Science in Christian Perspective

Book Reviews

JASA Reviews for December 1978

Table of Contents
THE AGE OF VELIKOVSKY by C. H. Ransom, Kronos Press, Glassboro, N.J., 1976, :5274 pp., $9.95.
VELIKOVSKY RECONSIDERED by the Editors of Pensee', Doubledav & Co. Inc., Garden City, N.Y., 1976, 260 pp., $8.98
HARD QUESTIONS edited by Frank Colquhoun, Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1977, 131 pp., $2.95.
HEALTH GUIDE FOR SURVIVAL by Salem Kirban. Published by Salem-Kirban, Inc., Huntington Valley, PA, 1976. $3.95.
THE REBUILDING OF PSYCHOLOGY by Gary Collins. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House, 1977.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS: A CONFLUENT THEORY OF VALUES by Brian P. Hall, New York: Paulist Press, 1976, 268 pp., $5.95.
MEN, WOMEN AND CHANGE: A Sociology of Marriage and the Family, by Letlia Scanzoni and John Scanzoni, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Companv, .1976, 504 pp.
OUR COSMIC JOURNEY: Christian Anthropology in Light of Current Trends in the Sciences, Philosophy and Theology by Hans Schwarz, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1977, 379 pp., $12.95 cloth, $7,95 paper.
THE HUMAN BRAIN by M. C. Wittrock and others. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1977. 214 pp., $3.95.
MECHANICS OF THE MIND by Colin Blakemore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. 208 pp., $6.95.
THE DRAGONS OF EDEN by Carl Sagan. New York: Random House, 1977. 263 pp., $8.95.
EROS DEFILED: THE CHRISTIAN AND SEX UAL SIN: b y John White, Downer's Grove, Illinois:
Inter-Varsity Press, 1977, 172 pp., $3.95, paperback.
DEVELOPING A CHRISTIAN MIND by Nancy B. Barcus, Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1977, 100 pp., $2.95.
ON SYNTHESIZING MARXISM AND CHRISTIANITY by Dale Vree, New York: John Wiley Sons, 1976, 206 pp. and xxii.
THE CHRISTIAN-MARXIST DIALOGUE BEGINNINGS, PRESENT STATUS, AND BEYOND by Peter Hebblethwaite, New York: Paulist Press, 1977, JQ.-) PP, $3.95.
THE EXPERIENCE OF DYING by E. Mansell Pattison, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, hic., 1977, 335 pp.
THEOMATICS, GOD'S BEST KEPT SECRET REVEALED by Jerry Lucas and Del Washburn, Stein and Day, New York (1977) 347 pp. $8.95.
THE ROAD OF SCIENCE AND THE WAYS TO GOD by Stanley L. Jaki, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 60637 (1978), 478 pages.

THE AGE OF VELIKOVSKY by C. H. Ransom, Kronos Press, Glassboro, N.J., 1976, :5274 pp., $9.95.
VELIKOVSKY RECONSIDERED by the Editors of Pensee', Doubledav & Co. Inc., Garden City, N.Y., 1976, 260 pp., $8.98

Immanuel Velikovsky has argued that the Earth has suffered near-collisions with Venus and Mars between 1450-687 B.C., producing global catastrophes. His books Worlds in Collision, Ages in Chaos, and Earth in Upheaval contain his evidence and arguments for these events. The resultant collision between Velikovsky and the "uniformitarian" astronomers and other scientists, has become an indelible blot on the history of science in America. In The Age of Velikovsky, Ransom reviews Velikovsky's theories and the associated historical reconstructions particularly of Egyptian history. He then goes on to outline evidence which has accumulated since the initial publication of Worlds in Collision, in 1950 in support of Velikovsky's theories. He concludes the book with a discussion of the irrational reception which the scientific community gave and COD tinues to give to these theories. For those who have been exposed only to the anti-Velikovsky side of the debate, Age of Velikovsky should provide a suitable antidote.

Velikovsky Reconsidered, like Age of Velikovsky, is unequivocally pro-Velikovsky. it consists of a collection of papers by Velikovsky and others which appeared in the periodical Pens& from 1972 to 1975. The papers are reprinted in this book with brief editorial introductions. Most deal with specific aspects of Velikovsky's theories, e.g. "Babylonian Observations of Venus", "Orbits of Venus", "Lunar Rocks and Velikovsky's claims", etc. The argument of both books is that Velikovsky has been badly maligned and misrepresented by his opponents and that there is sufficient evidence to make his theories a reasonable interpretation of recent events in the solar system. Undoubtedly Velikovsky has been badly maligned and misrepresented. In fact, the American, Behavioural Scientist devoted an entire issue (7 (1): Sept. '63) to the irrational reception of his ideas, by the scientific establishment. Evidence for and against his theories will probably be debated for years to conic,

The responses of Christians to Velikovsky's theories have been mixed. Velikovsky in no way gives a particularly Christian interpretation of history; he rejects ideas of supernatural interference in historic events and obviously favours an "old" earth. Hence lie has suffered from the slings of some fundamentalists. as well as establishment scientists. On the other hand, some Christians have looked on his ideas with favour because be gives natural explanations for some otherwise supernatural events, e.g. plagues in Egypt, Joshua's long day at Beth-horon, etc., and in general accepts most of the Hebrew history in the Old Testament narratives as factual, providing correlations with Egyptian history. There will obviously be much ongoing debate on Velikovsky's theories and it would be judicious to retain an open mind and to avoid premature judgments.

Reviewed by Steve Scadding, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, NIG 2WI.

HARD QUESTIONS edited by Frank Colquhoun, Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1977, 131 pp., $2.95.

One of the greatest tragedies in Christendom is that many church members and curious outsiders are denied suitable answers to their questions about Christianity., This happens when shallow or erroneous responses are given by nescient church members or when those who can explain the Christian experience assume that church members ipso facto share their knowledge. Thus many people who are sincerely interested in learning the ways of God are left ignorant.

Hard Questions, a collection of 36 three-page replies to common inquiries into the Christian faith, addresses people "in the church and on the fringe." The essays are designed to direct thought and investigation oil various issues, not to be comprehensive. The book's strength lies in its brief and readable chapters and its sympathetic and serious tone.

"Hell . . . fact or fiction?" is a representative chapter The author begins by assuring readers that Jesus often spoke of hell; therefore hell exists. Those who reject Christ's redemption are punished with eternal solitariness because of their sinful nature. Moreover, redemption is a matter of Choice, since God will not deny men their free wills. Lamenting over the widespread disbelief of hell, the author ends by prophesying that "we are unlikely to see any great awakeing, in the ranks of paganism.

Though the Positions in the book are firm, readers are not led to believe that Christianity is comprised of brittle dogmatisms. Openness is evident in the chapter "Should all Christians seek to speak in 'tongues"?" The author says that all Christians are not given the gift of speaking in tongues, but does not deny the faith of Dennis and Rita Bennett who believe otherwise.

Hard Questions has its drawbacks, though. The chapters' brevity may make the answers seem trite. Also, certain passages assume biblical knowledge which many readers may lack. Baptism is posited from the Church of England's viewpoint and one contributor knows that "these are the last days." Finally, two authors offer conflicting viewpoints: One implies that biblical truth is not lost when its world-view is discarded (e.g. Christ's "ascension" was actually "a disappearance . . . out of our space and time altogether"), though another writer, denouncing the view that Satan is a personification of man's evil, adheres to a literal interpretation ("the plain leaching of the Bible").

Colquhoun's book is not to be impersonally offered to the curious. It should set an agenda for discussion, not satiate or quell the inquisitive.

Reviewed by John P. Ferre', Graduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Communication, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

HEALTH GUIDE FOR SURVIVAL by Salem Kirban. Published by Salem-Kirban, Inc., Huntington Valley, PA, 1976. $3.95.

The problems with this book nmay be with the author. rather than the subject, Carey Reams, with whom I am not directly familiar. It seems possible that Salern Kirban has unknowingly done him a disservice, at least in the eyes of the scientific ,world, in writing this book. It is also conceivable that both Kirban and Reams may have done a great deal of good. Nonetheless, I cannot be kind to either. Further, even though I doubt if few, if any, who are directly affected will read this review, it seems that the subject is appropriate for these pages.

Carey Reams, "a biochemist and biophysicist as well as an ordained minister" (back cover) has established a clinic in the Georgia hills, where lie tests the acidity of people's urine and saliva, the amount of sugars and carbohydrates in the urine, salts in the urine, number of dead cells excreted per 100 lbs. of body weight, amount of urea in the urine and examines the size of the capillaries in their eyes. He then computes a "frequency" for them, tells them what is wrong with them, and prescribes an individualized diet, usually with initial fasting, to remedy the problem.

Salem Kirban is the author of 26 books (more by now, no doubt), many on prophecy. He calls himself
,in investigative reporter". This book, and another I have read, (666) are sensational pastiches of the Bible, charts, photos of newspaper clippings, and the author's ideas and experiences. Kirban's investigation of Reams not only convinced him that Reams is doing a good work, but also led him to join or copy him.

Kirban quotes Reams as saying "I am an ordained minister and a biophysicist teaching the health message as written in the Bible . . ." ( ' page 20) Kirban describes Rearns as "Minister and founder of the Interfaith Christian Church". (unpaged photo caption) The biblical basis of the health message of Hcalth Guide for Survival is not clearly explained. There does seem to be a use of the Jewish dietary laws. However, tuna fish is also proscribed, (page 40), contrary to Leviticus 11:9, which would seem to allow it.

Reams is quoted on the explanation for the difference between clean and unclean meats, based on "seven years of research" (page 47):

. . . the unclean meats digest in a period of 3 hours. The clean meats require about 18 hours. What this means is that the energy in pork and other unclean meats is released in 3 hours instead of 18. . . . It's like putting high test gasoline . . . in a motor that's not built for it! . . . We may cat these high energy meats for years and appear seemingly healthy, but this continued abuse of our body one day surfaces into a serious or terminal disease! (page 50)

Kirban, Reams, or somebody, has a highly unorthodox explanation for the source of energy in food. This is explained on a chart on page 62, which states:

The Anion, orbits in a counter-clockwise direction. 
The Cation, orbits in a clockwise direction.
The resistance between these two forces creates energy.

An alkaline substance. It contains the. smallest amount of energy known to man. It is a negative ion. It will contain from I to 499 Millhouse units of energy.
An acid substance. It contains the next smallest amount of energy. It is a imsitive ion. It will contain from 500 to 999 Milhouse units of energy.
. . . When a person gets sick, there are never enough anionic substancs present to supply the energy he needs from the cationic foods eaten. In effect, we do not properly digest our food. Why? Because there is an improper balance between anions and cations necessary to produce energy.

So how do we get the missing anionic substances? From lemons.

"Lemons are ANIONIC and the liver can manufacture those molecules of anionic substances into an extremely large number of different enzymes. These anionic molecules digest these cationic molecules in our food. (p. 63)"

Except that anions are negative, cations are positive, and the liver does make enzymes, as far as I can tell, the whole scheme is a fabrication. I checked the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technofogy and the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics for Milhouse unit, and found nothing. Perhaps the most, startling statement it) the book (though there are other candidates) is the following:

"When the calciums, and there are over 1/4 million different kinds (of calcium), mixes with the oxygen, it forms a natural hydrochloric acid." (p. 134)

It seems no wonder that the medical community has not accepted Reams. The only possible way for a per
son with any scientific training to approach these treatments is to ignore the explanations, and look at the result,),. Unfortunately, Kirban's "investigative reporting" of the results has not been too thorough. The most important statistic is that according to Dr. Reams, some 10,000 of these [24,000 ( 1970-71 ) ] patients were given up to die by their doctors and yet . . . only 51, people out of these 10,000 terminally ill patients failed to respond to diet! (italics mine) (1). 53)

This claim is also repeated on the front of the book. As Kirban savs "No medical doctor . . . no hospital . . . can match this track record!" (1). 53) Trute. However, Kirban did not check it, and makes no pretense of having done so. I hope Reams has that good a "track record." But there is certainly room for doubt.

A goodly portion of Health Guide, for Survival is
given to downgrading the health professions and detailing expensive treatments and failures, or to instances When the truth has been suppressed. Many of these things are true. Undoubtedly the orthodox medical c0lonninitv is resistant to change because of vested interests, economic and otherwise. Kirl)an also states that Reams was, at least once, arrested at 2 a.m. This is harassment, and seems to have been unnecessay, especially in the case of a septuagenarian minister.

However, both the argument of vested interest and the argument of suppression have obvious faults. Even though Galileo, Newton, and many others have have been persecuted for speaking the truth, this does not prove that everyone who is harassed and rejected by the establishment is right.

As to the vested interest argument, it works both ways. Salem Kirban has a vested interest in promoting Reams. Some of it is economic. Kirban has published at least five books on health. In the back of Health Guide for Survival there are ten pages of advertising and/or order forms for items furnished by Kirban. Some of it is "face." Kirban has staked his character on Reams' methods, and, like you or I might in his position, argues passionately for them.

Both Carey Reams and Salem Kirban appear to be dedicated and God-fearing. They have convinced many good people, including some of my acquaintances. They have not convinced me.

Martin LaBar, Central Wesleyan College, Central, South Caralina 29630

THE REBUILDING OF PSYCHOLOGY by Gary Collins. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House, 1977.

In The Rebuilding of Psychology, Gary Collins critically analyzes psychology from its foundations to its
practice. Collins defines psychology as the science of human behavior and its goal as find in solutions to human problems. He then evaluates three major approaches to psychological inquiry: experimental (behavioristic) psychology, counseling psychology, and humanistic psychology. He contends that none of these have contributed significant solutions to human problems. He therefore concludes that something is wrong - it the core of Psychology.

Collins illustrates that at the foundational level beliefs (assumptions) are expressed in psychological inquiry. Empiricism, determinism, relativism, reductionism and naturalism are basic assumptions which characterize the discipline. The two sources from which assumptions can be drawn are theism or nontheistic naturalism. Collins contends that psychology's foundation ought to be theistic rather than naturalistic. Empiricism, determinism, and reductionism can be accepted in modified form. Relativism must give way to biblical absolutism, and naturalism must succumb to Christian supernaturalism.

Given the new foundation and modified working assumptions, Collins describes how the new psychology would operate. Psychology would study "natural man" and "redeemed man" under an additional set of assumptions: that man is unique in the universe, that man is of worth and has volition and responsibility, and that God has the power to intervene in individual lives. Psychologists would use empirical and non-empirical methods in this study of man. Psychology and theology would be integrated; descriptions and 'explanations of behavior at one level would supplement descriptions and explanations at other levels. Highly specialized research would continue, but concluslol Is from such research would be subject to the limitations imposed by the additional assumptions. Counseling would focus on the needs of a person who may be physically, socially, psychologically or spiritually abnormal (alienated front God). The therapist would use a variety of techniques, including proselytizing, to meet the special needs of his client. This new foundation should place psychology in a better position to fulfill its goals. Collin's book is easy to read and stimulating. He often illustrates important points with clever anecdotes.
Collins' new psychology is, however, based on a definition of the discipline and a view of its ' goals which are
not universally accepted. Some psychologists contend that psychology is the study of behavior wherever
it occur. Man is not the sole focus for study. The scientific goals associated with this approach may be to in
crease understanding and/or to systematize a large body of data into a coherent theory. These "' pure"
science goals provide an alternative perspective for evaluating progress in the discipline which Collins fails
to consider.

Another weak point of the book is Collins' treatment of experimental psychology as synonymous with behavioristic psychology. Radical behaviorism and accompanying logical positivism are not embraced by many experimental psychologists. Collins' criticisms of behaviorism do not, therefore, apply to all experimental Psychology.

While psychology undoubtedly has some foundational weaknesses, Collins fails to establish that its weaknesses are related to its non-theistic premises. He, nevertheless, suggests adopting assumptions which seem incapable of producing changes in the outcome of the science. It is the nature of science that assumptions should be kept at a minimum rather than added arbitrarily,

Christians certainly ought to be concerned about integrating their discipline and their faith. Integration however, seems to be more an attitude rather than an imposing of one discipline's methods on another discipline which employs different methods. As Collins correctly points out, difficulties arise when different methods seen to provide different answers to similar questions. It is precisely at this point where attitude seems to be crucial. The Christian must recognize limitations on each discipline involved, and remain open to further understanding.

Collins' most important contribution may be his exposition of presuppositional foundations of psychological inquiry. In addition, he establishes the compatibility of psychological and theological approaches to behavior, and lie may stimulate discussion of bow the two approaches interact. It would, however, be unfortunate if The Rebuilding of Psychology were viewed as an end, rather than a beginning of inquiry into the integration of Christianity and psychology.

Reviewed by Arnold Froese, Individual and Group Behavior Department, Sterling College, Sterling, Kansas 67579.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS: A CONFLUENT THEORY OF VALUES by Brian P. Hall, New York: Paulist Press, 1976, 268 pp., $5.95.

Having worked in value theory and practice for more than ten years, Brian Hall found himself pressed by questions some of the major authors such as Rokeach, Simon and Kohlbera did not answer, The questions had to do with "perception" ("world view"), viz., why is it that people having common values (on the surface) perceive these same values so differently? In his book Value Clarification As Learning Process he attempted to resolve some of the dilemmas involved by pointing out that "on the surface we often Confuse value as behavior with value as ideal or belief (imagination only)-" (p. 234). In the present work lie sets forth a four-stage developmental model of consciousness together with the core values that characterize each stage. This model is to help the educator or counselor in determining how a person perceives the world, what stage of development tile person has attained, and what values and inter-personal skills need to be re-enforced to move the person into the next stage.

Each stage of development (or "phase of consciousness") has certain basic needs which determine the characteristic values. The environment is hostile to the clarification of these needs. The person struggles to "domesticate" his environnient. In this struggle a person finds meaning for his life. "At every phase of development the need for meaning is central, but at each phase it is tied to different concrete needs" (p. 83), Provided lie has the necessary instrumental and inter-personal skills, the person moves to the next phase "because lie has internalized the values of the primary stages and thus no longer experiences a need for them and therefore is driven to look elsewhere for meaningful experiences." (p. 108)

The first phase is ' generally the level of consciousness of the young child whose basic needs are food, warmth
and physical affection. These needs foster the basic values of security, survival and pleasure. "An adult on
this level . . . is so influenced by these egocentric impulses that he rarely resists them." (p. 60) A social dimension is added to the consciousness of a five or six year-old, as lie learns that to along" he needs "their" approval, gained through accepted behavior, skill and competence. Thus, the basic need in the second phase is self esteem, which is achieved by becoming useful to society. So belongingness and being accepted by other are key values. "In our society . . .most people remain at an upper phase two position" (1). .57). The movement from phase two to phase three is most traumatic. In phases one and two the person sees authority as being external to the self; in phases
three and four the person takes authority into himself. A person usually cannot move into the third phase until
age sixteen. fie "no longer needs self worth as affirmed by others since that value is now an internalized part of his system. . . . The point around which consciousness revolves at this phase is the need to be self-directed." (p. 71) The basic needs of personal authority, freedom and dignity foster independence, equity and service as values. Not only is there in phase three a relocation of the center of' authority, but there is also for the first time a movement from egocentricity towards .justice and rights for mankind. In the fourth phase of consciousness this movement brings a -complete transcendence of the self," in which a person no longer views himself as acting independently, but always interdependently with others for the betterment of the world. The basic need is for wholeness and ecological personal community manifesting itself in valuing harmony, interdependence and the integration of mankind. "Inner harmony must be integrated with social harmony through technology" (p. 79). Few have attained the fourth phase. Much of what is known about the value system of phase four is extrapolated from phase three. It is possible that there may be yet higher phases of consciousness. "Our vision stops at Phase IV as an evolutionary possibility. But that is only because that is its far as I call see. We would assume there is a beyond . . ." (p. 257).

Hall's scheme gives its useful insight into how valuing relates to world view. However, critique is needed. Whereas the literature of psychology is replete with empirical verification of what Hall calls phases one and two, the latter phases are supported less well. It is difficult for me to accept the Romantic idea that the consciousness of mankind is evolving into a universal concern for harmony in all its parts, The only actual people Hall cites as having a phase four consciousness are Socrates, Gandhi, Buddha and Jesus. all of whom I think lie has misunderstood, His central dynamic involving mail's search for meaning seems dialectical, and Kierkegaard's critique of Hegel is apropos. The gratification of his needs (thesis) is negated by the environment (antithesis), and so man struggles to domesticate the environment (synthesis). Hall claims that by moving through this process man finds meaning Yet the search for meaning is not the possession of it. This process is unending. To have meaning there must be an ultimate dialectic between the ego's need for incaning and this unending search which results in a reorganization of the ego around the Divine. This is the complete transcendence of the self, contra Hall's phase four. Augustine put it perhaps more simply, "Thou hast made its, for Thyself, and we are restless till we rest in Thee.- Nevertheless, HaU has given us much food for thought in an area of increasing interest for contemporary society.

Reviewed by Bruce Hedman, Department of Mathemtics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

MEN, WOMEN AND CHANGE: A Sociology of Marriage and the Family, by Letlia Scanzoni and John Scanzoni, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Companv, .1976, 504 pp.

Men, Women And Change is all introductory text to marriage and the family, but unlike many textbooks it has considerable popular appeal. Letha (professional writer) and John (sociologist) Scanzoni collaborate to produce a book that achieves their goal to "treat the subject in a way that is solidly scientific but at the same time ill a way warmly human." The underlying theme of the text is change. Since our definitions of family roles and relationships are influenced by larger cultural values and norms, the authors discuss the effects oil personal family relationships caused by a changing society. Topics usually discussed in marriage and family courses are covered in Men, Wonien And Change, but there is all important sociological bonus. The Scauzonis explicitly and systematically use social exchange theory to analyze changing family roles and relationships. The blend of sociological theory and research data with realistic case Studies and illustrations makes the book an excellent learning tool.

Social exchange theory assumes the bartering of valued objects, services and sentiments to be a basic social process. The motivation for specific exchanges is all individual matter, although each person is influenced by larger cultural values. Thus the Scanzonis assert that life is a series of reciprocal (but not always equal) exchanges, which occur in dating, marital and sexual relationships as surely as they do in politics and economics. Political and economic changes affect the exchanges that occur in our intimate relationships. For example, prior to the industrial revolution the patriarchal family, based on the wife's subordination, was a common family structure. Reciprocal exchanges occurred: wives received economic benefits and protection from their husbands in exchange for work in the household, sexual favors and emotional support. However, these exchanges were far from equal, because
women had relatively little bargaining power. The increased educational and employment opportunities available to women as a result of the industrial revolution freed them from economic dependence upon males and dramatically increased their bargaining power. Exchanges now have the potential to be more equal.

Women who work and bring income to the family have the power to bargain for it better division of labor in
the home and for sexual and emotional mutuality. A marriage, then, is a relationship consisting of a continuous series of exchanges and negotiated adjustments which each partner is free at any time to renegotiate: a process occurring in both the structural and emotional aspects of the relationship. The bargaining is a form of conflict in marriage which may be healthy, leading to empathetic and rewarding relationships, or unhealthy, leading to family violence and/or dissolution. Some readers may not be happy with the authors' comprehensive application of exchange theory to marriage and family relationships, because we are not always rational, calculating people when involved in such intense and personal associations. But the Scanzonis do show that sociological theory and family studies are compatible.

The overall approach to marriage and family change is positive and guardedly optimistic. The book was not written specifically for use in Christian college classrooms and challenges traditional Christian thinking about the family, but its underlying values are Christian and humane. Women And Change is a text which many Christians teaching sociology should consider seriously and one which the Christian interested in the subject will find both challenging and rewarding.

Reviewed By Jack Hazzard, Department of Sociology, Houghton College, Houghton, NY.

OUR COSMIC JOURNEY: Christian Anthropology in Light of Current Trends in the Sciences, Philosophy and Theology by Hans Schwarz, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1977, 379 pp., $12.95 cloth, $7,95 paper.

In keeping with the accepted anthropological paradigm, Schwarz has attempted a holistic approach to the
study of man that, to this reviewer, falls very close to the mark. Weaving into a logical pattern data from the
natural and social sciences with theological insights, lie has produced a book of ininiense scope that calls the reader to both rejoice in man, as well as to carefully assess the problems that seern attendant to humanity in its present state. On page 13 lie says, "We have domesticated the world in an unprecedented way, but we have lost our souls and each other in the process."

Through various chapters lie deals with the development of thought from historic times to the present, accompanied by copious literature citations (840) to help the serious student. The chapter titles include: "The Universe"; The "Phenomenon of Life"; "Humanity -A Unique Species"; "God's Own Creation"; "The Human Predicament and the Cause of Evil"; "Human Sinfulness"; "Under God's Care". It is a book filled with the history of psychological theory, anthropological theory, physics theory, and biological theory. The reader is brought up to date in these disciplines to the degree that they relate to the questions, "what does it mean to be a human being?" and "what is our position in this universe?"

For the most part, his handling of the topics is straight forward. After a historic review of the particular discipline, he injects his own interpretation and then provides a comprehensive summary of the chapter's main points.

I was personally most interested in the chapters on the origin and evolution of life and the behavioral and physical aspects of man that make him unique. Schwarz handles the material fairly and allows the reader to see the wide variety of opinions that have been put forward, especially since Darwin's publishing days. His conclusions here are somewhat open-ended. He takes us as far as the data can go and tells us that there are certain things concerning origins and evolution that we have no answers for, knowing full well how ambguity can be disturbing to the inquisitive. To me this is a far more honest approach to these human paleontological problems than we (yet in a lot of the quasi-scientific material cranked out on the subject today from some Christian circles.

The remainder of the book attempts to integrate theology with the scientific data, and again, lie does an admirable job: Our responsibilities as God's administrators of the earth are laid out with the hopes that ". . . we regain a sense of direction and dignity, and a point of reference" (p. 268).

As with any book of such scope, there are points where the reader will take exception to various historic or theoretic interpretations, but at least the text provides a jumping-off point for our own personal "cosmic journeys." I wish the book had been available when I was in graduate school. Many of the struggles I bad with available data are dealt with here in a coherent manner. In his own way, Hans Schwarz is in the lineage of Asa Gray and Charles Lyell concerning the interation of faith and science.

Reviewed by E. Steve Cassells, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Judson College, Elgin, Illinois 60120.

THE HUMAN BRAIN by M. C. Wittrock and others. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1977. 214 pp., $3.95.
MECHANICS OF THE MIND by Colin Blakemore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. 208 pp., $6.95.
THE DRAGONS OF EDEN by Carl Sagan. New York: Random House, 1977. 263 pp., $8.95.

Each of these books purports to be about the brain, and yet the degree of liberty taken with the topic varies quite dramatically, The simplest way of ganging the manner of treatment is to look at the titles, from the direct-if unexciting The Human Brain, to the perplexing and semi-religious, The Dragons of Eden. That the brain conjures up such diverse responses is to be expected. What is unexpected is the flagrant way in which concepts are manipulated to square with the authors' philosophical presuppositions. If you think that Blakemore's book will help you understand the " mind," you will be disappointed, while Eden simply serves Sagan's own myth-creating purposes.

But, to start with the straightforward: The Human Brain encompasses a number of areas within the neurosciences, and sets out to provide people such as teachers, school administrators, guidance counsellors and undergraduate students with an opportunity to learn about recent research on the human brain. To this end, it contains articles on the fundamental processes and structures of the brain, and on some of the educational implications of recent brain research.

To a large extent, this goal is achieved. The various contributors, including Harry  Jerison, Michael S. Gazzaniga and Joseph E. Bogen, sketch some of the present research paths in all interesting and informative fashion. Emphasis, whether deliberate or not is nuclear, is placed on evolutionary aspects of brain organization, and the distinction between the right and left hemispheres. What is intriguing is that, although Jerison makes as strong a case as possible for the importance of all understanding of brain evolution for contemporary life, the applied articles on education rely rather on the results of split-brain studies.

It is becoming commonplace to distinguish between the attributes of the right and left cerebral hemispheres,
Gazzaniga, one of the pioneers of this field, underscores the redundancy in the system, suggesting that all language and spatial functions rnay not be exclusively lateralized to the respective left and right hemispheres. One of the educational implications of a dichotomy between the abilities of the two hemispheres is that in dividuals may be spatially bright and verbally dull, or vice versa. If this is the 'case, tests will have 'to be developed to diagnose in individual with respect to his specific mental skills. The philosophical implications of a distinction between left and right hemispheres are largely overlooked by Gazzaniga, beyond the somewhat helpful generalization that there may be a doubling of consciousness. Another contributor, Robert D. Nebes, follows Ornstein's admixture of philosophy and education with his contention that our society's stress oil left-hemisphere skills has led to its technological orientation, in contrast with the in mysticism of the East which presumably steins from right-hemisphere attributes. It is a pity that no serious attempt is made to analyze the data behind this distinction. It
would also be helpful to know whether the results obtained oil split-brain Studies call be directly applied to individuals and societies operating with integrated right and left hemispheres. Stephen D. Krashen's sober
analysis of the left hemisphere and of cerebral asymmetry helps, in an indirect fashion, to answer this
query with his demonstration of non-language processing in the left hemisphere.

Investigations into the respective functions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres have a long way to (ro. It is unfortunate that they have been pounced upon by advocates of various forms of mysticisim While much remains unsettled, they do force us to ask ourselves whether we in Western societies have overemphasized the values of all analytical attitude and of logical reasoning. Furthermore, has the Christian Church fallen into the same trap? However we phrase this question in terms of right and left hemisphere functions, the need for a balance between verbal and non-verbal thinking, between analysis and comprehension, remains. What we need to be emphasizing is integration between different types of approach, between right and left hemisphere functions, between understanding the tenets of the faith and their application ill daily living, Perhaps research of the  cerebral hemisphere does, after all, have a place in reminding us of essential biblical emphases.

Blakemore's book, Mechanics of the Mind, is a beautifully-illustrated, easy-to-read account of various facets of ])rain structure and function. Like The Human Brain, it is selective in its contents. It is, however. ,very much the product of one person and one person',, interests, mirroring his own biases which are stated rather than argued through. For instance, be has no sympathy for Ornstein's conclusions emanating from right-left hernisphere differences. These are, therefore, summarily dismissed. Perhaps lie should have read The Human Brain.

Underlying much of Blakeinore's account of the brain is an implicit materialism. In order to express this, he departs from the brain for long digressions oil language, physical anthropology and evolution. While much of this makes interesting reading, it lends itself to glib conclusions and gives the author ample scope for expanding on his materialistic presuppositions.

Blakemore discusses consciousness in the context of sleep, as lie considers that its experimental study may throw light oil the control of consciousness which, in turn, may provide more objective criteria for the definition of death. According to Blakemore, sleep ("this nightly appointment with death") is the most profound loss of consciousness we experience. But what is consciousness? Blakemore is far from sure. For him, it is "the rumour of a phenomenon" and lie cannot conceive how a scientist call find methods to measure what he terms "the private deliberation of the conscious mind." But he cannot bring himself to dismiss consciousness as a mere epiphenomenon. When confronted by free will, though, he is even more perplexed and sees it as an internal explanation for the flexibility of our own behaviour.

In discussing perception, his own area of research, Blakemore is on surer ground, By all interesting admixture of scientific history, philosophy and art, we are reminded of "tile deceit of the eve" and the internalization of knowledge. One feels tilat these concepts pose immense problems for Blakemore, He appears to be looking for something beyond the rnere complexity of the brain and its neurons, but is prevented from doing so by his presuppositions. What he is left with are linguistic conundrums-fascination but hollow. For instance, what is one to make of his statements that neurons are Cartesian souls with, what is more, intelligence?

Similar difficulties emerge during his discussion of language. As this is cast in the framework of mail's uniqueness (or lack of it), great stress is placed upon the teaching of American Sign Language to chimpanzees. Blakeinore sees the success achieved in this venture as destroying the myth of mail's biological uniqueness, but here again he is not certain and lie concedes that speech is unique to man.

Inevitably the contrast between the right and left hemispheres is featured by Blakemore and, commendably, he calls for the marriage and harmony of the two. This leads to a discussion of brain control, in which psychosurgery, electro-convulsive therapy and some aspects of psychiatry are treated somewhat harshly and glibly.

Not surprisingly, Blakemore views the brain as central to an understanding of human behaviour. This, ill turn, is basic to attempts at overcoming dogma and discrimination. The complexity of tile brain is daunting, but it is even more daunting to suggest, as Blakernore appears to do, that all understanding of this complexity will lead to a new ethical system "based oil the needs and rights of mail." Surely neurobiology does not, and never will, possess this depth of explanatory power.

One is tempted to retort that the brain has forgotten its dependence upon all else that makes a human being what he/she is, and in so doing has also overlooked the inter-relationship of humans within society and of humans to their God. The brain struggling to understand the brain is not society trying to explain itself, as Blakemore asserts.

Carl Sagan in The Dragons of Eden appears to have much the same presuppositions as Blakemore, in spite of his-at times-bewildering fresh ways of expressing himself. Sagan states that his fundamental premise about the brain is that its workings are a consequence of its anatomy and physiology, and nothing more. Hence, any form of mind-body dualism is excluded. By itself, this basic premise does not determine the direction of the book but, as with Blakemore, no further explanation is carried out in this area, the premise being left to stand on its own as sufficient evidence to support whatever case follows. An illustration in Sagan's instance is his apparent support for a sanctity of human life ethic on the basis of the immense number of different configurations of brain states that could exist.

Sagan's approach to the brain is an unashamed evolutionary one. As a convenient launching pad for this approach, he adopts a triune brain concept according to which the brain can be subdivided into midbrain, limbic system and neocortex. The significance of this subdivision sterns from the assertion that the midbrain is the phylogenetically-oldest part of the human brain, hence the expression, "reptilian or R-complex." The limbic system is next oldest, while the neocortex is best developed in the higher mammals and primates, so much so that it is virtually diagnostic of the human condition.

On this basis, Sagan regards human behaviour in terms of these three ])rain components. The R-complex, for instance, has a role in aggressive behaviour, territoriality and ritual, that is, allegedly reptilian characteristics, from which he arouses that much of human behaviour can be described in reptilian terms and is even controlled by this part of the brain. Nevertheless, he is unwilling t(; take this position to its logical conclusion and finds refuge in the plasticity of human behaviour to prevent rigid adherence to genetically-preprograinined (reptilian) behaviour. Altruistic, emotional and religious aspects of human life are localized to a significant extent in the limbic system, while reason is a function of the neocortex. Sagan concedes that this triune brain model is a metaphor, and yet the stress he lays upon it suggests he is using it in an attempt to bestow meaning upon human behaviour without having
recourse to any explanatory principle outside man himself and his possible forebears. This suggestion is borne
out by his emphases upon man's evolution as well as upon his novel reinterpretation of the Genesis account
of the Garden of Eden.

Like Blakemore, Sagan gives a detailed account of the linguistic abilities of chimpanzees. His account constitutes a useful summary of work done with such chimpanzees as Washoe and Lucy. He concludes that chimpanzees are capable of abstraction, and this leads him into some romantic meanderings about the quality of a chimpanzee culture incorporating some form of oral tradition, The far more important issue of asking why there are no nonhuman primates with an existing complex gestural language is inadequately answered in terms of competition from humans. Perhaps this is a theological rather than a biological question. If so, it is a pity that Sagan completely overlooks its significance, constrained as lie is by non-theological presuppositions.

The dominance of the R-complex in Sagan's thinking emerges again in his discussion of sleep and dreaming. The characteristics of dreams (corresponding to aggressive, hierarchical and ritualistic functions) are reminiscent of reptilian characteristics, he argues, and are repressed by the limbic part of the brain during waking,

Left and right-hemisphere differences are summed up in evolutionary and fairly speculative terms, with the verbal abilities of the left hemisphere obscuring the more intuitive nature of the right hemisphere. Fortunately, he recognizes the contributions of both hemispheres for the majority of human activities, although, in order to reach this conclusion, lie has to overlook his earlier conclusions extrapolated from evolutionary premises. Sagan does not seem to be aware of this conflict, and offers no hypotheses to account for the collaboration between the hemispheres. Human culture, as he says, may be the function of the corpus callosum, but what does this mean and how did it come to pass? Again we are back at the limitations imposed by his presuppositions.

The major impression left by both Blakemore's and Sagan's books is that the brain of man and human intelligence constitute by themselves fundamental explanations of the meaning and rationale of human existence. There is nothing new in this, although the brain rather than intelligence is central for these authors. Sagan is far more explicit than Blakemore in revealing his presuppositions. For him "the aperture of a bright future lies almost certainly through the full functioning of the neocortex . . . it courageous working through of the world its it really is." By contrast, Christianity "betokens a lack of intellectual rigor, all absence of , skepticism, a need to replace experiments by desires" and is, according to Sagan, a limbic and right-hemisphere doctrine. At this point, Sagan converts neurobiological pointers into philosophical dogmas. He oversteps the bounds of experimental data, by transforming what at the best are speculative interpretations of data into misleading cliche's. The lack of intellectual ri(your w his owl) position is amply demonstrated by his attempts to derive social and medical ethical principles from all understanding of the brain.

Each of these three books has much to offer. The human brain is indeed fascinating and perplexing, full of mystery and perhaps hope. However, once it is used to extrapolate to the human condition, immense caution is required because our brains are not nearly as remote from our cherished ideas its some n eurobiolo gists would have us believe.

Reviewed bi D. Gareth Jones, Associate Professor of Anatomy and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, West Australia.

EROS DEFILED: THE CHRISTIAN AND SEXUAL SIN: by John White, Downer's Grove, Illinois:
Inter-Varsity Press, 1977, 172 pp., $3.95, paperback.

White, all Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Manitoba, presents a very concerned, humane, informed discussion designed to help the reader understand and overcome various sexual deviations. He stresses that a person helping others in this area should not be judgmental, pointing out that acceptance and concern is the proper Christian and psychological stand. On the other hand, White stresses that One should not try to help a person by condoning wrong behavior. Sin is falling short of the law; and a sexual sin is indulged in because of a falling short of the mark of perfection because of personal shortcomings, ignorance, exploitation by others, or unfortunate circumstances. Victims are helped not by condemning, but by removing the ignorance, helping the person to change the situation which influences the undesirable behavior, and to gain the knowledge necessary to overcome the condition. White repeatedly stresses that evangelicals' "obsession with sexual purity is all out of proportion to our concern for other Christian virtues," (p. 49) such as honesty, concern for our brothers, and Christian priorities.

White advocates an absolute standard of morality. For example, adultery and fornication are always wrong, though circumstances might change the degree of guilt involved and the degree all act reflects negatively upon its perpetrator. The absolute standard, though is only a goal, and we must recognize many will fall short. Our concern is with helping its many as possible reach that "ideal goal," a state which will, White stresses, facilitate our personal happiness and well being. White illustrates the variable guilt concept as follows: rape, sex for an afternoon's fun, and sexual relations as an expression of deep affection all could be examples of fornication, but clearly all are not equally serious. White opts for a balance, pointing out, for example, the hypocrisy between electing a millionaire with a touch of greed to the church board while unequivocally condemning the parishoner who goes to bed with his neighbor's wife. Both sins may be equally serious, but the first tends to be winked at while the second causes unending talk.

White seems to be somewhat unnecessarily restrictive of sexual activities between husband and wife. He bases his restriction on the obvious design of the sexual organs and therefore feels their use should be restricted to copulation. Yet physiologists have pin-pointed a number of bodily areas which are clearly erotic and designed to elicit erotic feelings. Should these areas be avoided? White acknowledges that lie does not feel sex is intended primarily for begetting children, but also for the couple's enjoyment, much as food and many physical activities are enjoyable. Therefore stimulation of other erotic areas, aside from the sexual organs, would not, according to this reasoning, be wrong. Importantly, mutual feelings of the couple, the concern of physical injury, disease, and other factors must be considered, but there is no scriptural reason to limit sexual contact only to coitus as White indicates. A strong argument could be made against behavior such as mouth to month contact, especially from the standpoint of cleanliness. This contact has nothing to do with procreation and physiologically the lips are less erotic than a number of other body areas. Yet this form of sexual activity is rarely condemned because it is so prevalent in American culture. In other cultures, valid health arguments against kissing have resulted in this behavior being all but unknown.

White develops the view that sex is "communication or a means to satisfy aloneness, isolation and separateness. Sex is a means of uniting, of becoming one with someone else, satisfying the deeper need of sharing. On these grounds masturbation and other solitary sexual behavior is seen as falling far short of the ideal sexual milieu.

In some sections the discussions seem rather superficial. For example, psychoanalytic theory is touched on in such a way that the reader may conclude that much psychoanalytic theory is rather naive and shortsighted. Although psychoanalysis is clearly debatable, it is a complex theory which at least attempts to account for some of the simple "objections" White briefly mentions.

A good example of his cogent insight is in the discussion of the oedipus complex and its influence on masturbation. White brings out all excellent point: if the oediptis complex is the cause of masturbation, why is guilt so commonly absent? If masturbation is linked in the minds of young people with incestuous desires, and presumably the incestuous desires are still with us today (and are still the cause of guilt) why is there, according to White, commonly little guilt over masturbation? The oedipus theory is probably not a sufficient explanation, and a number of factors are important. White convincingly dernonstrates that the behavioristic explanation is probably more valid.

In discussing the subconscious White implies that only "frightening and shameful memories" are stored, when it is more likely that all non-conscious memories are stored in the subconscious. it is just the frightening and shameful memories that give its problems. Memories used daily are not it) the sub-conscious not because they are less fearful, but because they are more useful. Experiences which cause it great amount of (guilt can remain it) the conscious mind for some time, but eventually, as with most memories, they are stored away in the sub-conscious. In time one recalls them less and less, time being the "healer of all sorrows."

Unfortunately White has a tendency to resort to the cliche': if a problem seems difficult to solve, in essence, "let God do it." He often implies that God has the answers, God is able to solve the problem, or the answer lies in leaning on the blood of Jesus. There is no scriptural assurance that God will automatically solve our problems (especially those we are able to solve ourselves). This idea tends to engender guilt in the dedicated believer, especially when the problems do not solve themselves in spite of relying fully on God. The persistence of a problem tends to be 0ained on lack of faith, or some shortcoming in the believer. There is a tendency to rely on such cliche's, especially when answers are not easy. It would seem, though, it would be more functional to try to deal more directly with the problems. Tragically these cliche's are often dysfunctional in that they stop its from looking for answers which may be more elusive, vet still are there if we keep looking. And theologically "letting God solve it," puts God in the position of being our servant instead of the opposite. This is not to say that God cannot (or does not) solve out- problems, but asks only: "to what extent should we give up and wait?"

A major handicap of the book is that few references are provided. One gets the impression that White wrote much of the book "off the top of his head" so to speak, writing thoughts as they came to mind, covering a wide
territory and therefore dwelling in depth in few areas. The information is probably helpful to one who has a
Christian commitment, but would do little to convince one who is not already convinced of the value system
White holds. Although this reviewer agrees with the position White takes in almost every case, one familiar
with the subject matter could easily gather a large number of arguments against the usually well put but not well supported arguments White utilizes to defend his position.

White advances several interesting interpretations of the Scriptures related to sexuality. For example ' in Matt. 5:27-32 he brings out that condemnation results not because of sexual thoughts or temptation (which White states are normal and expected) but only because of the conclusion the lust began, i.e, adultery. The condemnation is against the result, not the beginning.

Some of his interpretations, although not supported, stimulate the reader to look into the ideas presented, such as that homosexuality is caused by a blocking of the sexual drive in one area, causing sexual release in other areas to become, in time, m ore desirable , e.g., people starving who find "their months watering for such delicacies as boiled rats." Many researchers would probably strongly object to this explanation, but blockage is no doubt to sonic degree influential, at least in some homosexuals. Some of White's other hypotheses for the cause of homosexuality are somewhat outdated. There is an abundance of research which has severely questioned many of our assumptions about homosexuality, although probably this research has not been scrutinized as much as the research which has caused its to question the more traditional ideas. many researchers have a vested interest in "causes" which assign the responsibility to someone other than the victim and his family (heredity, a "normal" preference, etc.).

Some unsupported statements would be vigorously challenged by a nunber of researchers such as: "homosexuals, by and large, are unhappy people." Some support even a simple statement such as "the writer interviewed and worked with a number of homosexuals and has concluded 

"...would he helpful. To some degree White's book is an attempt to abstract rnuch of the popular literature on sex, after toning it down, filtering, altering and selectively reporting the information for Christian consumption. One familiar with the literature in sexual peversions, adulter, etc. would probably not gain a great deal from the hook. It is primarily intended for a lay audience, especially those who are somewhat naive regarding the variety of sexual
behaviors extant today.

White covers a wide variety of topics including divorce, remarriage, homosexuality, premarital sexual relations, variations of sexual techique, etc., providing, a lot of general information, definitions, etc. The book is probably an excellent tool for therapists to have their clients read. It is extremely readable, flows quickly, explains the ideas covered well, and keeps the reader's attention. Even for a therapist, it would certainly function its an evening of light, enjoyable, helpful reading. Some sections will be clearly helpful to dispel some of the erroneous beliefs common in many Christian circles, For example, many misperceptions regarding pornography, hypnotism, etc. are briefly but succinctly explained.

An important problem which White touches on is the all too common problem for Christians to have a poor self-image. Indeed this is common for people of most religious. Religious attempt to control by criticizing, degrading, and, in short, by trying to make their followers feel ashamed, guilty, or remorseful. White tries to help his readers overcome this; if not the feelings, at least the idea that guilt is an effective means to control.

Rather than being a self-help book, White stresses the need for professional help when a person is involved in the aberrations lie discusses. Unfortunately, though, he occasionally contradicts this advice, stating in one place that any "experienced and godly man can help" one with emotional or sexual problems; a psyclharist has nothing more to offer. Although there are undoubtedly many mature, sensitive individuals who have gained a tremendous understanding of human behavior through reading, social conversation and direct experience, this reviewer has seen an incredible amount of damage done by uninformed laymen and ministers alike attempting to help people with problems. Human behavior is a complex subject which four years of medical school does not even begin to cover adequately. Although the qualities of genuine concern can go a long way toward helping individuals with
problems, ignorance is a serious and common handicap, even among those who are certified as psychiatrists
or psychologists. It is well recognized that the current training is inadequate and thus many states are imposing licensing requirements which require more than a degree, namely varying degrees of supervised experience and continued additional training. Unfortunately,
many who may demonstrate they have the knowledge may not have the personal qualities. Enough harm, thus, is already being done by those with the training; to ask those without the training to work in this field is foolish. Quite often deacons, elders and pastors would be much better off doing nothing, as their attempts to help can do more harm. Warm, accepting concern and human compassion is one thing, but helping individuals with problems of sexual deviancy or in neurotic or psychotic states is quite another. indeed White spends much of his time illustrating this very point-how much harm lay people do it) their misguided attempts to help people. Hopefully his advice will be helpful toward those attempting to help others as well as those reading the book to help themselves.

If White feels his comments are helpful in this regard, there are undoubtedly other comments likewise helpful, and presumably the more knowledge a person has in this area, the more capable he will be able to help, assuming other important qualities such as the personality of the therapist are held equal.

In summary, White's book will make a modest contribution to the literature endeavoring to integrate the
new knowledge recently gained about sex through modern research with biblical standards of morality.
The lively, entertaining reading should be especially helpful for Christians in the struggle to dispel common
assumptions and apply Christian principles which are often crushed under the weight of "the invisible talmud."

Reviewed by Jerry Bergman, Department of Educational Foundations and Inquiry, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403.

DEVELOPING A CHRISTIAN MIND by Nancy B. Barcus, Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1977, 100 pp., $2.95.

The purpose of this book is to help the reader develop an outlook which will make thinking and believing a joyful and compatible pair. This attitude results from the renewal of the Christian mind. The main assumption of the book is that one should sift all knowledge for its good.

Naucv Barcus, English professor at Houghton College, emphasizes the approach to knowledge of openness. She then applies this approach to science, nature and humanism. Finally, she discusses the reward and pain of such an approach.

Of science she writes: "It takes more than a formula of any size or shape or definition to hold all the secrets of the infinite God of heaven." Of nature she concludes: "It is wonderful. But it is not enough. The problems of personality, mind, conscience, destiny remain." Of humanism she believes: "We can be New Humans. But secular humanism, pushed to its logical extreme, is a dead end."

The beliefs of Skinner, Thoreau, Monod, Whitehead and Eiseley are all discussed. The author skillfully shows the strengths and weaknesses of each view and points to Christian theism as the only valid system.

Reviewed by Richard Rtible, Professor of Psychology, John Brown University, Siloam Springs, Arkansas 72761.

ON SYNTHESIZING MARXISM AND CHRISTIANITY by Dale Vree, New York: John Wiley Sons, 1976, 206 pp. and xxii.
THE CHRISTIAN-MARXIST DIALOGUE BEGINNINGS, PRESENT STATUS, AND BEYOND by Peter Hebblethwaite, New York: Paulist Press, 1977, 200 pp., $3.95.

The political scientist Vree believes Christianity and Marxisin can never be synthesized. With the insights of Ludwig Wittgenstein, lie analyzes Christian and Marxist orthodoxy, defined as what most Christians or Marxists have believed most of the time. He studies Christian orthodoxy in terms of the source and nature of revelation, original sin, and the kingdom of God. Marxist orthodoxy is studied in terms of the character of its atheism, the nature of is determinisn in the context of the controversy surrounding the young Marx, and the role of the Party. The Christians studied are the American Harvey Cox and the German Juergen Nloltinann. The Marxist is the Frenchman Roger Garaudy.

His analysis is clear. Vree's forte is to elucidate contradictions and logical ambiguity. However he is not always aware of the intricacies of theological argument. He accuses Moltman of "intellectual suicide" because, he professes to find "certainty only in complete uncertainty. Wittgenstein could never admit such language but the Fathers of the Church who "believed because it was absurd" would understand him immediately.

Similarly Vree would have less trouble with Christian orthodoxy's understanding of the relationship between human freedom and divine omnipotence if be had a better grasp of conciliar teaching. Neither Chalcedon (451) nor III Constantinople (680) explained how, but both affirmed that God and mail are able to act in tandem without ally limitation of human freedom. That teaching only reaffirmed a doctrinal central to both the Old and New Testament. The conflict with Marxism remains, but Vree would have been less judgmental of the Christian spokesmen if he understood their orthodoxy better.

The journalist-theologian Hebblethwaite examines the same dialogue in Latin America as well as in Europe. His description of how it has progressed only reinforces Vree's philosophical analysis. Hebblethwaite mentious the question posed to Christians For Socialism by the Rev. Bartolomeo Sorge in Civilta Cattolica: "How can anyone who accepts the Marxist belief that the Church is the ally of capitalism and thus the class enemy of the people remain a member of the Church?"

This incompatibility poses problems for Marxists as well as Christians. Garaudy, read out of the Party, became a Christian believer. Christians supported revisionists in Czechoslovakia who helped prepare the way for Alexander Dubcek. Hebblethwaite points out that taoks rolled into Prague in August, 1968, because the Russians were sure the Czechs had exchanged "Marxism for Western liberalism,"

Hebblethwaite introduces a new element in his discussion of Christian-Marxist dialogue in Latin America. He cites one of the better known liberation theologians, Gustavo Guttierez, "The two (Christianity and Marxism) became tragic lovers whose only solution is suicide -unless they postpone dialogue altogether and concentrate oil praxis." The Christian ecumenical movement began where Guttierez suggests the Christian-Marxist dialogue must remain,

It will be recalled that Christians spurred oil by the missionary impulse, first pledged to do together all that their respective faiths did not require them to do separately. That movement-Life and Work-inevitably spawned Faith and Order, and finally evolved into the World Council of Churches. A similar evolution is, not likely for the Communist-Christian dialogue, but not impossible either. Common practice or orthopraxis must elicit questions about orthodoxy.

Hebblethwaite cites one striking example in Bishop Arceo Mendez's justification of "revolutionary violence as a legitimate response to the institutionalized violence of repressive societies." This tenet of the Communist revolutionary ethic has become all integral part of Christian theologies of liberation. Both Hebblethwaite and Vrec emphasize that Christian participants rely heavily oil Marxist social insights without seeing any apparent conflicts with Christian orthodoxy. The conflict will emerge no matter how carefully it is ignored.

For all of their pessimism about the outcome of the Christian-Marxist dialogue, neither author suggests the proper posture is a return to a sterile form of anticommunism. Hebblethwaite writes that one function of the Church is to remind humans that God exists and that only lie is to be adored. Such a Church makes for a free society not easily controlled or manipulated 1)), any political party. And that after all is the real reason for Christian-Marxist dialogue being at all impasse.

One criticism remains. Both books make more sense as politics than as religion. This is not to dispute the arguments of Vree nor the descriptive accounts of Hebblethwaite. The danger is to reduce Christianity to politics which it is not, even though Christians are political beings. And Communism is not a purely political system because its adherents profess a rigid orthodoxy, which dictates their political policies.

Tertullian could have written a book such as these about the impossibility of synthesizing Christianity with the Roman imperial system. However, both Christianity and the Roman empire changed and the synthesis occurred. Bishops who still bore the scars of imperial persecution broke bread with Emperor Constantine in the palace of the Eastern empire.

Christians have confronted Communists in modernday arenas as combatants no more equally matched than the gladiators and martyrs of old. Now they talk together. The road will be long and dangerous; the detours many and often impassable. Vree and Hebblethwaite have documented some. But the voyage must be made, even though the end may never be in sight. The dialogue should continue not because Christians and Communists can be melded into one, but precisely because they cannot.

Both authors admit the dialogue should continue. Hebblethwaite even believes a synthesis of a renewed Christianity and a transformed Communism is possible, but he is worried about.Christian naivete. Vree is hesitant about the significance of all dialogue but especially about the Christian-Communist one. He does not believe their two systems call be fused "without doing violence to the integrity of both." And yet dialogue is never fruitless. The Christian has no choice but to announce that Christ has risen. Communists, hearing that good news, call only be expected to respond with the social gospel of Marx. No dialogue should ever propose refutation as its goal. Human community is what should happen when people talk together.

A Jewish participant at a recent dialogue with Christians at Princeton said that he hoped such a dialogue would make Christians hesitate before participating in the next pogrom. Even Vree would admit that Christians cannot hope for less from their dialogue with Communists.

Reviewed by William J. Sullivan, S.T.D., Associate Professor, Religious Studies, St. John Fisher College, Rochester, New York.

THE EXPERIENCE OF DYING by E. Mansell Pattison, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, hic., 1977, 335 pp.

Without a doubt, E. Mansell Pattison has brought together the best collection of articles that I have ever seen. His competent understanding of people has enabled him to draw the best from the twenty-four contributing experts who have written lucidly and expressively for Pattison's book, The Experience of Dying.

The stated goal of the author is to provide a broad, in-depth, portrait of the dying process not so much from the academic, scholastic perspective but in its many personal forms. The central theme of the book is that the dying experience is uniquely individual and can be understood best by a humane, dignified and personal approach to the care of the dying.

Pattison gives us clear guidelines for care of the dying with specific attention to accidents, infections, malformation, metabolic diseases, cancer, and organ transplants. He shows bow illness influences the dying process. Yet, lie does not emphasize the psychopathology but the adaptive, the necessary, the functional, and the relevant styles of dying. By doing this, he allows the reader's attention to be focused not oil the normal versus the abnormal styles of dying but oil adaptive styles in the dying process.

His experience as a psychiatrist working with dying patients has given him the keen insight that people cope with dying not in preconceived rigid fashion or according to our expectations. Consequently, we do not truly help a person cope with his or her dying unless we seek to adapt ourselves to his or her style. Pattison examines both the meaning of death and coping styles of dying in each of the major areas of the life cycle, for there are significant differences in each epic of life.

Perhaps the most unique aspect of the book is the vivid demonstration of the dying process conceptualized as the living-dying interval, within which there are different dying trajectories. Some people face dying with a certain expectation of death, whereas others are faced with uncertain expectations. . Since some people experience an acute trajectory toward death and others face death as a chronic trajectory, the dying process is directly influenced differently ior these two groups. Pattison concludes that the concept of stages of dying that have been elucidated by others is not accurate but that there are phases in the dying process that have some clinical utility.

The style of the book is beautiful and allows the individual to experience the dying process somewhat, at least in thought, within him- or herself. All readers will find this volume to be an excellent reference. The authors have beautifully eliminated technical jargon in order for a broad spectrum of people from physicians to morticians to each understand the book for him-or herself. At the end of the book, Pattison gives excellent helps to care for the dying, assisting the family during the dying process of their loved ones, and supporting the professional staff who is dealing with the dying person, I am particularly impressed with his general principles of helping the dying person to achieve ao integration of dying into the person's lifestyle, and to maintain phase- appropriate responses. In the initial acute phase, we are faced with the issue of acute anxiety and high ambiguity. In the chronic living-dying phase, we are faced with the resolution of reality issues of the interpersonal relationship to the dying and means of coping with problems in daily living. In the terminal phase, we are faced with support for achieving separation and withdrawal. In the terminal phase, the goal is to achieve relative synchrony, so that the social, psychological, and physiological dimensions tend to merge together in a coherent fashion. He points out that we must attempt to maintain social and psychological attitudes that are consistent with this physiological state of the dying Person. Pattison deals specifically with the fears of the dying person. Fear of the unknown, loneliness, sorrow, loss of family and friends, loss of body, loss of self-control, suffering and pain, loss of identity, or regression. Pattison also deals with religion, faith, and healing in a single chapter as well as by intertwining these themes throughout the book.

As a general surgeon over the past fifteen years, I have dealt with many people during their dying stage. During this time I have made many observations and asked many questions about caring for the dying patient. In this single volume, E. Mansell Pattison has brought together what I consider the best understanding of the dying process with the most lucid unifying concepts which will allow all of us to deal much more effectively with death both from our own point of view, the patient's and his family I s than we have been able to do in the past. 1, therefore, express a debt of gratitude for Dr. Pattison and the two dozen contributors to his book, The Experience of Dying.

Reviewed by Kenneth E. Schemmer, M.D., General Surgeon in private practice and Clinical Professor, Anderson School of Theology, Anderson, Indiana.

THEOMATICS, GOD'S BEST KEPT SECRET REVEALED by Jerry Lucas and Del Washburn, Stein and Day, New York (1977) 347 pp. $8.95.

The purpose of this book is twofold (p. 26): (1) "to prove beyond a doubt that God has unequivocally written his entire Word mathematically and that in the last days this may be one of the means used by God to help unlock the true meaning of Scripture," and (2) to live all God's people a common cause to rejoice and as a result be more united in their views." In addition, "his book sheds new light on Bible prophecy and endtime events" (p. 19), "the faith of Christians can be built up and strengthened in a brand new way." (p. 21). "The Lord Jesus will be glorified" (p. 48) and "it can throw definite light on the subject (textual criticism) adding weight to one reading over another in cases where textual comparison is inconclusive." (p. 252).

Jerry Lucas has written a brief Foreword supporting Washburn's work and conclusions, but the author is really Del Washburn. Del Washburn calls himself a Fundamentalist Christian and lie believes that God has chosen him to be the recipient of a special revelation, Theomaties. A fascinating world view is revealed through the many side comments of the author. "We who have been born of the spirit know that the entire Word of God was given to us directly by God, and that it was His very pen which wrote it" (p. 22). "Because of America's freedom of worship, she has enjoyed the greatest prosperity of any nation on earth" (p. 226). "In Scripture, the sea has always been understood to represent mankind, or the human race as a whole" (p. 90). "If Theornatics is numerology, then this means that what we are presenting in this book has come from Satan, which also means that the devil must have written the Bible" (p, 100). "Banks and retail outlets are experimenting with the idea of a cashless society every person in the world would be branded and identified by his own personal number-there is little question in our minds that the mark of the beast may in some way involve a worldwide computer network" (p. 184). "Scholarship cannot answer all the questions of the (Greek definite) article but Theomatics can" (p. 340). Here it seems tome, we have the bold self-assurance of a mystic who, even in the face of obvious contradiction, builds up his program on one mysterious inner revelation after another.

Now let us consider Theomatics itself. What is it? It is a method of relating numbers to the Nestle's version of the Creek New Testament. "What the Lord has done is to assign each letter and in turn each word of the Bible with a number, or Theomatic value" (p. 78). "The number assignments are the same as in Webster's dictionary- (p. :31) (and incidently, the same as the Greeks used for their numerals starting in the fourth or fifth century B.C.) alpha = 1, beta = 2, gamma = 3, . . . , psi = 700, omega = 800. "Every major Bible truth has multiples of a key number assigned to it" (p. 34). "Theomatic features related to a major Bible truth have numbers which cluster within one or two numbers of the key number assigned to the Bible truth" (p. 3-5). For example, one Bible truth or theme is that every feature related to the law or the Old Testament covenant under Moses works out to a multiple of 276. One "feature" is Heb. 9:15: "the first covenant" = 176 x 6. Another "feature" is John 10:34: "Written in the law, = 276 x 9 ± 2 (p. 155).

The greatest difficulty for the reader is to determine what exactly a "feature" is. It is never defined and often seems to be determined by mysterious ways known only to the author. In the appendix an elaborate argument is ,0ven to show that the Greek article has no meaning and therefore can be added or taken away in the formation of a feature. "Without the option of article removal, the whole Theomatic structure would be so rigid that God would not have the flexibility lie needed to make all these designs fit together" (p. 345). But conjunctions, for some reason, are also kept or deleted at the will of the author and the same seems to be true for pronouns. Features are sometimes under the same theme if they are opposites. "Darkness is the exact opposite of light, and sometimes in Theornatics exact opposites will have the same number value" (p. 104). One basic approach the author uses goes all the way back to the Pythagoreans. "All creation, no matter how large or small the scale, can always be reduced to numbers" (p. 27). "Seven is God's perfect number. Everything to do with God's law is based on the number seven-Man was incapable of keeping the law, and this is why the Savior had to come. Eight follows seven and starts everything over again. Therefore eight is the number of the new order and the number of Jesus" p. 60). "Because the number eight speaks of faith, resurrection and the new order, this is why Christians-or those who have put their trust in Jesus by faith meet on Sunday instead of Saturday" (p. 61).

Now let us consider the "proof" of Theomatics that we are given. "We are going to hinge our entire case on one scientific statement of fact-Numbers must occur at random, unless there is a design. If there is no theornatic design present in the Bible then all the number values for the words would simply be one great bit-, conglomeration of random numbers" (p. 256). Considering the subjective approach to the selection of "features" and the non-randomness of Greek letters in any Greek manuscript, I would be very surprised if there were no theomatic design in any written communication in the Greek language. The exact opposite conclusion is drawn by the author. "Can these mathematical designs be found in any other works of literature?-Absolutely not!-Have you checked out other works of literature to see if they contain a design? The answer is no, and the reason is simple. Which work of literature are we going, to examine?" (p. 98-99).

In the last chapter, the author presents three statistical methods to "prove" Theomatics. According to the author, method one does not prove the existence of the theomatic design in the Bible (p. 292). Method two applies the following principle, "If there is nothing special or nonrandom about our features, and if they were carefully selected or chosen, then we can readily assume that here exists within the New Testament an equal number (proportionate to the probability of our features) that do not contain any multiples that fall within the cluster of + 2 of the multiples" (p. 293). Assuming this principle makes sense (I am not sure it does), I still don't see how to use it without some definitive way of selecting "features". Method three, however is the "acid test". "Theomatics either stands or ,falls based on Method three" (p. 305), This method is based on the following "daring declaration from which there is absolutely no escape. If the theomatic designs we have presented in this book are untrue, then this means that all of these so-called designs were simply created from random numbers. Therefore, any other number values randomly assigned to the letters of the alphabet should produce the same results" (p. 305). Again, I find no way to apply this method without knowing how to find a "feature". The author did make a random assignment of numbers to Greek letters and lie did not produce the same results as lie obtained usino, Webster's assignment. "God may allow man to condemn, criticize, and even abuse this truth, but lie will never allow anyone to duplicate these designs with any random assignment of numbers to the letters of the Greek alphabet other than those that He Himself placed in the papyrus. In fact, no one will even come close" (p. 335).

I have quoted a great deal from the book to let it speak for itself. It is obviously unscientific. Its basic assumptions are fuzzy. It is nd clear how to determine a "feature". There is a confused understanding of the nature of "proof". The analysis of data is highly subjective. It is also bad theology. In spite of the elaborate method of assigning numbers and considering multiples of key numbers, the basic position of the author is constantlv read into and then out of the Holy Scriptures. The God of history, who came to its in 'love, in the flesh, and reveals himself through the Holy Scriptures in a personal, vital relationship, is replaced by a kind of Gnostic Deist clockmaker who reveals himself through immutable laws of mathematics, but only to the inner circle of those who know Theomatics.

Reviewed by Russell V. Beason, Department of Mathematics, California State University, Fullerton, California 92634.

THE ROAD OF SCIENCE AND THE WAYS TO GOD by Stanley L. Jaki, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 60637 (1978), 478 pages.

This book is a work of major importance for it marks the culmination of many years of research and reflection by the distinguished physicist and historian of science, Stanley L. Jaki. It testifies to the coherence of the world view that asserts 

"the mind is capable of understanding reality because both mind and reality are the products of the One who disposed everything according to 'weight, measure, and number" . . . (p. 259.)

as the book of Wisdom indicates. If one is not willina to acknowledge the validity of this world view one izs' left with the task of explaining the sense of awe and wonder contained in the following affirmations by the two pioneers of' twentieth century science, Planck and Einstein.

The eighty-eight-year-old Planck still felt the ardor of a young lover when he recalled the first steps of his approach through science to the absolute: 'What has led me to science and made me since youth enthusiastic for it is the not at all obvious fact that the laws of our thoughts coincide with the regularity of the flow of impressions which we receive from the external world, [and] that it is therefore possible for man to reach conclusions through pure speculation about those regularities. Here it is of essential significance that the external world represents something independent of us, something absolute which we confront, and the search for laws valid for the absolute appeared to me the most beautiful scientific task in life (italics mine, p. 167).

Einstein, in turn, said

"the very fact that the totalitv of our sense experiences is such that by means of thinking . . . it can be put in order . . . is a fact that leaves us in awe, but which we shall never understand "(italics mine, p. 259.).

Note that two themes are interwoven in Planck's and Einstein's affirmations. First, the structure of the material universe has something in common with the laws that govern the working of the human mind. Secondly, physical reality is independent of us and hence must be investigated by observation and experiment in order to confirm or deny the intuitions of the human mind. These affirmations are consistent with the epistemology of moderate realism as contrasted to the opposite extremes of idealism or empiricism. This realism provides an epistemology that allows one to affirm the classic proofs of existence of God; such realism flows naturally from belief in a personal and rational creator-sustainer God. The interplay between human reason and nature is beautifully brought out in Jaki's discussion of the birth of Einstein's special and general relativity:

"From his Spencer Lecture on, Einstein took more and more frequently a look at his own creative steps, and whenever he spoke of this to the world it was a variation on the same theme, the marvelous inventiveness of the human mind. This inventiveness was not, however, caprice in any sense. The avenues to its marvels, though not securing automatic progress, were clearly recognizable in a broad sense. The chief of those avenues was steeped in the invariable, absolute, geometrical beauty of nature. If this was the case with nature, true scientific knowledge of it had to reflect that beauty. . . . His two theories were in a sense mislabeled relative, because both the special and general theories of relativity were more absolute in character and content than any other scientific theory. Their starting point was not a positivist aggravation with experimental incongruities, but a burning desire to safeguard the beauty of nature and of laws which reflected that beauty. Such laws were Maxwell's equations. To protect their simple beauty from deformation, to which they were subject while being referred from one inertia system to another, Einstein preferred to part with the simple rules of correlating inertial frames of reference. Such was the birth of special relativity. . . . A paradoxical birth indeed. The simple beauty of Maxwell's equations was safeguarded by according to them the utmost generality which in turn imposed a most specific singularity, the invariable constancy of the speed of light. The measure of that speed, the same regardless of the motions of light-emitting bodies, was a powerful indication that the beauty of nature was most singular in its utmost generality."

"The fruitfulness of special relativity was an invitation to Einstein to unfold even more of the constant beauty of nature and of the exact science of that beauty.... To formulate the interrelation of accelerated frames of reference in a. way satisfying their covariance was one thing. To fill them with physical content was another. The most universal case of constant acceleration was provided by gravity, but no branch of physics was in a sense less explored than gravitation. Until Einstein, the innumerable cases of gravitational acceleration had been studied as examples of the inverse square inertial frames of reference. In the theory of general relativity that same acceleration was to stand for all similar accelerations and for any and all accelerated frames of reference. Being a scientific law, this generalization bad to have not only inherent beauty but also an ability to predict unsuspected effects of gravitation. The first of these new effects, the bending of light in a strong gravitational field, was perceived by Einstein as early as 1907, but it was only in 1911 that he realized it might be detected during a iull solar eclipse. It took four more years before he was able to draw two other consequences of general relativity. They were the gravitational red shift of light and the advance of the perihelion of planets, detectable only in the case of Mercury. He now had for his theory three supports which were all the more priceless because they were not dependent upon one another and showed that Newton's great synthesis of gravitational was but a limiting case of general relativity (pp. 188-189)."

The wide scope of the book is indicated by the following extended quote taken from the book's dust jacket. This quote beautifully and accurately summarizes the contribution this book makes to the ongoing dialogue between men of science and men of religion.

In this challenging work, Stanley L. Jaki illuminates the intimate connection between scientific creativity and natural theology. He draws especially upon the history and philosophy of science to show that a rational belief in the existence of a Creator, or at least an epistemology germane to such a belief, played a crucial role in the rise of science and in all its great creative advances.

Originally presenting his ideas as the Gifford Lectures for 1975 and 1976, Jaki maintains that the birth of a viable scientific enterprise could take place only when, in the High Middle Ages, natural theology had become steeped in Christian faith. Through proclaiming both the rationality and the contingency of the universe, natural theology then helped form a cultural matrix in which science could rise and prosper. Jaki also points out that whenever in later times rational belief in a Creator, as based on the classic proofs of the existence of God, has been radically criticized, the results have usually been at least potentially disastrous for the cultivation of science.

With painstaking attention to original sources, the author pursues his theme through the thought of Bacon, Descartes, Newton, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Comte, Mach, Planck, and Einstein. Special chapters show the connection between a rejection of natural theology and an implicit assertion of the incoherence of the universe in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, in logical positivism, and in the "psychologist" branch of the new historiography of science. In addition the book offers chapters in which thematic reflections on the history of cosmology and evolutionary theories are built into consideration supporting rational belief in the existence of God. Taken together, these investigations strongly suggest that the road of science and the ways of God form a single intellectual avenue.

This reviewer strongly recommends this book in conjunction with Jaki's Science and Creation-From eternal cycles to an oscillating universe (Scottish Academic Press, Endinburgh, 1974) for a course or seminar in A Judaic-Christian Philosophy of Science or The Emergence of Science from a Judaic-Christian Tradition.

Reviewed by W. Jim Neidhardt, Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, N.J. 07102