts are found in the last two articles of this section.

For example, Bloesch asserts that we often come to Scripture with what we think of as an evangelical view, but which in reality is a twentieth century view of scientific exactitude, foreign to both the authors of Scripture and-to our spiritual predecessors, the reformers. Bloesch feels much more comfortable with a view of infallibility which means free from lying and fraud.

In the last essay of this secti6n, Rogers argues against the old Princeton tradition" of inerrancy, which is seen to have its roots in the scholasticism of Turretin and Aquinas coming from Aristotle, and for a view which sees error as willful deception, based upon an Augustinian tradition.

The third section deals with current views of Biblical history and has excellent essays by Smapt and a Roman Catholic, Avery Dulles.

The book concludes with an annotated bibliography so that if you are hungry for more, you'll know where to look.

As with any collection of essays, some will be liked and appreciated more than others, But it is very nice to have a selection of essays on a topic, to help one appreciate the diversity of thought.

This book is important for ASA members since it is an attempt to get its readers to see that critical scholarship need not be the enemy of the cross, but that it may provide techniques which can enhance and enrich our understanding of the Bible.

This reviewer believes that we have nothing to fear from honest critical scholarship applied to the Biblical text. And this book confirms that belief. The Authoritative Word is a must starting place for all who would be informed about the new ways evangelicals are viewing Scripture.

Reviewed by Fred Jappe, Dept. of Physical Science, Dept. of Religious Studies, San Diego Mesa College.

UNTIL JUSTICE AND PEACE EMBRACE by Nicholas Wolterstorff, Wm. B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1983.197 pp. $13.95.

Nicholas Wolterstorff, Professor of Philosophy at Calvin College, was honored by being invited to be the first lecturer in the new Kuyper Lecture Series initiated by the University of Amsterdam in 1981. The eight major chapters of this book correspond essentially to the eight lectures presented in this series. To them the author has added some additional material for integration and supplementation that is inserted after Chapters 3 and 6, as well as 20 pages of notes and references. Faced with injustice, inequity and human suffering in the world, Wolterstorff is concerned primarily with leading Western Christians to recognize the fact that things could indeed be different, and that it is they who are called to be involved in changing them.

Attitudes of Christians toward faith and life fall frequently into two frameworks. There is the most common attitude in which people do their best to live as Christians and as members of society, the two aspects of life being reasonably well separated. There is the less common attitude in which people do their best to live as Christians in and through their participation in society, i.e., seek to express by the totality of their life commitments and orientations what it means to acknowledge the Lordship of Jesus Christ over all things. It is to the latter attitude that Wolterstorff calls the reader in this book.

Wolterstorff provides a number of helpful definitions and discriminations that enable the reader to understand the nature of the issues involved. His treatment of the differences between avertive and world-formative religious attitudes, and their relationship to distinctions between secular and sacred, helps to sharpen the emphasis and consequences of certain theological choices. Contrasting the Calvinist and Lutheran concepts, Wolterstorff says,

... the Calvinist saw his occupation as something through which to exercise his obedience. Remaining in that role is not the thing which is to be done out of obedient gratitude; rather, the actions performed in that role are what is to be done out of obedient gratitude. (p. 16)

It is not only people who are corrupt; it is also human societal structures that are corrupt. It is not only people who need cleansing and regeneration; it is also the structures of society that more often than not do not serve the common good.

In his outworking of this theme, Wolterstorff focusses on the following principle subject areas: the social structures that characterize the modern world and how these structures widen the gap between affluent and needy peoples; a comparison between the approaches of "liberation theology" and of "neo-Calvinism" toward these issues; a view of the rich and the poor in the world in which the role of the rich in causing poverty is given adequate recognition; inequities that find their root in excessive loyalty to nation, and in the pitting of nation against nation, leading to the conclusion that in the modern world the existence of ethnic states inevitably leads to injustice; the ugliness of modern cities and their underlying dynamics; and the role of "labor and liturgy" as one of the distinguishing characteristics of a Christian's life in this world.

These apparently quite diverse themes are integrated under the Christian vision of shalom: a biblical perspective in which peace is intertwined both with justice and with the enjoyment of right relationships with God, self, fellow humans and nature. It is this broader vision of shalom that leads Wolterstorff to incorporate discussions on aesthetic and worship-related questions as well as on political and economic questions. In Christ Wolterstorff is an optimist that there may yet be a total world-formative expression of Christian commitment and living, and this in spite of the apparently overwhelming evidence that the secularization of human society has long since been completed. There is a consuming need for such a world-formative faith:

The West grasps freedom at the cost of inequality, thereby consigning the economically impoverished to all the constraints of poverty. The East grasps equality at the cost of freedom, thereby consigning the politically powerless to all the inequities of tyranny.... Our world today is a world of failed ideals. Not many Russians believe that in their land a new age of equality and participation is being ushered in. No longer do many Americans believe that in their land a new age of liberty and equality has arrived. (p. 39, 113)

There is a consuming need for such a Kingdom of Shalom:

Yet in the modern world, loyalty to nation has bitten so deeply into the life of the church that most Christians in America feel themselves less united as members of one holy dedicated nation with those in Russia, in Vietnam, in Germany, or in El Salvador than they feel themselves divided from them as Americans in distinction from Russians, from Vietnamese, from Germans, from Salvadorans. (p. 119)

There is a consuming need for the worship that arises from Shalom:

Nevertheless, it is not difficult to predict what will happen when proclamation, centered in the sermon, becomes the overwhelmingly dominant action of the liturgy: all that might distract our attention will be stripped away, up to the point where the congregation sits in silence, lined up in rows in a well-lit white box, listening. (p. 159)

This is a book that every Christian should read and consider, every church should evaluate and reflect upon. One need not agree with the author in every instance to appreciate the depth and the eloquence of the challenge here placed before US.

The only major addition that one might desire in such a global treatment is a more specific incorporation of the teachings of Jesus and their New Testament interpretation. In a footnote early in the book, Wolterstorff points out that "(Bonhoeffer) saw, as did the Calvinists, that the New Testament in isolation gives insufficient guidance for the new praxis." However undeniably true this statement is, it seems to me that the task of specifically relating the new praxis developed on the basis of the whole Bible with the specific worldview given to us by Jesus would be a valuable keystone to the perspective presented in this book.

Reviewed by Richard H. Bube, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

WHO IS FOR PEACE? by Francis Schaeffer, Vladimir Bukovsky, and James Hitchcock, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN, 112 pages, paperback, $3.95

This book is composed of three essays: Francis Schaeffer, The Secular Humanist World View versus the Christian World View and Biblical Perspectives on Military Preparedness; Vladimir Bukovsky, The Peace Movement and the Soviet Union; and James Hitchcock, The Catholic Bishops' Search for Peace.

As indicated by his title, Schaeffer discusses two rather unrelated subjects. In the first part of his essay he summarizes the theme he has developed so well in his early publications, such as How Shall We Then Live? There has been a steady erosion of Christian values in Western society. He then emphasizes his more recent concern with legalized abortion as the ultimate in "loss of compassion" in our culture, a loss that will pave the way for infanticide and euthanasia. In the second part of his essay he moves to a consideration of our nation's relation to the Soviet Union. On the basis of a relativistic comparison-we're bad but they're worse-he justifies the development of nuclear weapons. The reader is left with the impression that, on the international scene, God will be there to defend the ungodly if our opponents are worse than we are. I don't think Habakkuk or the other prophets would agree.

Bukovsky, as a Russian dissident and emigre', gives a vivid, factual, and understandably emotional picture of the social and political conditions inside the Soviet Union. He also emphasizes the aggressiveness of Soviet foreign policy although he attributes it all to Marx and Lenin and ignores the aggressions of the Czars. As indicated by his title, his essay nearly half of the book-is concerned mainly with developing the theme that the Peace Movement is largely Soviet inspired and Soviet-controlled. He states this view most directly on pages 57 and 58:

This is not to deny that there are plenty of well-intentioned, and genuinely concerned and frightened people in the movement's ranks. I am certain that the overwhelming majority of them are. just as it did in the 1950s, the movement today probably consists of an odd mixture of Communists, fellow-travelers, muddleheaded intellectuals, hypocrites seeking popularity, professional political speculators, frightened bourgeois, and youths eager to rebel just for the sake of rebelling. There are also the inevitable Catholic priests with a "mission" and other religious people who believe that God has chosen them to make peace on earth right now. But there is also not the slightest doubt that this motley crowd is manipulated by a handful of scoundrels instructed directly from Moscow.

Hitchcock, a politically conservative Roman Catholic, defends "Just War Theory" and its continued applicability to the present world situation. He criticizes the Catholic Bishops' pastoral letter, The Challenge of Peace: God's Promise and Our Response. His essay is largely a review of the differences among the American Catholic Bishops, not only on basic principles but in the semantics of the several versions of the pastoral letter. To this reviewer, who is not yet a pacifist, the most interesting sentence in this essay is, "In the history of the church, outside the earliest centuries, its only significant example of a pacifist is Saint Francis of Assisi." [emphasis mine)

As a Christian biologist, seriously concerned about the nuclear weapons dilemma, I found this book to be disturbingly unbalanced and unhelpful. None of the authors seem at all concerned that nuclear weapons are many times more destructive than anything previously used. For example, on page 50 Bukovsky counters the statement, "Nuclear weapons are immoral!" with the question, "Are conventional weapons moral?" To my peace-church friends-whom Schaeffer dismisses as "misguided "-it is obvious that all weapons are immoral. To many of us who have a more moderate position, for whom war appears to have been a sometimes necessary evil, nuclear weapons bother us so much because, for the first time in human history, a complex of weapons systems give human beings the power to totally destroy civilization, if not all life. That is historical fact, and even if we think the Communists are the worst evil among nations, we need to take such destructive potential seriously.

Schaeffer accuses the peace-movement among Biblebelieving Christians of "naivete', romanticism, and wishful thinking." To write a book on "Who Is For Peace?" with such little regard for the unprecedented, mass-murder potential of current weapons systems is even more naive, romantic, and wishful. As Christians we need to ask ourselves if the God, who, according to Schaeffer (and rightly so), will judge us for our secular humanism and abortion on demand, is going to condone this ultimate in human brutality-whoever uses it and for whatever reason?

Reviewed by Wilbur L. Bullock, Professor of Zoology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824

RITES OF LIFE: THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR LIFE BEFORE BIRTH by Landrum Shettles, M.D. and David Rorvik, Zondervan Publishing House, 1983. 162 pages, hardcover: $12.95.

Because abortion is such an emotional issue, it is difficult to have clear, rational discussions on the topic. Rites of Life is a book both sides should read and intelligently discuss.

The subtitle indicates the main thesis of the book, namely, that there is much evidence from a scientific (medical) perspective that the fetus (and even the embryo) is a human being worthy of respect and compassion. As such, pro-choice advocates will probably consider the book progaganda and therefore not read it.

But the credentials of the two authors should interest all people who are honestly seeking facts, not just opinions. Landrum Shettles, M.D., is an experienced obstetrician-gynecologist who has specialized in research in fertility and sterility, hemorrhagic disease of newborn infants, and sperm biology. fie is well-known for his micrographs and photographs which appear in over 50 medical textbooks. His pioneering work in in vitro fertilization and other research in human conception convinced him of the meaningfulness of life before birth and consolidated his opposition to abortion.

Co-author David Rorvik is a science and medical reporter and author of numerous articles and books. He was an avid supporter of abortion until he studied the evidence of Dr. Shettles and others on the subject.

The major portion of the book is a detailed examination of life before birth, starting with conception. Dr. Shettles believes that there is a great lack of knowledge about life in the womb and the effects of abortion, both in individual women and society as a whole. He attempts in this book to make clear specific details about the medical procedures of abortion and show why these are inhuman acts that should appall us all. He tells of some doctors' reaction to and avoidance of viewing the dismembered fetus after a "D & E" abortion, yet they continue to perform and defend them.

Two recent developments in medicine that Dr. Shettles believes will change society's acceptance of abortion are (1) treating diseases and defects in the fetus before birth, including surgery and blood transfusion, and (2) the ability to sustain life in a baby born even 3 months prematurely with as small a birth weight as one pound.

The authors also explore the new speculations in the psychological life of the unborn baby. According to the latest studies in fetology, there is increasing evidence that the unborn fetus is capable of human emotion and feeling.

The second section of the book examines the debate over abortion, including what the court said in 1973, when does life begin, family planning, and abortion in the future-what will happen.

Dr. Shettles' position on abortion is based primarily on his knowledge of fetology. In this book he does not stress religious opinions. His presentation is clearly designed to show the reader the scientific, rational basis for opposing abortion. He gives many examples from medical research and current knowledge of life before birth.

This is a valuable book for Christians to read and share with those who approve of abortion but do not have much knowledge about the subject. It is an authoritative and understandable book for the lay person. I suggest that Christians, after reading this book, recommend that it be bought for their local school and public libraries. Since it is written by experts and is not a religious book, it should be well received by them.

Reviewed by Janet Neidhardt, educator and free-lance writer, Randolph, New Jersey, 07869.

SENTENCED TO LIFE, by Malcom Muggeridge and Alan Thornhill, Thomas Nelson, 1983, PB, 129 pp, $3.95.

This book is an excellent parable in three acts by the journalist Muggeridge, former editor of Punch and rector of the University of Edinburgh. As they say, "What we think about birth (abortion) and about death (euthanasia) determines what we think and do about life ... This is the greatest ideological issue underlying all other issues." The play deals with so-called mercy killing. The Prologue presents a couple who are enthusiastic advocates of the right to die, with dignity; he is an Oxford lecturer on English poetry, she had been a concert pianist until a sudden attack of paralysis that has left her immobilized except for small movement of head and toes. The Prologue sets the stage for a TV interview on the Way of Life, viz., mercy killing. In the first Act the wife discloses her decision that she wishes to die. Her physician brushes her off; her husband is aghast at her request that he poison her. She berates him for not practising what he preaches. In Act Il the TV program, having been successful, wishes to exploit an interview of daily behavior at home. She proposes an actual death scene. The Director is appalled, but seeks advice. The husband gives her some coffee, which she recognizes is poisoned, as she dies typing her responsibility with her toes. A camera shoots the scene. In the third Act the husband reviews his prison experience; he has been sentenced to live-guilty of murder. He is provoked by the desire of an agitator to use this case for euthanasia propaganda. He has realized that be should have helped his wife to live rather than to die. He realizes now God's love as exhibited by the Man on the middle cross. Recommended for adult discussion groups.

Reviewed by Raymond Seeger, NSF (Retired), 4507 Wetherill Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20816.

MERE MORALITY by Lewis B. Smedes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1983, 282 pages, $14.95.

Lewis B. Smedes, professor of ethics at Fuller Theological Seminary, has written a relevant, interesting, and intelligent book about the moral commandments of the decalogue. it is relevant because it speaks to issues people face every day, i.e., abortion, divorce, suicide, stealing, and honesty. It is interesting because it gives many pertinent illustrations, some from scripture and some from contemporary life. It is intelligent because it clearly presents each issue, discusses alternate views, applies scripture, and arrives at justified conclusions.

Smedes says "mere morality" is difficult to define but relates to the choices we make which put us in the wrong or the right with ourselves and God. Then he proceeds to sharpen its profile by telling what it is not: Christian devotion, heroics, for believers only, mysterious, sectarian, or redemptive. Smedes says that he is not presenting an "evangelical morality" but is seeking to convey the essence of what God expects from ordinary people.

Smedes writes from a background of Reformed, Calvinistic theology. His application of the ten commandments to this era should not dissuade dispensationalists from the great value to be found in this book. With the exception of the fourth commandment, all of the ten commandments are reiterated in the New Testament and incumbent upon Christian morality.

This would be an excellent book to use in a college course on ethics and is appropriate in a study group in a church. It lends itself well for that purpose because it is written in simple, straightforward language (that is easily understood) and opens up many areas for vigorous discussion. Smedes has included questions for discussion at the end of each chapter to stimulate involvement.

This is also an excellent choice for casual reading by the individual, a few pages at a time. The reader will find that Smedes' book will bring many issues of the day into better focus.

Reviewed by Richard Ruble, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.

LIVING WITH DEATH, by Helmut Thielicke, Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1983. 208 pgs., $11.95

When Helmut Thielicke writes about living with death, what he says is flavored by his own brushes with death during World War II and subsequent illnesses. He says: "The book could hardly have been written without this background" (p. ix). He believes that the problem of death is most clearly seen in first-person terms. "The real truth about human dying ... (is) that it is a personal event that belongs inexchangeably to me" (p. 11). Thus be distinguishes human death from a mere ending of biological processes, or from death in nature. He deals first with the problem of death. is it the end? Is there nothing beyond death? When does a fetus become a person, so that its death is not just a biological fact? Is there meaning in life and death? After a survey and discussion of these issues, he goes on to examine several philosphical approaches to death. Plato, Nietzsche, Hegel, Marx, and Goethe are dealt with in some depth, and other writers are mentioned briefly.

Then Thielicke gives the biblical understanding of death. This he does, not in terms of theological categories drawn from Dogmatic Theology, but in terms of Old and New Testament teaching. Following the Reformers, he emphasizes that what distinguishes human life from biological life is a relationship with the Creator (as created in His image). Death is then seen not in ontological terms, as a ceasing of existence, but in relational terms, as a result of guilt and wrath. Therefore death is not just the ceasing of bodily functions, and our dealing with it cannot be delayed until the last hours of life. Death is present with us all our lives. Those who refuse to face up to death during their lives are compared to Adam and Eve, who did not accept their limitations, and therefore sinned in trying to be like God. Thielicke believes that by accepting our limitations and living by faith, the fear and sting of death can be removed.

Whereas the world suppresses or denies anxiety caused by contemplating death (as demorstrated in the discussions of the philosphers mentioned), Thielicke offers a way to conquer anxiety through the cross and resurrection of Christ. For those who believe in Jesus, the roots of anxiety and fear have been cut off. "I am a companion of Jesus. Where He is, I shall be. Is He not in life? Then I shall live, and death cannot separate me from the love of God." (p 166).

Thielicke deals with timely issues like abortion and euthanasia, as well as the age-old questions of life and death. He dedicates some space to defending an intermediate state of unconsciousness, while awaiting the resurrection. He gives advice on how to talk about death with both Christians and non-Christians, and how to preach about this subject which many want to avoid. The fact that he deals with his subject in terms both of specific scriptural passages and widely-adopted philosophies gives the reader help in seeing how to relate what the Bible teaches to what non-Christians believe. In this way he helps prepare Christians for evangelism and apologetics, as well as for ministering to fellow believers and for living with death themselves.

Reviewed by Joseph M. Martin, Professor of Missions, Edward Lane Bible Institute, Patrocinio, M. G., Brasil

GOD'S TRUTH: A Scientist Shows Why It Makes Sense to Believe the Bible by Alan Hayward, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee (1983). 331 pp. Paperback. $6.95

This is a revised edition of a book originally published in England in 1973. The author, Dr. Alan Hayward, is research and development advisor with Redwood International Ltd., in England, up to 1977 principal scientific officer in a government research laboratory, and the author of God Is. in the opening chapter the author tells us that it is his purpose to 11 open up the Bible," and that he does this not " from the point of view of a scientist, but as a student of the Bible. " He intends the book for "ordinary men and women" and promises to stick to "simple English." In this he is very successful and the book should be readily understandable to general readers.

The book is divided into three parts. In Part 1, Hayward presents, in eleven chapters, some positive arguments for believing that the Bible is the Word of God. Part 11 counters objections raised against the Bible, and consists of fourteen chapters. Part III consists of a brief two chapters providing encouragement and guidelines for Bible study. The book concludes with Notes and References, and an Index.

Hayward's case for the Bible as God's Word rests upon discussions of fulfilled prophecy, the uniqueness of Jesus, the evidence of the Resurrection, the relevance of the Old Testament law for continuing concerns in health, conservation and family life, and evidences of internal harmony and consistency. Chapter 6 entitled, "Who Could Have Invented Jesus?" is particularly effective in supporting the argument that "the Jesus of whom we read in the Gospels was, at the time the Gospels were written, uninventable." In general, Part I presents a strong case for the unique power and character of the Bible. The reader may wonder at a few statements. The fulfillment of Daniel 2:44 is ascribed to the future rather than to the establishment of the kingdom with the coming of Jesus 2000 years ago. Since the Jews are said to have accepted many Old Testament passages as being Messianic in character, Hayward argues that "we are bound to take the Jews'word for it. " Hayward advances two somewhat curious arguments in support of biblical harmony: "the failure of the firstborns," or the Old Testament record that "Not one acknowledged first-born is ever a success in God's sight" until God's own First-Born appears; "the story of sweat," in which it is pointed out that the three mentions of sweat in the Bible (Gen. 3:19, Luke 22:44, Ezek. 44:18) summarize the whole Christian Gospel. He also argues that Jesus "had an uncanny knowledge of the twentieth century" (see also Chapter 5).

The thrust of the argument in Part 11 often tends to become more problematical. Underlying any specific statements are two approaches that are underlined repeatedly. The first of these is "Don't let the experts pull the wool over your eyes," which, although a timely warning, tends easily to become a choice for obscurantism rather than for thorough understanding. On a somewhat populist note, Hayward tells the reader, "like a civil servant, you are well able to consider the evidence and decide for yourself." This might or might not be true, but it certainly would require a careful assessment of all of the evidence. Because it is by nature "scholarly, " however, much of the evidence with which a Christian apologist needs to deal is not given to us by Hayward. Instead one often feels the impact of a second approach: argument by ridicule. Those who object to the Bible as the Word of God tend to be countered as much by poking fun at them as by substantive comments. At the root of Hayward's approach is the position,

Being a scientist might help you to spot the mistakes of other scientists when they condemn the Bible, but scientific knowledge cannot help us to decide whether the Bible is a message from God. Studying the Bible for ourselves is the only way we can do that. And we can study the Bible without knowing any science, or even any of the more useful subjects like Hebrew and Greek and ancient history. The only essential equipment is a thoughtful, inquiring mind. (p. 15)

Hayward's position becomes most clearly defined in Chapter 14, appropriately titled, "All-or Nothing." Here he argues that if Adam was not a literal historical man, then bow can we be sure that Jesus was a literal historical man?, There can be "only one right answer for the Christian." "The whole Bible stands or falls together." This leads Hayward to a simplistic dichotomy:

It stands to reason that there are only two possibilities. Either the Bible's astonishing claim is true-or the book is the biggest confidence trick in history! . . Many leaders of religion refuse to accept that these are the only alternatives. They adopt a third point of view. They say that the Bible is sort-of-true and sort-of-false. Of course, they don't put it like that. They express their views in language that is almost impossible for the man in the street to understand. (p. 141, 142)

For Hayward this means that "If the Bible is what is claims to be, its sixty-six books must have been written by the men named as their authors." Or again, "If the Book of Isaiah did not even contain the words of Isaiah, you could hardly expect it to contain the words of God." What is the matter with people who would hold a contrary view? "Brilliant men are often lacking in plain common sense." In a section entitled "Why They Do It," Hayward attributes such foolish thoughts to a desire to conform, the fear of seeming ridiculous to their peers, too much respect for the "experts," and too professional a view of the Scriptures. Now all of these motives may or may not apply in particular cases, but are there no authentic reasons why devout Christian scholars would deviate from Hayward's rather fundamentalistic stance? Is there something unexpectedly revealing in Hayward's words.

There are a few scholars who use the method of higher criticism in a sensible way and remain staunch Bible-believers. But for simplicity's sake I shall disregard their existence. (p. 154)

Although it is certainly true that the Bible's message of salvation by grace through faith is simple enough for the most naive minds to grasp for their eternal redemption, it is not true that the Bible's message comes to us without interpretation on our part. Yet this is what Hayward seems to argue in several places.

A large part of the Bible is perfectly straightforward, needing no more interpretation than any other non-fiction book. . . . Interpreting it is no great problem, if only-and this is a big "if "-we manage to read it with a humble, seeking mind. Much of it interprets itself for us. (p. 195, 196)

One thing is certainly true: just as in science no fact interprets itself for us but must be given an interpretation by us, so no written material of any kind interprets itself for us. Interpretation of the Bible is the work of the Holy Spirit using all the means at His disposal, and working in and through the Body of Christ.

Hayward does deal successfully with many of the objections raised against the Bible, and these chapters in Part II provide a helpful summary for the Christian in dealing with others who raise such objections. In dealing with the traditional question, "Is the Bible Scientific?" in Chapter 21, he points out the well-founded distinction between "how" answers provided by science and "why" answers provided by the Bible, and indicates how each approach provides us with input not available from the other. He argues strongly for the acceptance of the scientific evidence for the age of the earth and against Flood Geology, and states that "Genesis was never intended to teach science." In spite of this, however, Hayward sees Genesis 1 as "a broad picture of the entire geological history of the earth-and a remarkably accurate one at that." In attempting to harmonize the scientific record with the days of Genesis 1, Hayward is enthusiastic about accepting the theory that the days of Genesis 1 were actually the days on which God revealed the story of creation "to the angels or to one of His inspired historians."

With this orientation, it is not surprising that Hayward enters into some length to reject the theory of biological evolution. He so seriously prejudices the discussion at the very beginning by choosing to use the word "evolution" to mean "evolution by natural processes alone ... to describe the belief that God played no active part in the development of life on earth," that any objective discussion for the Christian becomes impossible. He opposes the growing Christian awareness that what we call'scientific chance'may indeed be our description of 'God's Providence.' What must be a most unfortunate misprint occurs in the midst of this discussion, reading, "It is not necessary to accept the facts of science." (p. 257) Hayward makes another serious mistake when he interprets "the principle of uniformitarianism" to mean "an assumption that God does not exist, or at least that He has left the world alone." At any rate, Hayward is certain that "by a special creative act God made the first man and woman."

In the chapter on "The Problem of Suffering," Hayward poses the dilemma in a most acute way, but does not seem to recognize its existence. Having told us that suffering came into the world because of Adam's sin, "so we too must suffer, and we too must die," he then tells us three pages later (having in the meanwhile interpreted "eternal death" to mean cessation of existence, not eternal punishment) that "the world would be worse off, not better off, if there were no suffering in it." Or again, "Strong characters can only be developed in a world where suffering is always present." The reader cannot help but wonder what would have been the consequences if Adam had not sinned!

I've been critical of many of Hayward's simplifications. I must for completeness also cite an aphorism that struck me as being appealing: "Jellyfish always go along with the tide; it on our ability to demonstrate our love to the world through takes a fish with a backbone to swim against it." our actions.

There is much in this book that will prove helpful to the discriminating Christian reader. One must be aware, however, that Hayward is providing a one-sided perspective, and that his dogmatic assurance of having the one simple answer may not stand up under inspection in the real world. It is unfortunate that some of his treatment of the interaction of science with the Bible may be totally misleading for the layperson.

Reviewed by Richard H. Bube, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

THE SOURCES OF MODERN ATHEISM by Marcel Neusch, Paulist Press, paperback, 264p, $9.95

Marcel Neusch states his purpose clearly in the Preface:

My primary purpose is to conduct a search through what Henri Lefebvre calls 'the kingdom of the shades' and to flush out those giants in the shadow' who forged the dogma of modern atheism and gave current unbelief its shape.

By carefully forming his discussion of Atheism around seven historical exponents, Marcel Neusch provides a teaching vehicle for those of us not familiar with the development of atheistic thought over the past few centuries. The figures he deals with are: Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Nietzsche, jean-Paul Sartre, Roger Garaudy, and Ernst Bloch. Part character sketch, part historical context, part exposition, and part apologetic-Neusch weaves them all together into nine densely packed chapters plus a Conclusion, well referenced chapter notes and a Bibliography.

This work, originally written in French, is a seamless and flowing translation by Matthew J. O'Connell with no awkward phrasings or convoluted constructions. However, its content is demanding and requires study of the concepts presented and meditation on their implications. I read and digested this book in chapter segments over a period of months and sometimes reread past sections to clarify various points.

In his Conclusion, Neusch crystallizes the honest attitude of Faith toward Atheism:

Faith seeks understanding; it presents itself for justification. It does not fear confrontation. In the dialogue with atheism faith is open to its objections, criticisms, and rejections. It does not present itself to the atheist as something unrelated to the requirements of reason. If its object is at bottom the God of love, then it must situate itself at the level of this object. God is not unreason, even if He is beyond measure.

Neusch leaves us with hope in conversing about God with our atheistic brothers and sisters but his major conclusion rests

Reviewed by Robert J. Brown, P. E., 2653 Regal Circle NW, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30245.

UNDERSTANDING THE CHRISTIAN FAITH by Charles D. Barrett; Prentice Hall, Inc.; 1980; 425pp. Hard Bound, no price stated.

Several years ago I received this excellent book from a publisher's representative. I am now using parts of it as one of my texts in my class in Science and Religion at Mesa College. It is a worthwhile book to read, study and share with others including nonChristians. The author is a warm, insightful existentially-influenced evangelical who accepts some higher critical views, particularly with regards to the Old Testament, but strongly affirms the heart of Christianity-the Incarnation, the Trinity, Salvation, and the Resurrection. The Incarnation (p, 71) is the "occasion of God's self-embodiment in a person named Jesus of Nazareth; (it) is to the Christian Covenant what the Exodus was to the Covenant of Israel:" The Trinity is explained as (p, 292-294) "an attempt to affirm that God is one, that God is alive, and that He is simultaneously both. The most audacious way the Bible says this is: "The Word was God and The Word became flesh and dwelt among us. " Salvation and the Resurrection are both accepted; the latter in an excellent treatment of the difference between Hellenistic thinking and Biblical thinking where the author sees Paul as a Rabbinic Jew and not a Hellenistic one, the former in a treatment of "it is God who justifies."

Most members of the ASA will appreciate and profit by his view of science and religion as seen in the treatment of creation and redemption.

These two themes receive extensive treatment. Creation is the source of the world's order and goodness. It is not 11 scientific" in the modern sense. (p, 239) "The basic human meaning-the story makes clear-is that both the existence and order of the world are gifts to be received gratefully, to be appreciated continually, and to be used for the glory of their Giver and well-being of the Giver's creatures." It is suggested that evolution is an acceptable view, as old as St. Augustine. The Biblical-account statement, the "God is not identical with nature but is, rather, nature's transcendent Creator," implies that the investigation and control of nature will not involve the scientist in acts of sacrilege. Although it might appear, from the modern secular standpoints, to constitute a relatively minor concession to scientific freedom, such a "desacralization of nature" has actually been of historic importance. Its effect has been to open the way for science's many triumphs in the west even as that way has remained blocked in the east by nature-based religion."

Evil is looked at and its eventual defeat is seen as Salvation made complete. Redemption is the word that expresses (p. 300) "the saving deed by which God seeks to put his world in order and to reestablish his rule." "It is based on God's power to conquer death. The God who is the source of life is greater than death. He who gives life to begin with and who renews it in every new moment by His continuous creation, is able to confer it again when and as He will. The Christian faith in resurrection is, in the last analysis, simply an expression and an extension by hope, of the Christian faith in God" (p. 394).

Excellent chapters exist on faith and community, which is how the church functions in the world (its organization and structure, faith and calling, etc.). The book opens with Part I, "A Faith Among Faith," a helpful approach in putting Christianity on the map using a historical, philosophical, comparative-religious approach.

Even though this is a textbook on Christian theology, the acknowledgment throughout is that Christianity is a project to be lived and not an object to be studied. Many valuable graphs and charts are in the book, as well as many stimulating questions. While it is not always easy reading, it is worth the effort. The author has an extensive bibliography, which unfortunately lacks ASA contributors.

Reviewed by Fred Jappe, Dept. of Physical Science, Dept of Religious Studies, San Diego Mesa College.

ANATOMY OF REALITY, MERGING OF INTUITION AND REASON by Jonas Salk. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983. $16.95, 124 pages.

Dr. Jonas Salk is the Founding Director and a Resident Fellow of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California who gives his prophecy of the future of the world and its means of solution as, in his view, it evolves not only physically but in the minds of men, which he calls metabiology. This book is fifth in the Convergence series founded by Ruth Nanda Anshen, Ph.D., Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts of Great Britain. "Convergence is committed to the search for the deeper meanings of science, philosophy, law, morality, history, technology, in fact all the disciplines in the transdisciplinary frame of reference." "Mind and matter, mind and brain, have converged; space, time, and motion are reconciled; man, consciousness, and the universe are reunited since the atom in a star is the same as the atom in a man." These quotations from founder Anshen explain convergence.

Dr. Salk looks at the world with the concept of evolution as a central metaphor. "I began to imagine what might be done to ameliorate or to improve the human condition, just as I had tried to imagine what could be done to destroy the infectivity of a virus without removing its capacity to immunize" and he has "continued to play the same mind-game in relation to the human predicament. " He is somewhat pessimistic about man's future evolution but sees more scientists now "whose interest and curiosity have been captured by the opportunities that exist for the further development of the human mind." Intuition and reason are perceived as now being used more in knowing "what is evolutionary right and wrong" so there should be selection of "those human minds that may contribute most effectively to an evolutionary path." These are the ones "most developed with respect to their awareness of themselves and with respect to their relationship with all else in the cosmos, near and far." Hence, "human creativity, like human procreativity, is necessary for the survival and evolution of the human species." "If the key to the future is through the talents of individuals, then it will be necessary to develop methods for their selection, and conditions for their cultivation." "A new way of thinking is now needed to deal with our present reality, which is sensed more sensitively through intuition than by our capacity to observe and to reason objectively." "Reason may be seen as that which man adds to explain his intuitive sense." "All belief systems, or bases of pedagogy, religion and cosmogony, arise within the human mind, in the interaction between minds, and also in the course of various kinds of experience."

Dr. Salk mentions many influences on our minds and concludes, "threats of the past may have been related more to physical existence. Now it appears that threats are related more to our minds and to the integrity of our minds, which are more readily and easily assaulted even than our bodies." Hence, "the remedy for the human predicament, for the malfunctions in the human condition, lies in the reconciliation of the intuitive and the reasoning powers of human beings." We need to reconcile religion and science, to map our future, "to correct those errors that inhibit evolution: the unbalanced growth of population; excessive preparation for war; excessive utilization of energy; excesses leading to crime, violence, and terrorism; and excesses which have led to economic imbalance."

Reviewed by Russell L. Mixter, Professor Emeritus of Zoology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL 60187.

THE BONE PEDDLERS: SELLING EVOLUTION by William R. Fix, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York (1984), 337 pp + xxxvii, $18.95 cloth.

In this very interesting effort in which he takes on both the scientific establishment and Fundamental Christianity ("Whatever one may think ... it should at least be clear that the tired alternatives of Darwin and Genesis no longer serve: too much else has come into the picture."), Fix presents an impressive amount of research of the scientific and "pseudoscientific" (my term, not his) literature. He was provoked into this study by the current evolution /creation controversy, especially as reported by the news media. A particularly bothersome statement was made by a spokesman for the AAAS, "the 100 million fossils identified and dated in the world's museums constitute 100 million facts that prove evolution beyond any doubt whatever." In Fix's own words, "I began my deeper researches into the question of evolution in a position I described as 'middle of the road.' I was generally inclined to believe there might be some truth in both creationism and evolution, and so do I now. But my position is not unaltered."

The flavor of the book can perhaps best be gained from several brief excerpts:

I discovered the amazing fact that almost every ancestor of man ever proposed suffers from disqualifying liabilities that are not widely publicized. The presentation of fossil evidence for human evolution has long been and still is more of a market phenomenon than a disinterested scientific exercise. When the problem of man's origin is considered holistically, it is thoroughly possible to doubt the man-from-animal theory without being either misinformed or a rock-bottom fundamentalist.

The truth ... is that Piltdown was not an unfortunate lapse of scientific poise in the infancy of the discipline (paleoanthropology), but was symptomatic of its standard operating procedure.

There is simply no easy, graceful, or satisfying way around it: the geological record did not support universal macroevolution in Darwin's time and it does not do so today.

In most other fields of science and with most other scientific questions, a valid objection to a theory or interpretation ... will be taken on its merits regardless of whether a better theory or interpretation is offered. Not so with evolution.

I believe Fix presents ample evidence and good reasoning for many of his statements as represented by the above, relating to evolution and particularly in paleoanthropology. Unfortunately his scholarship is much less complete when he describes creation. The only alternatives Fix considers are the young-earth position with six 24-hour days for creation and the spiritual-agency-directed evolution of Robert Broom. The first is dismissed in a relatively few pages with a quote from McKenzie well representing Fix's position: "The difficulties raised against inerrancy from the natural sciences show that the language of the Bible is unscientific and that its conceptions of physical realities are those of its times. We now see that 'scientif ic truth' and 'scientif ic error' are modern conceptions; neither appears in the Bible, which makes no 'scientific' assertion of any kind, true or false." (At this point it is very interesting to compare the work of John Wiester in his recent book, The Genesis Connection, Thomas Nelson Pub.) Broom's theory is enthusiastically endorsed as refreshing and open-minded.

In developing the role of spiritual agencies Fix moves, in his words, "into the realm of the spirit". He discusses, in some detail, the progress in parapsychology, evidence for the astral or second body, out-of-body experiences, etc., for example: "Many serious investigators have now moved to a view of nature that brings them full circle with the ancient proposition that everything from the most humble plants to stars have some kind of spirit or intelligence." Fix proposes two theories to account for all the various forms of life, psychogenesis and apparition theory. He concludes, "Whatever one may think of psychogenesis and the apparition theory, it should at least be clear that the tired alternatives of Darwin or Genesis no longer serve: too much else has come into the picture." If you are curious about the mystical theory of psychogenesis and the magical theory of apparition, you can read the book.

I found the first half of the book generally well done. I'm afraid the second half of the book will do much to detract from the author's credibility.

Reviewed by B. J. Piersma, Dept. of Chemistry, Houghton College, Houghton, New York.

GOD AND THE NEW PHYSICS by Paul Davies, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1983, 255 pp, $16.95.

Judging from the number of books and articles that are currently being cranked out relating "new physics" to everything from health care to theology, one would think that there really is something "new" in physics to report to the lay public. Indeed, book publishers, constantly sniffing out areas of growing interest, may have guessed correctly that there is a genuine hunger in our society for ideas that integrate, introduce holism, and relate previously disparate subjects.

Anyone with the slightest inclination in this direction would very likely be "hooked" by a title like God and the New Physics. I certainly was. But as I got into the book I began to suspect that God may have received top billing in the title for reasons other than content. (Marketing comes to mind.) A more accurate representation might be "The New Physics vs. God."

Though I may have had grounds for quarreling about a misleading title, the Preface makes it abundantly clear where the author wishes to take the reader:

In giving lectures and talks on modern physics I have discerned a growing feeling that fundamental physics is pointing the way to a new appreciation of man and his place in the universe. Deep questions of existence-How did the universe begin and how will it end? What is matter? What is life? What is mind?-are not new. What is new is that we may at last be on the verge of answering them ...

For the first time, a unified description of all creation could be within our grasp. No scientific problem is more fundamental or more daunting than the puzzle of how the universe came into being. Could this have happened without any supernatural input?

Paul Davies is eminently equipped to conduct this inquiry, at least from the scientific standpoint. A prolific author in popularizing cutting-edge physics-Other Worlds, The Edge of Infinity, The Runaway Universe, plus a number of student texts and technical books-he is Professor of Theoretical Physics at University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and has appointments at two other British universities.

Davies chooses to concentrate upon what he calls the Big Four questions of existence: Why are the laws of nature what they are? Why does the universe consist of the things it does? How did those things arise? How did the universe achieve its organization? In the light of the above quote from the Preface, it will come as no surprise that Davies' answers, however tentative, are based on the new physics and not the deity.

An adequate description of how he does this is impossible in the space available. So how about an "inadequate" one?

The author examines all the conventional arguments for the existence of the conventional God and finds them all flawed because of their dependency upon conventional notions of space, time, and matter. The new physics, he contends, requires a radical revision in the way we think about the underpinnings of our everyday reality-not that the experience of reality is all that different, it's the way we explain how it got here. If we use God to fill in the gaps of knowledge, then that God will automatically self-destruct (at least in part) whenever a gap is filled by science. And Davies feels that the new physics covers all the gaps quite nicely all the way back to the Big Bang with even that cataclysmic event comprehended in terms of an inflatable fragment of spacetime broken off another universe.

But Davies is not your typical reductionist. He has no room for "nothing-buttery" (citing ASA member Donald MacKay) and is genuinely concerned with the non-material aspects of a material universe. In dealing with the phenomenon of life he prefers to "regard life, not as an isolated miracle in an otherwise clockwork universe, but as an integral part of the cosmic miracle." (p. 70) The concepts of mind, soul, and self receive sensitive and penetrating treatment as does the issue of free will vs. determinism. Level distinction and holism play prominent roles in his attempts to avoid the logic traps in these areas which can so easily trip up the unwary. He takes a look at the anthropic principle, according to which "the universe must be such as to admit conscious beings in it at some state." (p. 171) A persuasive example of purpose and design is the fortuitous numerical coincidences which abound in our universe about which Davies has written at length in his book, The Accidental Universe. He hints at how impressed he is about this phenomenon in the closing sentence of Chapter 13, "Black Holes and Cosmic Chaos, " 11 ... the seemingly miraculous concurrence of numerical values that nature has assigned to her fundamental constants must remain the most compelling evidence for an element of cosmic design." (p. 189)

So what is the bottom line? How much God is left after all this analysis and gap-filling? As far as the God of first cause-the prime mover-is concerned, Davies sees no compelling reason for keeping him around since quantum physics provides ample room for "causeless" phenomena, particularly with hidden variables being proven unnecessary by Bell's Theorem. Furthermore, he concludes "there is no positive scientific evidence for a designer and creator of cosmic order (in the negative entropy sense). Indeed, there is a strong expectation that current physical theories will provide a perfectly satisfactory explanation of these features." (p. 186) Even the God of miracles is regarded as superfluous; Davies would just as soon put his money on mind-power rather than God-power for their explanation.

In fact, mind seems to be getting Davies' vote as the most likely god-like concept that can survive the scrutiny of physics and logic. No advocate of Cartesian dualism, be would let mind correspond to software and space-timematter to the hardware of the universe. He sees life and organisms (including humans) having a similar relationship. Systems described as self -organizing, self -referencing, or bootstrapping have an appeal to Davies, and he sees the anthropic principle as supporting the notion that the entire universe functions analogously to such systems.

To say that this book is a challenge to conservative Christianity and Biblical literalism is to be guilty of gross understatement. It could be more easily dismissed if its author were just another carping critic of Christianity (and how many of those have come and gone?) and if he were using, say, geology or biology as a platform for launching his attack. But Davies cannot be categorized as an atheist or as anti-religious, and his platform is the foundation of all the other sciences including theology. He can only be accused of heralding the approaching paradigm shift in physics which will, inexorably, take everything else in our society with it (see The Turning Point by F. Capra). It would be ironic indeed if the high viscosity of religious dogma caused the Church to come in last again.

Reviewed by Robert L. Shacklett, Emeritus Professor of Physics, California State University, Fresno. Current address: 5015 Winsford Ct., Newark, CA 94560.